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RERUM BRITANNICARUM MEDII MYl 

SCRTPTORES, 



OR 



CHRONICLES AND MEMORIALS QF GREAT BRITAIN 

AND IRELAND 



DURING 



THE MIDDLE AGES. 



a 



THE GHBONIGLES AND MEMORIALS 

OP 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 

DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. 

PUBLISHED BT THE AUTHORlTr OF HER MAJJESTY'b TREASUKY, UNDBB THE 

DIRECTION OF THE MASTER OP THK ROLLS* 



On the 26th of January 1867, the Master of the Rolls 
submitted to the Treasury a proposal for the publication 
of materials for the History of this Country from the 
Invasion of the Romans to the Reign of Henry VIII* 

The Master of the RoUs suggested that these materials 
should be selected for publication under competent editors 
without reference to periodical or chronological arrange- 
ment, without mutilation or abridgment, preference being 
given, in the first instance, to such materials as were most 
scarce and valuable. 

He proposed that each chronicle or historical document 
to be edited should be treated in the same way as if the 
editor were engaged on an Editio Prmceps ; and for this 
purpose the most correct text should be formed from an 
accurate collation of the best MSS. 

To render the work more generally useful, the Master 
of the Rolls suggested that the editor should give an 
accoxmt of the MSS. employed by him, of their age and 
their peculiarities ; that he should add to the work a brief 
account of the life and times of the author, and any 
remarks necessary to explain the chronology ; but no other 
note or comment was to be allowed, except what might be 
necessary to establish the correctness of the text, 

a 2 



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u 



The works to be published in octavo, separately, as 
they were finished; the whole responsibility of the task 
resting upon the editors, who were to be chosen by the 
Master of the Rolls with the sanction of the Treasury. 

The Lords of Her Majesty's Treasury, after a careful 
consideration of the subject, expressed their opinion in a 
Treasury Minute, dated February 9> 1857, that the plan 
recommended by the Master of the Rolls "was well 
calculated for the accomplishment of this important 
national object, in an effectual and satisfactory manner, 
within 9. reasonable time, and provided proper attention be 
paid to economy, in making the detailed arrangements, 
without unnecessary expense." 

They expressed their approbation of the proposal that 
each chronicle and historical document should be edited 
in such a manner as to represent with all possible correct- 
ness the text of each writer, derived from a collation of the 
best MSS., and that no notes should be added, except 
such as were illustrative of the various readings. They 
suggested, however, that the preface to each work should 
contain, in addition to the particulars proposed by the 
Master of the Rolls, a biographical account of the author, 
so far as authentic materials existed for that purpose, and 
an estimate of his historical credibility and value. 



Rolls House^ 

December 1857. 






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Li. A Baker at the Oven .temp. E dward i 2 A B aker d rawn on the H u rd i e wm 'che faw 1 ty 1 oaf 
attached to his neck.termp. Edward 1. 3. The Pillory, I EdwandJll. 4. The Pillory, 6 Richard Ii. 

FROM TEL ASSISA. PANIS, 21 EOT/, L _ 16 HENRAT , PRESERVED AT €UIIi>EALL. 



® 



ilUNIMENTA GILDHALLiE LONDONIENSIS; 



UBBB AIBUS, lilBEB, CUSTDMAMM, -. 



ET 



LIBER HORN. 



4 C 



EDITED 

BY 

HENRY THOMAS RILEY, M.A,, 

clash: kajjl, Cambridge ; 
of the inkeb temple, babbisteb-at-law. 



i 



VOL. m. 



CONTAINIKO 



TRANSLATION OF THE ANGLO-NORMAN PASSAGES IN LIBER 
ALBTJS, GLOSSARIES, APPENDICES, AND INDEX, 



: tOBLISHED BY THE AlfTHOEWY OP THE lOKDS COMMlSSIONEKS OP HEE MAJESTrS 
TBEASUBT, VSDES THE DIIi£CTI02r OP THE UASTEB OF THE BOttiS, 



LONDON: 
LONGMAN, GEEEN, LONGMAN, AND ROBERTS. 



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1862. 



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no. IX 



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Priuted by 

Eyse nud Sfoitiswoode, H^r Majesty's Printers, 

I'or Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 



LIBER ALBUS. 



TRANSLATIOJ^ OF THE ANGLO-NORMAN PASSAGES, 



S. r. -. , , 



WITH 



GLOSSARIES, APPENDICES, AND INDEX. 



EDITED 

BY 

HENRY THOMAS RILEY, M.A., 

CLARE HALI/; CAMBRIDGE; 
OF THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER-AT-LAW. 



POBLISHEB BY THE AUTHOBITY OF THE LOKDS COMMISSIONERS OF HER MAJESTY'S 
TllEASUBY, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE MASTER OF THE ROLLS. 



LONDON: 
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, AND EGBERTS. 



1862. >/- 



'■ >•'■ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, 



TAOE 

Introduction ------ ix 

Translations from the Anglo-Norman Portion 0¥ 
"Liber Albus" ----- 1 

Glossary of Anglo-Norman and Early English 

Words in "Libek Albus"- . - . 287 

Glossary of MEDiyT:vAL Latin Words in "Liber 
" Albus " - - - - - .373 

Appendix L — Extracts from the " Assisa Panis/' 
21 Edward I — 16 Henry VI,, preserved at 
Guildhall - - - - - -411 

Appendix n. — ^Extracts from the "Liber Memo - 
"randorum," temp. Ed^vard II., preserved at 
Guildhall - • - - . . 430 

Letter of John Carpenter, Common Clerk of the 
City of London, and Compiler of the "Liber 
"Albus," descriptive op the Entry of Henry 
i'HE Sixth into the City, on Thursday, the 20th 
OF February 1432, after his Return from France. 
From "Letter-Book K.," preserved at Guild* 
HALL --.*.--.- 457 
Glossary to the Appendices - - - 465 

Glossarial Index of Festivals and Dates - 473 

Index to "Liber Albus" w - - - 477 

Index to the Appendices - - - - 521 



INTRODUCTION, 



INTRODUCTION, 



The present Volume completes the publication of Liber 
Alhua zxid Liber Custumarum ; with the addition, by 
way of Appendix, of some extracts from the Assiaa 
Panis and the Liber MemoraTtdorum^ two mediae val 
compilations, of minor size and value, in the possession 
of the Corporation of the City of London. 

In reference to its Contents : — 

The Translation of the Anglo-Norman passages in 
Liber Albus^ as in the case of similar passages in Liber 
Cuatumarum, has been made as literally throughout 
as, consistently with the requirements of good grammar, 
it could be* The Glossaries also have been compiled 
on the same ^ principle as those which accompany that 
Volume ; the Anglo-Norman Glossary consisting of such 
words, or forms of words, as are not to be found in 
Eoquefort's Olossaire de la Langue Romaifie (a work 
wluch, unfortunately, from the comparative paucity of 
the books consulted by its Compiler, is anything but 
calculated for the elucidation of the Anglo-Norman 
dialect) ; and the Glossary of Mediaeval Latin containing 
such words as not only are not to be met with in 
ordinary Dictionaries, but in many instances are to be 
sought in vain in the elaborate pages of Du Cange. 

The Appendices consist of Extracts from the Asaisa 
Panis, the Liber Mevfwrandommy and Letter-Booh K., 
all preserved in the Record-Koom at Guildhall. 

The Assisa Pa/nis is a folio volume, containing 164« 
leaves of parchment, the last thirty-four of which are 

^ Bee Introduction to Libkb Cvstumabum, page cxt. 



X INTEODUCTION. 

blank; and consists of entries more or less intimately 
connected with the Assay and Assize of Bread by the 
civic authorities between the twenty-first year of Ed- 
ward I. and the sixteenth of Henry VI. The greater 
portion of its contents, as might be anticipated from a 
reference to pages 349-353 of Liber Albus, is of a 
purely formal character, consisting, for the most part, of 
columns of figures, in reference to the weight and price 
of bread. As, however, upon examination, it has been 
found to contain several curious particulars, nowhere else 
to be met with, in reference to the varieties of bread, 
the bakers, the iirauds of the trade, and consequent 
punishments, during the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies, the Editor has thought it desirable to extract 
from it all matter of this description, as a not unsuit- 
able Appendix to the more formal details given on 
these subjects in pages 349-358 of Liber Albus. With 
this object, each page of the Assisa Panis has been 
carefully subjected to several examinations; and the 
reader, who can hardly fail to find much in these 
extracts to interest him alike by their quaintness and 
their novelty, may rest assured that there is not a 
passage of any value in the Assisa Panis, with which 
he is left unacquainted. On referring to page 602 
(Book IV.) of Liber Albus, it would seem either that 
the reference to the account of the fraud committed by 
certain London bakers by surreptitiously making holes 
in their * moulding-boards,' had been lost or mislaid by 
Carpenter or his amanuenses, or that the narrative itself 
of this singular transaction was then considered to be 
no longer in existence. In pages 416^420 of the pre- 
sent Volume, the Editor has had the satisfaction of 
exhuming it from the pages of the Assisa Panis, 

The Liber Memorandorum is a small quarto volume 
of the time of Edward II., and perhaps, to some ex- 
tent, of the early part of the reign of Edward III., 
containing 193 leaves of parchment, those after folio 170 
being in general left blank. Such passages In this 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

Volume as seemed either to be of value in an historical 
point of view, or likely to interest the antiquarian 
reader, have been extracted by the Editor, and are 
printed in Appendix II., pp. 430-456 of the present 
Volume. Among them, attention may be called more 
particularly to the Charter granted by Queen Alianor to 
the Brethren in London of the Penance of Jesus Christ 
(p. 430) ; the Regulations for the due making of mea- 
sures by the Turners of London (p. 432) ; the extor- 
tions practised by Edward 11. upon the City of London 
in the exaction of loans, and the breach of good faith 
committed by him, at least upon one occasion (pp. 433- 
437); the Writ of Edward II. (omitted in the new 
edition of Rymer's Fcedera) enjoining, that the Statute 
of Winchester shall be duly observed within the City 
of London (pp. 437-439); the Proclamation, femp. Ed- 
ward II., against the playing at foot-ball within the 
City (p. 440); the Ordinances of the London Cord- 
wainers, temp, Henry III. (pp. 441-445) ; and the Grant 
of a Corody by the Wardens of London Bridge (pp. 449- 
453) ; the latter affording, incidentally, some account of 
the construction of the Bridge House, in the thirteenth 
century, which formerly stood over the Chapel of St. 
Thomas in the centre of Old London Bridge, and 
giving an interesting insight into the usages and re- 
quirements of English domestic life in the time of 
Edward I. 

The Mediaeval Glossary of Anglo-Saxon terms (printed 
in pp. 453-456, from the same Volume,) is also of 
interest, and will repay comparison with a somewhat 
similar extract given in Appendix G. to Mr. Luard's 
English History of Bartholomew Cotton, printed in the 
present Series. It purports to have been compiled by 
" Alexander, Archiepiscopus Salapise/' but as it is 
evident that there is some mistake as to the title, we 
may safely conclude that Alexander, Archdeacon of 
Shrewsbury, (who wrote a Preface to the Bed Book 
of the Exchequer) is the person meant. 

a 8 •*- 



Xll 



IKTRODUCTION. 



In pages 431, 433, 446, and 449, references are given 
to passages in Liber Gustumarum and Liber Albus, 
upon which some additional light may possibly be 
thrown by matter found in this Appendix. 

The Letter of John Carpenter (pp. 457-464) de- 
scriptive of the entry of King Henry VI. into the CSty 
of London on the 20th of February 1432, extracted 
from Letter-Book K., preserved at Guildhall, has been 
printed by M. Delpit, in pp. 244-248 of his Collection 
Generale de$ Documents Frcmgcm, but in so incoiTCct a 
form as to render it worse than valueless. M. Delpit 
has failed too to detect the fact that under the sub- 
scription, " Per Fabrum, sive Domificem, vestrum, 
« Johannem/' John ^ Carpenter, Secretary, or Common 
Clerk, to the City of London, is undoubtedly meant. 
The first address, in English, made by the Mayor of 
London to the Sovereign (p. 468), wiU be found, on 
comparison, to diflfer very materially from the version 
given in the description which accompanies the poem 
composed by ^Lydgate on this august occasion. The 
same too, as to the -verses, or ^ " new song,'' also addressed 



* See pp. 469 and 471 of this 

Voliime, s. w, JDomifex and Secre- 

taritts. 
2 " Sovereign lord and noWe 
kyng, ^e be welcome oute of 
^oure reame of S'rannce, into this 
blissed reme of Englond, and in 
espedalle unto yoor most notable 

" Citee of London, otherwyse caUyd 
youre 'chambyr,* we thankyng 
God of the good and gracios 
arenyng^ of yowre croune of 
Eraunce, beseching his mercy&ll 
grace to send yow prosperite and 
many ^eris, to the comfort of alle 
youre lovyng peple." Halliwell's 

Edition of Lydgate's Minor Worh» 

(1840), p. 4. 
' " Sovereigne lord, welcome to 
youre citee ! 



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Welcome oure joye and onre 
hertes plesaunce I 

Welcome oure gladness, welcome 
oure suffisaunce. 

Welcome I welcome t righte wel- 
come mot ye be. 

Singyng to ffom ihi rialle ma- 
jeste. 

We say ofPte hert, withowte va- 
riaunce, 

Sovereigne lord, welcome, wel- 
come ye be I 

Meire, citezins, and alle the co- 
mynalt^, 

Att youre home comyng now 
owghte of IFrauEice, 

Be grace relevyd of ther old gre* 
vaunce, 

Sing this day, withe grete so- 
lempnite, 



INTRODUCTION, 



xm 



to the King (p. 460) ; while, on the other hand, the 
second address of the Mayor (p. 463) tallies pretty 
closely with Lydgate^s version. 

The facsimiles facing the title-page of the present 
Volume are from three rough sketches upon leaves 
of the Assisa Pa/rds, of the dates, respectively, of Ed- 
ward L, Edward III., and Richard II. 



* SoYereigne lord, welcome tojroure 
citee ! " 
Lydgate's Minor Works^ p. 10. 

Again, the version given by Fa- 
byan, in his New Chronicles of Eng- 
land and France, differs consider- 
ably i^m that given by Lydgate : — 

" Soveraygne lorde, welcome to 
your cytie, 

** Welcome onr ioye, and our hertes 
pleasaunce, 

*^ Welcome our gladnesse, welcome 
onr sn%sannce, 

« Welcome, welcome, right wel- 
come mut ye be. 

" Syngynge before thyroyall ma- 
geste, 



** We say with herte, withouten va- 
ryaonce, 



« 



Soveraygne lorde, now welcome 

out of Frannce. 
The mayer and cytezyns with all 

the comynaltie, 
Reioyse your comynge newly out 

of Fraunce, 
Wherby this cytie and they re- 

levyd be 
Of all theyr sorowe and former 

grevaunce. 
" Wherfor they say, and synge 

without cessaunce, 
" Welcome, welcome, welcome, our 

hertes ioye, 
" Welcome you be, unto your owne 

Newe Troye.*' 



(t 



it 



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« 



VOL III. 



b 



TRANSLATIONS 



FKOM THE 



ANGLO-NORMAN PORTION OF LIBER ALBTJS. 



VOL. III. ^ 



TRANSLATIONS FROM THE ANGLO-NORMAN 
PORTION OF LIBER ALBUS. 



J ^/^•^^t^ 'k/^ *- 



FIRST BOOK. 



PAET THE FIRST. 

Chaptek XVI. 

[The Election of Sheriffs.] Page 43. 

As concerning the election of SheriflFs, — the Mayor, ^.12. a. 
Recorder, Aldermen, and Commons, are to be assembled 
on the day of Saint Matthew the Apostle [21 Septem- 
ber], in such manner as is ordained on the election of 
the Mayor; and in the first place, the Mayor shall 
choose, of his own free will, a reputable man, free of the 
City, to be one of the Sheriffs for the ensuing year ; 
for whom he is willing to answer as to one half of the 
ferm of the City due unto the King, if he who is so elected 
by the Mayor shall prove not sufficient. But if the 
Mayor elect him by counsel and with the assent of 
the Aldermen, they ought to be answerable with him. 
And those who are elected for the Common Council, 
themselves, and the others summoned by the Mayor for 
this purpose, as before declared, shall choose another 
Sheriff, for the commonalty ; for whom all the com- 
monalty is bound to be answerable as to the other half 
of the ferm so due to the King, in case he shall prove not 
sufficient. And if any controversy arise between the 
commons as to the election, let it be done and dis- 
cussed in such manner as is contained in the article 

A 2 



4 LIBER ALBirS. [b. I. 

upon the * Common Council ' in the Thirteenth Chapter 
of this First Book. 

And if any one of those then chosen to be Sheriffs shall 
refuse or absent himself, so as not to be ready at the 
Guildhall on the Vigil of Saint Michael next ensuing, at 
ten by the clock, [there] to receive his charge, there shall 
be levied forthwith from the goods, lands, and tenements, 
of him who so absents himself, one hundred pounds ; 
one half to the use of the Chamber, and the other half to 
the use of him who shall then be suddenly elected and 
charged by reason of his default. And if the second 
person elected shall refuse the charge, all his goods, 
lands, and tenements shall be arrested, for all expenses 
touching that office. 

And the old Sheriffs shall come to the Guildhall, at 
eleven by the clock at the very latest, and shall deliver 
unto the Mayor (at the latest, at the Mayor's General 
Court that is held after the Feast of the Epiphany) all 
records of pleas touching freeholds pleaded before 
them in their time, with all other memoranda touching 
recoveries suffered by any person, under a penalty of 
one hundred shillings, to be levied from each of them 
and to be paid to the use of the Chamber. To do 
which, the Mayor shall warn them the day on which 
they shall receive their charge. And then the Mayor 
shall deliver the Cocket to such Sheriff as he himself 
shall have chosen, and the records to the Chamber- 
lain, for safe custody ; and forthwith, the newly elected 
are to be charged in such form as is written in the 
Second Part of Book III. of this Volume, foUo 25. 

Chapter XVII. 

[The Oath of all the Sheriffs' Serva/ntS) a/nd their 

duties,'] Page 45. 

r.i2.b. And as soon as the Sheriffs are sworn, all the servants 
of their office — clerks, Serjeants and their vadlets, bailiffs 
of the customs and of Middlesex, the gaoler of Neugate 



Pri.] OATH ADMINISTERED TO SHERIFFS' SERVANTS. 5 

and his clerk, — shall also be sworn, each according to 
that which pertains unto the position that he holds, any 
oath made before to their masters to the contrary not- 
withstanding. And he who refuses such oaths is to be 
adjudged incapable of holding any office for that year. 
And he who does not appear that day to receive the 
charge before the said Mayor and Aldermen, shall lose 
all his offices for that year. And none of the Sheriffs 
shall have more than eight Serjeants, but fewer, if they 
may suffice to execute the business of the public. The 
oaths of the Under-Sheriff and of all the Sheriffs' clerks, 
of the Serjeants of the Sheriffs, and of the vadlets of the 
Serjeants, are set forth in the Second Part of Book III. 
of this Volume, folio 27. 

Item, after dinner on the same day, the old and the 
new Sheriffs shall go together to the prison of Neugate ; 
and there the new Sheriffs shall receive all the prisoners 
by indenture made between them and the old Sheriffs, 
and shall place safeguard there at their own peril, 
without letting the gaol to ferm. And be it made 
known, that all profits arising from any customs or 
bailiwicks pertaining unto the Sheriffs of London and 
Middlesex, after the hour of noon on the Vigil of Saint 
Michael aforesaid, shall belong to the new Sheriffs, and 
before the hour of noon to the old ones. 

Item, no Sheriff hereafter shall take any fine from 
baker or from brewster, beyond what it is ordained for 
them to take. And if any Sheriff shall do so, and bo 
attainted thereof, he shall pay for each penny so received 
twelve pence unto the Chamber. 

Item, if it happen, which may God forbid, that any 
one of the Sheriffs or their officers shall have especial 
command on part of the Mayor or Aldermen to per- 
form any business touching the City, and such Sheriff 
or his officers will not take in hand the same, such 
Sheriff or officer shall be warned forthwith to appear 
before the Mayor and Aldermen, and the Common 



6 LTBER ALBUS. [b. I. 

Council of the City, there to answer why he has not 
done what he was commanded to do. And if he shall 
not think proper to appear on the day appointed, or 
if he shall come and not offer reasonahle excuse, let 
him be ousted from his office and another established 
in his place. And if such default shall be found in a 
servant of the Sheriffs, let him be ousted from his office 
and adjudged incapable of holding any other office in 
the said city, thenceforth for ever, without restitution 
y-i3.a. thereof. And also, neither Mayor, Sheriff, nor Alder- 
men, clerks of the Sheriffs or of the Chamber, Serjeants, 
bedels, Serjeants' vadlets, porters of the Compters, 
nor officers of Newgate, nor their vadlets, shall from 
henceforth, either themselves or by others, brew for 
sale, keep oven, or let carts for hire; nor shaU they 
be regrators of any provisions, or hucksters of ale, or 
in partnership with such. And let the person who will 
not make oath thereto, or who shall contravene this 
ordinance, be ousted from his office for ever. 

Item, the Sheriffs shall not let the County of Middlesex 
to ferm in any manner, but the same shall remain in 
their own keeping, by their deputy ; that so the folks 
in the said County of Middlesex may be treated and 
governed in due manner as the law demands, without 
extortion committed upon any one. 

Item, the said Sheriffs shall not let the Gaol of 
Neugate to ferm, but shall put there a man, sufficient 
and of good repute, to keep the said gaol in due manner, 
without taking anything of him for such keeping thereof, 
by covenant made in private or openly. And the 
gaoler, who by the said Sheriffs shall be deputed there- 
unto, shall make oath before the Mayor and Alder- 
men, that neither he, nor any other for him, shall take 
fine or extortionate charge from any prisoner for putting 
on or taking off his irons, or shall receive monies 
extorted from any prisoner. But it shall be folly lawful 
for the said gaoler to take from each person, when set 



PTI.] FEES AKD BUTIES OF THE CITY OFFICERS. 7 

at liberty, four pence for his fee, as from ancient 
times has been the usage : but he shall take from no 
person at his entrance there, nor shall he issue [exe- 
cution] suddenly, by ^command of the Mayor and 
Aldermen, without other process. And if he shall be 
found to commit extortion upon any one, let him be 
ousted from his office, and be punished at the dis- 
cretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, and Common 
Coimcil of the City. 

Item, the Serjeants' grooms who ^ seize cartage, shall 
take no more carts or horses than are necessary, and 
even then, such carts and horses [only] as are on 
hire ; and not those of poor folks who bring victuals 
and other merchandize to the City, while they spare 
carts and horses that are to be let on hire, for their 
own private advantage,— on pain of being dismissed 
from their office for ever. 



Chapter XVIIL 

[The Fees cmd Duties of the Ohamberlain, his clerk, 
the Gcrnimon Serjeant-at-Law, the Common Clerk, 
and his clerks.^ Page 47. 

The Chamberlain, the Common Seijeant-at-Law, who F.i3.b. 
is otherwise called the 'Common ^Countor,' and the 
Common Clerk, shall be elected by the Common 
Council of the City, and removed, at their pleasure. 
And each of these shaU receive for his labour from 
the Chamber ten pounds per annum. And ftirther, 
the Common Clerk shall receive sustenance for his 
clerks in either Chamber, and for each deed and will 
enrolled in the Hustings, ten pence ; and for every 
deed enrolled in the Mayor's RoUs, he shall take two 



* This passage is probably corrupt, j ^ Or Pleader, 

ity. I 



2 



Eor the public service of the City- 






8 LIBER ALBUS. [B. I. 

shillings ; and for every writ of assize, of nuisance, 
and of intrusion, and for every precept directed unto 
the Sheriffs for pleas of Hustings, and for every writ 
of Scire facias and of Fieri facias six pence, the case 
of Aldermen excepted. ^ 

And the Chamberlain shall give in his account 
each year, between the Feasts of Saint Michael and of 
Saint Simon and Saint Jude the Apostles [28 October], 
at the latest, before two Aldermen and four of the 
Commons, who shall be chosen by the Common Council 
of the City, on the Day of Saint Matthew [21 Sep- 
tember], to take such account. And the persons so 
chosen shall appoint for the Chamberlain a certain day, 
upon which he shall hold himself in readiness to 
render his account. And also, the Wardens of the 
Bridge shall each year give in their account in the 
same manner, before the same auditors, or others by 
the Common Council thereunto assigned. 

Item, if any one shaU ask to see any record, he 
shall shew unto the Chamberlain or unto the Common 
Clerk the reason for his demand; and if it shall 
seem reasonable unto the Chamberlain or the Common 
Clerk, it shall be shewn unto him by a clerk, sworn 
unto the Chamber, and not otherwise ; and if he shall 
wish to have a copy, he shall have the same for a 
competent payment, to be given to him who shall 
makethe trans cript. And if any clerk shall other- 
wise disclose the. secrets of the rules and records, and 
shall be clearly convicted thereof, he shall be punished 
bodily by imprisonment, and shall lose his office for 
ever. 

Item, the clerk of the Chamberlain shall receive 
in part for his labour one half of the sum that arises 
from the twelve pence taken for the entry of writs of 
franchise ; and further, he shall receive for his labour 
what the auditors of the Chamberlain's account may 
think proper to allow him, at their discretion. 



PTI.] FEES OF THE MAYOR'S SUBORDINATE OFFICERS. 9 

Item, he who is Mayor for the thne being, and is 
sworn unto the City, and [is also] Escheator for such 
time being, shall keep a clerk for that office ; for 
whom he shall be prepared to answer as well unto 
the King as to the City, for the saving of his own 
honour and estate. 

Item, the Common Serjeant-at-Arms of the City, 
who is otherwise called the ' Common Crier,' shall be 
always of the household of the Mayor for the time F.i4.a. 
being, and ready at his commands, as the other 
Serjeants are; and he shall receive from the Chamber 
sixty shillings each year, and a further sum, if such 
shall seem reasonable to the auditors of the Chamber- 
lain's account, in consideration of his good behaviour ; 
and he shall receive from each of the Aldermen, for 
his fee, the entire robes or cloaks in which they are 
sworn upon the day on which they receive charge of 
their office, or else six shillings and eight pence, at 
their own pleasure ; and he shall further receive from 
the Sheriffs twelve pence for every cry that he makes 
throughout the City ; [to enable him] to do which, they 
shall find him a sufficient horse, for the honour of the 
City. And he shall also receive for each testament 
proclaimed at the Hustings, and for each plea de- 
termined at the Hustings, four pence, as his fee. 
And such Serjeant shall be elected by the Common 
Council, and removed when they please. 

Item, the Mayor shall have two other Serjeants at 
least, and an esquire, a man well bred (one who 
knows how in all places, in that which unto such 
service pertains, to support the honour of his lord and 
of the City), to bear his sword before him, at the 
private cost of such Mayor. Saving however, that 
each of these three shall receive from the Chamber 
forty shillings per anmim, and no more, as his 
wages. And the esquire shall receive, in addition to 
this, for each letter that shall be sealed with the Seal 



10 LIBER ALBUS. [b. I. 

of the Mayoralty, twelve pence, the case of Aldermen 
excepted. 

Item, in the Chamber there must be three Serjeants, 
and no more, to serve the Chamberlain in business 
touching such Chamber, and who shall be elected and 
removed by the Common Council, when they please. 
And each of these shall receive from the Chamber forty 
shillings per annum, and they shall share between them 
the half of the sum arising from the forty pence taken 
for the entry of writs of franchise ; and they shall be 
clothed in the suit of the Mayor, at the cost of the 
Chamberlain, twice each year. 

Item, if any serjeant of the Chamber shall be found 
negligent and not attentive to his duty, by testimony of 
the Chamberlain, upon the first default forty pence shall 
be deducted from his salary, and upon the second, half 
a mark) and the third time, ten shillings. And it is 
not the intention of the Common Council that by 
these penalties they shall be excused for any out- 
rageous faults ; but, according to the extent of such 
offences, they shall be removed or otherwise punished, 
at the discretion of the Common Council of the City. 



PT ll] NO WAGER OF BATTLE BETWEEN TWO FREEMEN. 1 1 



FIKST BOOK. 



PART THE SECOND. 



Chapter XLV. 



[That wager of battle does not lie between two persons 
who are free of the City, unless they both consent 
thereto."] Page 109. 

Adam Roem made plaint against John Buquente, F.35.a. 
for felony and for robbery, and offered to prove the 
same, as being one of the franchise of London. John 
denied all, and put * himself out of the franchise, and 
made offer to defend himself by his body. Adam said 
that he would not for him lose his franchise ; for that 
no man of the franchise ought to do battle if he 
does not wish. It was then adjudged that John must 
make his law, himself the ^eighteenth; for that since 
both were of the same franchise, no wager of battle 
lay, if they did not both wish it, even though [in 
justice] they ought [to fight]. For that thus the 
strong man might put to shame the weak, the young 
the old ; for the old and the weak would not be able 
to make proof by battle against the strong and the 
young. 

Chapter XLVI. 

[0/ ons who was attached by sureties until the hold- 
ing of the Pleas of the Crown, the accuser dying 
in the meantime,] Page 110. 

William Wilekyn, the Alderman, was accused of F.ss.a. 
felony. William was attached, by twelve pledges. 



* I.e. offered to waive his right, 
as a freeman of the City, of exemp- 
tion from wager of battle. 



^ I.e. with seventeen compurga- 
tors, to make oath with him as to 
his innocence. 



Ij'il 



■i 



lij^ 



■.i ■• 

•'•i*' 



jh,: 
•!i '' 

iiill 



12 LIBEE ALBUS. [B. L 

until the Pleas of the Crown ; in the meanwhile how- 
ever the accuser died When the day came, the plaint 
was shewn. WiUiam proffered himself to stand his 
trial ; and when it was known that the accuser was 
dead, it was awarded that William should remain upon 
the same surety as he before had had, until the next 
Pleas of the Crown ; that is to say, if in the mean- 
while any one should prosecute the said charge ; in 
which case, if any one should so prosecute it, right 
should he done therein. And if no one should prose- 
cute, then William was to go acquitted ; except if by 
chance the King should hold him suspected, and the 
King should think proper to prosecute ; in which 
case he was [to clear himself by six compurgators], 
himself the seventh ; and if he should be cast therein, 
he was to be in the same plight as he would have 
been in as towards the [original] accuser ; in such 
manner as has been ^before written thereupon. 



Chapter XLVII. 

F.ss.b, Of Pleas of the Grown in the City of London. 

Page 110. 

Where a man is judged by the Great Law, it is 
awarded him by the reputable men of the City, that 
he must have six-and-thirty men, who with him shall 
make oath, at the end of a quinzaine at least, or of a 
month, or still later, if the Justiciar shall so will it. 
And these six-and-thirty men ought to be chosen the 
same day by the reputable men of the City, if the 
Justiciar shall so will it, or at such other time as the 
Justiciar shall think proper ; that is to say, eighteen 
men from the East side of Walebroke, and eighteen 
men from the West side of Walebroke. And when 



* In allusion perhaps to Chapter | Liher Alhus.-^Proceedings of the 
XX. of B. I. Pt 11. (page 91) of | Iter. 



PTil] TBUL BY ''GREAT AND "MIDDLE LAW." 18 

they shall be thus chosen by the men of the City — 
and not by a Sheriff or by the Chamberlain — their 
names must be taken down in writing, and delivered 
to the person who is to have them. And if he shall 
challenge any one of them, either for love towards the 
other, or for hatred, or for kindred, or for any other 
thing, such person ought to be removed, and another 
substituted by the reputable men ; and a day must 
be assigned him, to have them ready at the end of 
the quinzaine, or at a further time, at the pleasure of 
the Justiciars. And if it shall so happen, that he 
cannot have them ready at the day given him, on 
the third day before such day he must shew the same 
unto the Sheriff; and upon the day he must shew 
the same before the Justiciars, and the Sheriff must 
bear witness thereto. And then, upon such proof, and 
upon the testimony of the Sheriff, they must award 
him a ^ [future day], etc. 

Chapter XLVIII. 

That w> one shall he put upon trial by the Great Laio P-35.b. 

exce'ptfoT homicide. Page 111. 

It should also be known, that no man ought to be 
put upon trial by the Great Law, except for the greatest 
cause that can be ; such as, for the death of a man, 
and that with pursuit, and with cry raised, and with 
witness thereto ; or for hamsoken apparent, and for 
doors broken and hewn down, and pursuit thereon ; 
and for wounds open and apparent, and the like mat- . 
ters. For there is no law in London that puts a man 
to death or in peril of limb, except this law. And 
therefore it is necessary that there should be some great 
reason to call for trial by this law. For as to the other 
laws waged in Pleas of the Crown, such as that by 
eighteen men, if the persons are cast, they are only 

» The concluding word here— */« '—is apparently incomplete. 



14 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B.I. 



amerced in property, and the amount of their ^Were, 
that is to say, one hundred shillings. And in this 
[latter] case, the accused makes oath three times, which 
the English call ^ ' trefalde! In this he has to make 
oath three times, each time himself the ^ sixth ; and this, 
for the dignity of the Court and for the honour 
of justice* 

But on trial hy the Great Law, the inculpated makes 
oath hut once, and that, the first of all, by reason of 
the great peril there is in finding the compurgators. 
For if a single person should feiil him or retract, then 
[the accused] is a dead man, and just the same as though 
he had been conquered in the Afield. And by reason of 
this great peril he makes oath but ^once, in trial by 
the Great Law, and then the others after him. And 
some say that if the inculpated is a husband and a 
landholder, it is necessary that his jurors also should be 
husbands, and should hold lands in the Citv. But the 
inculpated may rightfully have with him bachelors or 
widowers, provided they be lawful men ; and the like 
as to the converse. 



Chapteb XLIX. 

F. 35. b. That a person accused in Pleas of the Crown may defend 
himself as against the King vdth six com/purgators. 
Page 112. 

If the King sues against any man a Plea of the 
Crown, without there being an accuser, and says that 
he is in feult, and that the King suspects him ; it ought 
to be awarded unto him that he defend himself [by six 
compurgators], himself the seventh; and if he is cast, 
he is in just the same plight as he would have been in 



^ See the Glossary^. 

2 Threefold. 

3 The * seventh,* according to B. L 
Pt. II. c. XV. (page 58) of Liber 
Alhtts, there being eighteen com- 
purgators, six sworn at a time. 



•* I.e» inwager of battle. 

* But see page 57 of Liber Albus, 
where it says that in the Great Law, 
the accused has to make oath six 
times ; i.e. before each six of his 
jurors, or compurgators. 



Pr II.] 



THE MOBE OF HOLDING f OLKMOTES. 



15 



if he had had an accuser against him ; that is to say, if as 
against his accuser he had been cast, so as to incur amerce- 
ment of property, it would be the like in this case ; and 
the same as to his Were of one hundred shillings : and 
so, if he had been cast to peril of life or limb, it would 
be the like in this case. 



Chapter LXIIL 

Of "holding the Folkmotes. Page 118. 

There are three principal Folkmotes in the year. One 
is at the Feast of Saint Michael, to know who shall be 
Sheriff, and to hear the charge. The second is at Christmas, 
to arrange the ^ Wards. The third is at the Feast of 
Saint John [24 June], to protect the City from fire, by 
reason of the great drought. If any man of London 
neglects to attend at one of these three Folkmotes, he 
is to forfeit forty shillings to the King. But by the 
law of London, the Sheriff ought to enquire after him 
whom he shall think proper, that is to say, whether 
he is there or not. And if there be any one who is 
not there, and he is there enquired after, such person 
ought to be summoned to the Hustings, if he is bound 
to abide by the law of the City. If the good man says 
that he was not summoned, the same must be known 
through the bedel of the Ward. If the bedel says at 
the Hustings that he was summoned, [even] where it 
is proved that the bedel has no other witness, no [wit- 
ness] needs he have, save only the great bell that is rung 
for the Folkmote at St PauFs. 



F. 37. a. 



3 



[The law as to Weavers and FvZlersJ} Page 119. 



* Tor the purpose, probably, of 
duly keeping watch and ward 
throughout the winter. 

^ The whole of this passage has 
been inserted by mistake, and, after 



writing a few lines, the transcriber 
has become aware of his error and 
has stopped short. It is given in 
Liber Custumarum, folio 72. b. ; see 
pp. 130 and 552 of that Volume. 



" IJBBR AUJUS. [B. III. 



THIRD BOOK. 



«— ■ 



PART THE FIRST. 

if.i82.b. Of Deeds and Testaments enrolled, and of Examina- 
tions of Women. Page 180. 

Item, where a reversion or a rent is devised by 
testament enrolled of record in the Hustings, the same 
reversions and rents pass forthwith after the death of 
the testator ; so that those to whom such rents are 
devised can distrain for the rent and make avowry 
[a^ to the same]. And those in ^ reversion can sue 
their writ of Waste at their pleasure, and without 
attornment by the tenants ; and they can plead by the 
same enrolments, if it be necessary, even though they 
have not the said testaments in ,hand. 

And the same custom holds good as to deeds^ inden- 
tures, and other writings, enrolled of record in the 
Hustings. And such enrolments have been used from 
all time ; so the testaments be proclaimed and proved 
in full Hustings, as is already ^ mentioned. And deeds 
and indentures, and other writings under seal, may be 
received, and cognizances and confessions of women as 
to the same, recorded, before the Mayor and one Alder- 
man, or before the Recorder and one Alderman, or 
before two Aldermen, if necessary, as well out of Court 
as in; so that the said deeds, indentures, and other 
writings so acknowledged, be afterwards entered and 
enrolled at some [Court] of Hustings, and the fees 
paid for the same, as the manner is. 



* Perhaps more strictly * remain- i passage in the document from which 
der.' I the present passage is extracted. 

'^ In reference, probably, to a prior 



pri.] HUSTINGS FOR PLEAS OF LAND. 17 



Of Courts of Hustings. Page 181. F.i83.a. 

Be it made known, that all lauds and tenements, 
rents and services, within the City of London and the 
suburbs thereof, are pleadable at the Guildhall in the 
same City, at the two Hustings; of which the one 
Hustings is called "Hustings of Pleas of Land/' and 
the other Hustings is called ''Hustings of Common 
" Pleas;"' and which Hustings are holden in the said 
Guildhall, before the Mayor and SheriiFs of the same 
cit3'', upon the Monday and Tuesday in each week ; 
that is to say, upon Monday, for demanding appearance 
of demandants, and for the award of nonsuits, and the 
allowing of essoins ; and upon Tuesday, for the award 
of defaults, and for pleading, — certain seasons and Feast- 
days excepted, as well as other reasonable causes, at 
wiich times no Hustings can be held, by usage of the 
city aforesaid. It should also be known, that the 
Hustinors of Pleas of Land must be held one week 
apart by itself, and that of Common Pleas the next 
week apart by itself, upon the days aforesaid : but the 
enrolments and titles of the said Hustings make men- 
tion of Monday only. 

In Hustings of Pleas of Land are pleaded Writs of 
Right Patent, directed to the Mayor and Sherifls of 
London ; in the case of which writs, such is the pro- 
cedure by the custom of the City ; that is to say, the 
tenant or tenants shall first have three summonses, at 
the tenements [so] demanded, to the three Hustings of 
Pleas of Land next ensuing after delivery of the writ, 
and that without demanding [presence of] the tenants 
at any of the Hustings aforesaid : and after the three 
summonses completed, [they shall have] three essoins 
at the three other Hustings of Pleas of Land then 
next ensuing. And at the next Hustings after the 
third essoin, if the tenants make default, process shall 
be made against them by Grand Cape; or bj'- Petit 

VOL. IIL B 



•> ," 



'^/^ 






■ ;■!: 



I 



1 'i' 



18 LIBER ALBUS. [B, TIL 

Oape, after appearance made; and other process, as at 
Common Law, 

And if the tenants appear, the demandants shall 
declare against such tenants in the nature of whatever 
writ they shall please (certain writs excepted, which 
are pleadable [only] at the Hustings of Common Pleas, 
as will he set forth hereafter), without protestation 
being made that they will sue in the nature of any 
writ [in particular]. And the tenants shall have ^ View, 
and shall be essoined after View had, as at Common 
Law. The tenants shall also have essoin after each 
appearance, by custom of the City. And if so be that 
such writ is abated after the View, by exception of 
joint-tenancy or other dilatory exception, and another 
like writ is revived, the tenants, according to the cus- 
tom of the City, shall have View upon the second writ, 
the View before had to the contrary notwithstanding. 
And if the parties plead for judgment, judgment shall be 
given by mouth of their Becorder ; and six Aldermen, 
at the least, are wont to be present at each such 
judgment given. 

And each bedel of the City, by notice of his Alderman, 
against each Hustings of Pleas of Land, shall cause to be 
summoned twelve men having freeholds, of the best and 
most sufficient of his Ward, to come to the Guildhall to 
pass upon Inquests if necessary, if there be so many 
persons holding land in the said Ward. And if the 
parties pleading proceed to Inquisition, then the Inquest 
shaU be taken by persons holding land, having at least 
one freehold in the same Ward in which the tenements 
are situate, or in the three other Wards that are nearest 
to the place where the tenements are ; so that four suffi- 
cient men of the same Ward where the tenements are 
situate be sworn upon the same Inquest, if there be so 



' See the Glossary, s.v. * View* 



1 



PTLJ HlTSTI^rGS FOR PLEAS OF LAND. 19 

many. And by custom of the City, no damages are 
recoverable upon any such Writ of Eight patent. 

And the Inquest may pass upon the same day by such 
common summons of the bedel, if the parties be at issue 
and the jurors attend. And if otherwise, process shaU 
be made to cause the Inquest to appear at the Hustings 
of Pleas of land next ensuing, by precept of the Mayor 
directed to the Sheriffs. And the Sheriffs shall act 
ministerially, by command of the Mayor, in serving F.iss.b. 
writs and in making execution thereon, notwithstand- 
ing that the original writ be directed to the Mayor and 
Sheriffs in common. And be it known, that as well 
the tenants as the demandants may appoint their 
attorneys at such pleas. And if the demandants de- 
clare against the tenants in the nature of a Writ of 
Right, and the parties proceed to Inquisition as to the 
lesser right, then shaU the Inquest be taken by four- 
and-twenty, in the nature of a Grand Assize, according 
as the usage demands ; provided always, that six of the 
Ward wherein the tenements are situate, if there be 
so many of the same Ward, be upon such Inquest of 
four-and-twenty. And the tenants, in the case of all 
such writs, may vouch to warranty within the said 
city, as also in a ^foreign county, upon deed shown. 
If the vouchees hold no tenements within the City, and 
if the tenants in such writs vouch to warranty in a 
foreign county, — ^in which case process cannot be made 
against the vouchees by the law of the said city — 
then the record shall be brought before the Justiciars of 
the Common Bench, at the suit of the demandant ; 
and there process shall be made against the vouchee. 
And when the question of voucher shall be determined 
in the said Bench, then the whole suit shall be re- 
manded to the Hustings, there to be proceeded with in 
the pleadings according to the custom of the said city. 



* I.e. in the sense o^ not within the liberties of the City. 

B 2 



■m 



20 LIBER ALBTTS. [B. III. 

and according to what in certain Statutes is more 
fully contained. 

And also, if the tenants in such writs plead in bar 
a release bearing date in a foreign county, or plead 
other foreign matter that cannot he tried within the 
said city, then the demandant shall cause process to be 
removed into the King's Court, for trial of the said 
matter where it is [so] alleged ; and according to what 
is there found, the suit shall be remanded to the 
Hustings, there to be proceeded with according as the 
case demands. During the whole of the mean time, 
the plea shall surcease in the Hustings, in the same 
manner as has been done heretofore. 

And also, it has been the usage heretofore that a man 
might sue at the Hustings of Pleas of Land to have 
execution upon certain judgments given at the Hustings ; 
and this by bill in the nature of ^ Scire faciaSy without 
writ. 

And be it known, that the summonses which are to 
be made upon the tenants in such Writs of Eight, may 
be made two or three days before the said Hustings, 
or on the Sunday next before such Hustings. 



F.i83.b, * Of Hustings of Common Pleas, Page 184. 

In Hustings of Common Pleas are pleadable Writs 
called ^Ex Gravi Querela, to have execution of tene- 
ments by virtue of testaments enrolled of record in 
the Hustings, Writs of Dower ^ Unde nihil hahet, Writs 
of Gavelet as to customs and services due in place of 
* Cessctmf, Writs of Error on Judgments given before 
the Sheriffs, Writs of Waste, Writs ^De Partioipatione 



' " You are to make known." j * " He has ceased " to perform 



2 " On Grievous Complaint." 



3 " Of which she has nothing." * " Of making Partition." 



his services. 



PH.] PROCEDURE OK WRIT OF DOWER. 21 

faciendd between parceners, Writs of ^ Quid JuHs 
clamat and of ^ Per quce Servitia, and other such Writs 
as are closed and directed to the Mayor and Sheriffs ; 
and also, Writs of Replegiare as to ^naarns and dis- 
tresses wrongfully taken are pleadable before the Mayor 
and Sheriffs, at the same Hustings of Common Pleas, 
upon plaint made without writ. And be it made known, 
that the same Sheriffs are ministers to act officially 
and to serve all the said Writs and ^Replegiare by pre- 
cept of the Mayor directed to the said Sheriffs : and the 
process is such; — • 

In the first place, of Writs Ux Oravi Quereld notice 
shall be given to the tenants; that is to say, two or 
three days before the Hustings, or on the Sunday be- 
fore, as in Pleas of Land ; and so shall it be done as 
to all other summonses touching the same Hustings. 
And if the notice be made and witnessed by the r.is^a. 
Sheriff or his officers, the tenants may be essoined 
once. And if the tenants make default, on the said 
notice being attested, then shall be awarded the Grand 
Cape; and if they appear, they may be essoined and 
have the ^ View. And upon this, all the other pro- 
cess shall be fully made, as is mentioned in reference 
to Writs of Eight patent in Hustings of Pleas of 
Land. 



Writ of Dower. Page 185. F.i84.a, 

Item, in Writ of Dower Unde nihil hahet, the te- 
nants shall have at the beginning three summonses, 
and, after the three summonses, one essoin; and then 
they shaU have the View, and, after the View, one 



» "What Bight he claims.'* 

- " By what Services." 

^ See the Glossary, s,v, 'T^eyme,* 

* Order to make replevin, or re- | 



delivery of pledges. 

* By a jury,^ of the property in 
dispute. 



1 



22 LIBEE ALBUS. [b. III. 

essoin. And in such Writ of Dower the tenants shall 
have the View, although they entered through the hus- 
band of the demandant, and also, notwithstanding that 
the husband died seised. And also, the tenants may 
vouch to warranty, and after each appearance may be 
essoined; and all the other process shall be made as 
in Writ of Right in Hustings of Pleas of Land. And 
if the demandant recovers dower against the tenant, by 
default made or by judgment of law on such Writ of 
Dower, and the same female demandant alleges in a 
Coiui of Record that her husband died seised, — then 
the Mayor shall command the Sheriffs, by precept^ to 
have summoned an Inquest of the venue where the 
tenements are^ against the next Hustings of Common 
Pleas ; for enquiry if the husband died seised, and as 
to the value of the tenements, and the damages. And 
if she recovers upon Inquisition, inquisition shall be 
held as to the damages by the same Inquest. 



t.ma. Of Gavelet Page 186. 

Item, in Writ of Gavelet the tenants shall hav6 
three summonses and three essoins ; they shall also 
have the View, they may vouch to warranty both 
denizen and foreigner, and they shall be essoined, and 
shall have the other exceptions : and all other process 
shall be made as before declared under Writ of Right 
in Hustings of Pleas of Land ; save that, if the tenant 
makes default, then after default the demandant shall 
have judgment to recover and to hold for a year and 
a day; upon condition, that the tenant may appear 
within such year and day next ensuing, and make 
compensation for the arrears, and find such surety as 
the Court shall award lawfully to pay the rent or ser- 
vice thereafter, and so receive back his tenements. 
And within such year and day, the tenant may appear 



i 



l^ri.] PROCEDUEE ON WRIT OF WASTE. 23 

and make the demandant appear in Court by Scire 
facias ; and lie shall receive back his tenements, npon 
doing as already said. 



Scire facias. Page 186/ l\i84a, 

And if the tenant does not appear within such year 
and day, as is already mentioned, then after such year 
and day the demandant shall have a Scire facias 
against the tenant, to appear and make answer if he 
knows aught to say why the said demandant should 
not recover the tenements wholly to himself and his 
heirs for ever. And if the tenant does not appear, or 
if he appears and knows not what to say, then judg- 
ment shall be that the demandant shall recover the 
tenements wholly for ever, according to the judgment 
called ' ^ Sharif ort,' by custom of the City aforesaid. 



Writ of Waste, Page 186. iM84.a. 

In Writ of Waste, process shall be made against the 
tenants by summons, attachments, and distresses, 
according to the Statute in that behalf made. And if 
the tenant appears and pleads, then he shall have one 
essoin, and the same after each appearance ; and if he 
makes default upon the Grand Distress, then instructions 
shall be given to the Sheriffs by precept of the Mayor, 
— ^to the effect that the said Sheriffs shall go to the 
place wasted, and make Inquisition as to the waste 
and damages, according to the Statute ; and that they 
shall return the Inquisition at the next Hustings of 
Common Pleas. And the plaintiff shall recover the 
place wasted, and damages, threefold by the ^Statute. 



^ See the Crlossary. | - Of Gloucester, 6 Edward 1., c. 5; 



24 IIBEB ALBUS. [R HI. 



P-i84.b. Writ of Error, Page 187. 

Item, in Writ of Error as to judgment given in 
Court before the Sheriffs in personal actions, and in 
Assize of Novel Disseisin or Mort d' Ancestor taken 
before the Sheriffs and Coroner, the Writ of Error 
shall be directed to the Mayor and Sheriffs; and the 
Mayor shall issue a precept to the Sheriffs to cause 
the record and process to be brought before the next 
Hustings of Common Pleas, and to cause notice to be 
given to the parties to [appear and] hear the record. 
And after that the record and process shall have been 
brought into the Hustings, whether the defendant 
appears upon notice or makes default, the errors shall 
be assigned, and there the judgment shall bo affirmed 
or reversed according as the law demands. 

And be it made known, that by usage of the said 
city, when a man is condemned in debt or attainted of 
damages in any personal action before the Sheriffs, and 
brings such Writ of Error, the person who so brings 
the Avrit ought and has been wont, before being deli- 
vered from prison, to find sufficient surety by persons 
residing within the same city, before the Mayor and 
Sheriffs, for paying the money or having his body ready 
in ease the judgment is affirmed. And so it shall be 
done, where damages are recovered in Assizes before 
the Sheriffs and Coroner. 



^ .^g^jij^ Replegiare, Page 188. 

Item, in Beplegiare the process is such. — If any man 
takes a distress on another's ground within the said 
city, he to whom the goods belong may come to one 
of the Sheriffs, and shall have an officer by command 
of the Court, to go to the party who has taken the 
goods ; and, if he can have View thereof, to appraise 



Pri.] 



PBOCEDURE ON WRIT OF REPLEVIN. 



25 



the same goods by two reputable men. And then a 
plaint shall be entered on the Sheriffs' paper to this 
effect, — " Such person Tnakes plaint against such person 
" as to his distresses unjustly taken in Ids houses or 
" in his freehold, in such a parish;'^ and the same 
party shall there find two sufficient pledges to pro- 
secute his suit and to make return of the goods, or the 
value, in case return thereof shall be awarded ; and so 
he shall have delivery made thereof. And the parties 
shall have a day named beforehand at the next Hust- 
ings of Common Pleas. And then at the said next 
Hustings of Common Pleas, the Sheriff shall prepare a 
bill containing the whole matter and the plaint, and 
shall carry the same bill to the said Hustings, and there 
it shall be put upon the file, and the parties shall be 
demanded ; upon which day the one and the other may 
be essoined by common essoin : and upon such day, if 
the plaintiff makes default, return of the goods shall 
be awarded to the ^avowant ; and return in such case 
is awardable by the custom three times, and at the 
third time [the goods are] irreplevisable. And then 
the avowant may have an assize of the same rent, 
even though he was never seised of the said rent before. 
And upon occasion when the avowant makes default, 
then it shall be awarded that the distresses shall re- 
main with the plaintiff, — "^o wit^ let the distresses so 
" remain'' — [but] without recovery of any damages. 

And if so be that the Sheriff cannot have View of 
the distress taken, then he shall certify the same at 
the said Hustings, and there shall ^TVithetmam be 
awarded, and thereupon process shall be made. And 
if the parties appear, and avowry is made, and they 
plead for judgment or for issue by Inquisition ; then 
shall judgment be given or process made to summon 



' The person "wrho avows or admits 
that he has made the distress. 



*A Writ so called. See the 
Glossary, 



I 



26 LIBEK ALBUS. [B. III. 

the Inquest, according as the case demands : and after 
each appearance the paiiies may be essoined. And if 
a party claims property in the distress, then let him 
certify the same at the Hustings, and process shall "be 
made, upon precept made to the Sheriffs, to try such 
right of property, etc. And in case a party is essoined 
of the ^King's Service in Replegiare, and at the day 
which he has by essoin makes default or does not bring 
his warranty, he shall incur no penalty thereby. 



iM85.a. Writ of Partition. Page 189. 

Item, in Writ ^ De FaHicipatioTie faciendd, for 
making partition between parceners of tenements in 
London, a close writ shall be directed to the Mayor 
and Sheriffs, setting forth the matter according to 
the form of such writ; and the parties shall have 
notice by precept of the Mayor directed to the said 
Sheriffs. And the tenants may be essoined ; and if 
they appear, they may plead their case; and if they 
make default, partition shall be awarded by default, 
according to the custom of the City. 

i\i85.a. 0/ Return by the Bedels. Page 189. 

Item, each bedel of the said city, by notice of his 
Alderman, against each Hustings of Common Pleas 
shall cause to be summoned six freeholders, of the 
best and most sufficient of his Ward — ^if there shall 
be so many persons holding land in the said Ward — 
to appear at the Guildhall aforesaid, to pass upon 
Inquest if required. And the Inquisitions shall be 
taken as is already mentioned under Hustings of Pleas 
of Land; 



* One of tlie five legitimate es- 
soIbs, or excuses for non-appearance. 



^ " Of making Partitioti.*^ 



PH.] 



ASSIZE OF NOVEL DISSEISIN. 



27 



Writ of Exigent Page 190. 

Item, Writs of Exigent are demandable at the Hust- 
ings, as well Hustings of Common Pleas as Hustings 
of Pleas of Land. But such Exigents as are demanded 
at the one Hustings shall not be demanded at the 
other Hustings. And at the fifth Hustings, outlawiies 
and * waiveries shall be awarded in full Hustings, 
before the Mayor and Aldermen, by mouth of the 
Recorder ; and also, all judgments that are given at 
the Hustings shall be given in the same manner. 
And the same Exigents after each Hustings shall be 
counter-enrolled and sent to the Chamber of the Guild- 
hall aforesaid. 



F. 185. 



Of Amercements. Page 190. 

Item, be it made known, that aU amercements in- 
cident to the said Hustings pertain unto the Sheriffs 
of the said city. 



V. 185. a. 



Of the Alde'i'^nen. Page 190. 

Item, the Aldermen of London shall be summoned 
to come to the Hustings ; and they ought, by usage 
of the said city, to be summoned by an officer of the 
Sheriff, mounted upon a horse of the value of one 
hundred shillings at least. 



F. 185.a. 



Of Assises of Novel Disseisin, called ^^ Fresshforce.^^ F.i8<5.a. 

Page 195. 

Item, the Assizes of ® Novel Disseisin, called " Fresshe- 
^^ force/' as to lands, and tenements, and rents, in the City 



^ " Waiver j^ " was the otitlawry 
of a female. 



' I.e. of disseisin of lands made 
at a fecent period. 



I 



28 LIBEK ALBUS. [B. III. 

of London, and disseisins made therein within the 
forty weeks, arc holden and terminable before the two 
Sheriffs and the Coroner of the said city in common, 
every Saturday at the Guildhall, except at certain times 
when for reasonable causes such Assizes cannot be 
held. And the process therein is such ; that is to 
say, when any man feels himself aggrieved and that he 
has been disseised of his freehold in the said city or 
the suburbs thereof, he shall come to any Hustings, 
held at the Guildhall, or, in default of such Hustings, to 
the Congregation of the Mayor and Aldermen in the 
Chamber of Guildhall, upon any Monday, and shall 
there present a bill. And such bill shall be as follows ; 
— " Such a person makes plaint of intrusioii against 
" such a person, as to his freehold, in such a parish of 
" London, situate in Londmi, or in such a parish in 
" the suburbs of London " and the same bill shall be 
enrolled. And another bill De Intrusione shall be 
prepared thereupon by the Common Clerk of the City, 
making mention of the title of the Hustings or of the 
day of Congregation of the Mayor and Aldermen, [and] 
containing all the first bill : and this bill so made by 
the Common Clerk^ shall then be sent to the Sheriffs or 
to one of them, to make process and do right as towards 
the parties. 

And then, when the bill shall have been so served, on 
the Wednesday next ensuing, namely, the officer of the 
Sheriff to whom the biU is delivered shall cause to be 
summoned the tenant or tenants named in the said 
bill of Assize, upon view of two freemen of the City, 
and that at the tenements as to which the disseisin is 
made, or afe the tenements from which the rent [with- 
held] is alleged to be forthcoming. And there the 
tenants shall be told that they must keep their day 
at the Guildhall on the Saturday then next ensuing, at 
their own peril ; and the names of the two summoners 
shall be endorsed upon the bill. And then the plain- 



Ptl] assize of novel BISSEISTHr. 29 

tiff may sue to array the Assize and to summon the 
jurors against the said Saturday, or against some other 
Saturday afterwards, at his will. And so may the 
tenants sue for their deliverance, if they please ; and 
such summons shall be made on the Friday before the 
said Saturday. And the array of the panels of jurors 
shall be made by the Sheriffs and their officers, or else 
by the Mayor and Aldermen, if any one of the parties 
for reasonable cause shall think proper to pray the 
same. And after this, the said Assizes shall be pleaded 
and regulated, for the most part, as elsewhere at 
Common Law. 

And if a release bearing date in a foreign county, 
bastardy, or some other foreign matter that cannot be 
tried in the said city, be alleged at such Assizes, then 
the plaintiffs may sue to have the record removed into 
the Couiii of our lord the King, to try the matter 
there according as the case may demand. And when 
the matter shall have been determined in the King's 
Court, the entire process shall be remanded to the said P.iscb. 
Sheriffs and Coroner, or to their successors, to be pro- 
ceeded with according to the custom of the City, in 
such manner as has been done heretofore. And be it 
made known, that there is no discontinuance wrought 
in such Assizes, nor is there any mention made in 
the record of the mesne days between the Assize [first] 
brought and the day on which the Assize is [again] 
brought or judgment given, unless it be for some neces- 
sary reason, or that such Assizes have been adjourned 
for especial causes. And when the Assizes are taken 
before the Sheriffs and Coroner, as aforesaid, and judg- 
ment has been given thereupon, then shall such Assizes 
so determined be entered of record ; and afterwards, 
they shall be brought to the Chamber of the Guildhall, 
to remain in the Treasury there as of record. And be 
it made known, that no one may make entry into any 



30 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[b. Ill, 



tenements within the said city by force, or hold any 
tenement by force and arms, or to the disturbance of 
the peace. But if any such entry be made by force, 
then is such force to be ousted. And the parties then 
may come before the Mayor and Aldermen, and may 
there shew their case, their evidences, and their muni- 
ments ; and there it shall be ordered by the said Mayor 
and Aldermen, at their discretion, which party shall be 
adjudged to be in possession for the time, and which 
shall be adjudged to enter suit ; saving always unto 
the parties their answers and their advantages, by way 
of plea, before the Sheriffs and Coroner on holding the 
Assize. 



p.i86.b. Of Assizes of Mort d' Ancestor, Page 197. 

Item, Assizes of ^ Mort d'Ancestor are holden and 
terminable before the Sheriffs and Coroner of London, 
upon Satmrdays, from fortnight to fortnight at the 
Guildhall, the process therein being this; — ^that is to 
say, the person wlio wishes to have such AssizOi shall 
come to the Hustings or to a Congregation of the 
Mayor and Aldermen in the Chamber of the Guildhall, 
upon any Friday, in manner already mentioned as to 
the Assize of Fressheforce, and shall present a bill in the 
usual form of Assize of Mort d^Ancestor, according to 
his case, which bill shall be enrolled. And afterwards, 
the Common Clerk shall prepare another bill contain- 
ing all the matter of the first bill, making mention of 
the title of the Hustings or of the day of Congrega- 



» " Death of Ancestor." This 
writ lay where a man's father, 
mother, hrother, sister, or other near 
relation, had died seised of lands, 



and after such death a stranger 
entered, to the prejudice of the 
claimant. 



1 



pi I.] ASSIZE OF MORT B'ANCESTOR. 31 

tion of the Mayor and Aldermen ; and this bill shall 
be sent to the Sheriffs, or to one of them, to serve 
the same according to custom. And the said bill shall 
be served by some serjeant or other officer of the Sheriff; 
that is to say, the said officer, on the Wednesday next 
after delivery of the bill, shall make summons to the 
tenants, at the tenements demanded, by witness of two 
freemen of the City, that they appear at the Guildhall on 
the Saturday then next ensuing, to hear the recognizance, 
if they think proper [so to do]. Against which Saturday 
the demandant may sue, on the Friday next before, 
to array and summon the jurors ; and the like after- 
wards, against the [following] Saturdays, from fortnight 
to fortnight, at his will. And so also may the tenants 
sue, if they think proper, for their deliverance. 

And the arrays of the panels of such Assizes shall be 
made by the Sheriffs and their officers, or by the 
Mayor and Aldermen, if any one of the parties shall 
think proper upon reasonable cause to demand it, in 
manner as the usage is in the Assize of Fresaheforce, 
And in such Assizes 'of Mort d' Ancestor, the parties 
may essoin as at Common Law, and the tenants may 
vouch to warranty within the City, and also in a foreign 
county if the * vouchee has no tenements within the 
City. And if the tenants plead a release bearing date 
in a foreign county, or other foreign matter that 
cannot be tried within the City, or if they vouch to 
warranty in a foreign county one who has no possessions 
in the City, then, at the suit of the other party, the 
record shall be removed into the Court of our lord the 
King, by writ directed to the said Sheriffs and Coro- 
ner; and there shall such foreign pleas and foreign p.isT.a. 
vouchers be tried and determined, and then remanded 
to the said Sheriffs and Coroner, to continue and be 
proceeded with according to the custom of the City. 

' The party vouched by them, or called upon to support their title. 



32 



LIBEE ALBUS. 



[B. III. 



And 'continuance shall be made in such Assizes upon 
such preceding causes, as also upon o<Jher causes that 
are reasonable. And when the Assizes shall be termi- 
nated, and judgment given thereupon, such Assizes shall 
he engrossed and entered of record by the said Sheriffs 
and Coroner, and then sent to the Guildhall, there 
to remain of recoi'd, in the same manner as Assizes 
of Fresshe^oTce, 



P. 187. a. Of the Bays of sitting of the Sheriffs'* Oourt Page 399. 

lu the first place, be it made known that the sjiid 
Sheriffs hold Courts of our lord the King before them, 
in the Guildhall of London, and pleas of debt of any 
sum whatever and of all other personal actions, at the 
suit of parties. And each of such Sheriffs holds his 
Court at the said Guildhall severally and by himself 
apart ; and that, upon plaints and declarations made 
before the one and the other of the said Sheriffs, as well 
in their own Compters as at the said Guildhall, according 
to the custom of the city aforesaid. And each of the 
said Sheriffs is wont to hold by himself, apart, two 
General Courts in the week ; as also daily, for de- 
liverance of foreigners and strangers, if necessary ; unless 
they be interrupted by Feast-days or other reasonable 
causes. 

P. 187. a. OfOa/pias. Page 199. 

And it is the usage for the clerks and officers of the 
said Sheriffs, forthwith upon plaint made, to award 
Capias and other process against defendants, upon testi- 
mony of Serjeants of the said office thereunto deputed, 



* Le, there shaU be no discon- 
tinuance or surcease in the suit, by 



reason of its being taken in the in. 
terim before another Court. 



PTI.] WRIT OF CAPIAS. 33 

as well at the said Compters as at the Guildhall. And 
it is the usage to award Capias iu plaints of Debt, 
Account, [and] Covenant, and in all other personal 
actions whatsoever. 

Further as to Award of Capias. Page 199. ^-i^? a 

And the person who is so arrested, at the suit of a 
party for debt or other personal action, may find 
^mainprise at the said Compters or elsewhere, before 
the Sheriffs or their clerks thereunto deputed, that 
he will appear at the next Court holden at the said 
Guildhall before the same Sheriff before whom the 
plaint has been made ; upon condition that, if the 
defendant does not appear at the said next Court to 
keep his day, then he shall be condemned in the debt 
in the said plaint contained ; save that the plaintiflf* if 
he be present, or can conveniently be made to appear 
in Court, shall be examined on his oath as to what 
sum is clearly due to him, and on what grounds : 
beyond which sum found due upon such examination, 
the plaintiff shall recover nothing, except his damages, 
which shall be adjudged to him upon taxation by the 
Court, or by Inquest, if it be necessary. And if the 
defendant be not found, then shall the mainpernors 
be taken and charged with the debt and damages 
aforesaid. 

That the person arrested raay find Mainpernors. P.i87.a. 

Page 200. 

And if it be a plaint of trespass, of battery, of seizure of 
goods, or other personal action where a person should 
recover damages; if the defendant makes default, — in 
such case, after he has been arrested and has foiuid 
mainprise, as before mentioned, he shall be adjudged as 

^ Bail, or security for his future appearance. 

VOL. m. c 



1 



3* LIBER ALBUS. [b. III^ 

attainted ; and the plaintiff shall cause declaration to be 
made by bill as to the cause of suit, and the amount of 
such damages and such lien. And upon this, an Inquest 
of office shall be summoned as to such lien, to tax the 
damages for the plaintiff. And if the defendant be not 
found, then the mainpernors shall be charged, as before. 
And if the Court can be clearly assured by the same 
Inquest, or upon sufficient examination of the plaintiff, 
that the defendant is not guilty, in su ch case the plaintiff 
shall recover nothing, notwithstanding the default. 

J'. 187. a. Of the Mainpernors, Page 200. 

And when any such mainpernors are arrested and 
committed to prison, because their principals are not 
found ; nevertheless, at whatever time such principals 
can be found, and be placed in arrest at the suit of the 
mainpernors, then the said mainpernors shall be set at 
liberty. 

F. 187. b. Of the same. Page 201. 

Item, when a man is bodily arrested, and finds main- 
prise to appear at his day ; or puts himself upon Inquest, 
or pleads for judgment, and finds mainpernors to wait 
until such suit is determined, according to the custom of 
the City ; stiQ, at whatever time the chief maiupernors 
shall choose to come to the Court of Record, or to the 
Compter, in which the plea is pending, and surrender 
the body of him for whom they have so become main- 
pernors, they shall be duly received, and shall from 
thenceforth be discharged of their mainprise. 

F. 187. b. Of Auditors. Page 201 . 

And if a man is arrested on plaint of account, and finds 
mainprise to appear at the next Court, and makes default, 
then the mainpernors shall have notice to appear at the 



PTi.] BBEACH OF SEQUESTEATIOK. 35 

next Court then to be held, and the plaintiff shall have 
the same day ; and then, if such mainpernors appear, 
auditors shall be assigned to take the account in presence 
of the plaintiff and the mainpernors. And the main- 
pernors shall be heard, if they have aught to say in dis- 
charge of the account. And if the mainpernors do not 
choose to appear, then the plaintiff shall recover his 
arrears upon examination and oath made by him. And 
in the same manner it shall be done, if the defendant is 
convicted in account by Inquisition held. 



Of Breach of Sequestration. Page 202. v, i87. b. 

And also, if plaint is made against any sufficient 
freeman, or against other sufficient man and resi- 
ding within the City, then such defendant shall be 
summoned by any Serjeant of the Sheriffs to appear at 
the Guildhall to make answer to the plaintiff, at the 
Court of the denizens : at which Court, if he makes 
default, he shall be amerced, and Grand Distress shall 
be forthwith awarded, by usage of the City ; and 
then it shall be awarded that the doors of the defen- 
dant be shut and sealed, until such time as he shall 
be willing to appear, and make answer to the plaintiff. 
And at each Court of denizens that he shall be demanded 
and shall not appear, he shall lose his i issues. And 
if he breaks the sequestration, and the same is attested 
by the Serjeant in Court, then it shall be awarded 
that the defendant be arrested bodily, and that he 
make fine for the contempt. And when he is so 
arrested he shall find sufficient sureties for his appear- 
ance at the then next Court to answer the [other] 
party, under the penalty before limited where Capias 
is awarded. And if such defendant makes several 



* The profits then due from the property held in sequestration. 

C 2 



36 



IIBER ALBUS. 



[b, ni. 



delays, and it is attested by the serjeant that the 
defendant is absconding or is non-sufficient, then shall 
Capias be awarded to take his body, or to arrest 
and appraise the goods of such defendant, as also for 
^foreign attachment. 



Pa37.b. Of Essoins. Pa.ge 202. 

And if any parties appear and plead for inquest 
or for judgment, then they shall be ruled according 
to the usages of the City, without having any essoin 
in such personal actions, either before or after. And 
even if such defendant as has pleaded for Inquest 
make default after Inquest joined, nevertheless, if 
he afterwards appears when the Inquest is charged, 
he shall have his challenges of the jurors and shall 
set forth his evidences, such default made by him to 
the contrary notwithstanding, 



p.i87.b. Of Wager of Law. Page 203. 

And after the parties are at issue upon Inquest, 
such parties are not demandable unless the Inquest 
be summoned. But such Inquest may be summoned, 
as well at suit of the defendant as well as at suit 
of the plaintiflT. And in plea of debt, the defendant 
may wage his law, by usage of the City, [in proof] 
that he owes nothing to the plaintiff; that is to say, 
if he be a man enfranchised in the City or residing 
within such city, [he may wage his law] ^with the 
seventh hand, himself named as one. And such de- 



* Seizure of any debts that may 
be due to him in the hands of other 
parties. 

2 Le, with seven compurgators or 



jurors on his behalf, himself being 
one ; such jurors or compurgators 
being frequently called * hands.' 



pri.] WAGER OF LAW IN ACTIONS OF TRESPASS. 37 

fendants may ^make their law forthwith in Court 
upon such law being waged, if they have the persons 
ready ; or otherwise, they shall have a day named for 
makiog their law at the Court next ensuing. 

And if the defendant is a foreigner, a stranger, and P.iso.a. 
non-residenfc in the City, he may wage and make his 
law with the third hand forthwith, himself named as 
one, [to the effect that] he owes nothing to the 
plaintiff, and so be acquitted. And if he has not 
two men ready to 'make the oath with him, then 
the defendant, at the request of the plaintiff, must go, 
in the custody of a serjeant of the Court, to the six 
churches nearest to the Guildhall ; and in the same 
churches he must swear that the oath which he made 
in the Guildhall was good. And after tliis, the 
defendant shall be brought back to the Guildhall, and 
shall have his judgment of acquittal; and the plain- 
tiff shall be amerced. A^d in the same manner shall 
it be done in other personal actions where wager of 
law may be had. And where women in such cases 
ai*e impleaded and wage their law, they may make their 
law with men or women, at their wiU. 



IFicrther] of Wager of Law. Page 204. 

And if a man enfranchised in the City is impleaded 
by way of trespass for goods carried away, or for 
battery where no blood is shed or blow apparent, as 
also for any other trespass alleged to be against the 
peace, such freeman, so impleaded, may wage and 
make his law that he is not guilty, by usage of the 
City, with the seventh hand, in manner aforesaid. 



V. 189. a. 



^ I.e, produce their compurgators, 
and put them upon oath as to their 



belief in the non-existence of the 
deht. 



38 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[b. hi. 



i'.i89.a. Of ExecntoTship, Page 204. 

Item, actions of debt and of covenant are maintainable 
against executors and administrators, without ^specialty; 
and such executors and administrators, by usage of the 
said city, when they appear to make answer, may have 
their law with as many hands as the Court shall think 
proper to award, upon words to the effect that they 
know nothing of the debt, nor of the contract, nor of 
the covenant, and that they believe upon their con- 
science that their testator at his death owed nothing 
to the plaintiff, and had broken no covenant with him ; 
and in such manner be discharged. 

And if a man is impleaded by plaint of debt for 
victuals consumed in the house of the plaintiff, or for 
the rent of houses hired, called ' house-ldve' in such 
case the defendant shall not have his law ; nor in 
such cases has any protection been allowed. 



■ 



Kiso.a. The ease of a Wife trading alone. Page 204. 

And where a woman ^ coverte de baron follows any 
craft within the said city by herself apart, with which 
the husband in no way interferes, such woman shall be 
bound as a single woman as to all that concerns her 
said craft. And if the husband and wife are impleaded, 
in such case, the wife shall plead as a single woman in 
a Court of Record, and shall have her law and other 
advantages by way of plea just as a single woman. 
And if she is condemned, she shall be committed to 
prison until she shall have made satisfaction ; and 
neither the husband nor his goods shall in such case 
be oharged or impeached. 



^ A deed or writing under the 
hand and seal of the parties. 



- * Protected by a husband ;' an 
old legal term for a married woman. 



pTi.] PLAINT OF DEBT. 39 



0/ hiring Houses, Page 205. f. 189, a. 

Item, if a wife, as though a single woman, rents 
any house or shop within the said city, she shall be 
bound to pay the rent of the said house or shop, and 
shall be impleaded and sued as a single woman, by 
way of debt if necessary, notwithstanding that she was 
coverte de baron a,t the time of such letting, supposing 
that the lessor did not know thereof. 



Of Plea of Trespass. Page 205. i?.i89.a. 

Item, if plaint of trespass is made against a man 
and his wife for trespass committed by the wife only, 
then the woman shall make answer alone [and] without 
her husband, if the husband does not appear ; and she 
shall have her plea as though she were a single woman. 
And if she is attainted of trespass, she shall be con- 
demned and committed to prison until she shall have 
made satisfaction. 



Of the same. Page 205. f. i89. a. 

Item^ if plaint of trespass is made by husband and 
wife as to battery committed upon the wife, in such 
case, the wife shall be received for herself and for her 
husband, to sue and recover damages as against the 
defendant, even though the husband be not present. 



Of Debt, Page 206. F.ma. 

IteiUj where plaint of debt is made Against the hus- 
band, and the plaintiff declares that the husband made 
the contract with the plaintiff by the hand of the wife 
of such defendant, in such case, the said defendant shall 
have the aid of his wife, and shall have a day until F.isg.b. 



40 LIBER ALBUS, [B. III. 



the next Court, for taking counsel with his wife ; and 
^^Idem dies' shall be given to the plaintiff. 



F.i80,b. 3^ow Freedom [is to be j:)rotrcZ]. Page 20u. 

And \yhen any defendant, in a plea of debt or other 
personal action, wages his law as a freeman of the 
City, and the plaintiff demands how he is free, it be- 
hoves the defendant to allege which he is, free by birth 
or by redemption ; and if he says that he is free by 
redemption, the plaintiff may claim that the defendant 
have his record at the next Court. Aiid if he fails 
as to such record, then he shall be attainted and ad- 
judged convicted in the cause. And if the defendant 
alleges that he is free by birth, the plaintiff may say 
that he was not born within the City; and the same 
shall be enquired into by Inquest taken within the said 
city, from the place in which the defendant shall think 
proper to allege that he was born. And this issue is 
peremptory. 

jp i89jj^ Of Contribution. Page 206. 

Item, where two or more are [jointly] bound within 
the City by obligation of debt, and each of them in the 
entirety, if one of such obligors pays the entirety, or 
if the person in favour of whom the obligation is made 
sues within the said city and recovers the debt against 
one of such obligors only, then the one who has paid the 
debt, or is so condemned, may sue the other obligors by 
plaint of debt, jointly or severally, to make contribu- 
tion ; that so each shall pay in proportion according to 
the usage of the City ; saving to the parties their 
reasonable answers. 



* * The same day.' The technical name of the respite. 



1>TI,] FOREIGN ATTACHMENT. 41 

Of Foreign Attachments. Page 207. F.isab. 

Item, when plaint of debt is made before one of the 
said Sheriffs, and it is testified by tlie officer that the 
defendant has not sufficient assets in the City, and 
allegation is made by the plaintiff that the defendant 
has goods and chattels, or debts in other hands or in 
other keeping within the said city; and it is prayed 
by the same plaintiff that such goods and chattels may 
be arrested and the debts stopped ; then, at the suit 
and suggestion of such plaintiff, such goods and chattels, 
wherever they may be found within the City, shall be 
arrested, and the debts stopped in the hands of the 
debtors, at peril of the plaintiff. 

And upon this, the plaintiff shall continue his suit at 
four Courts before the same Sheriff before whom the 
plaint was [first] alleged, until such time as the defen- 
dant shall have been four times demanded ; and if 
the defendant does not appear at the fourth Court, and 
has made four defaults, then the defaulter's goods and 
chattels, so arrested, shall be appraised and delivered to 
the plaintiff; and if the goods be not of the same 
value as the debt, then the debts stopped in the hands 
of the debtors shall be levied and delivered to the 
said plaintiff, up to the amount in demand. And such 
arrests of goods and stoppages of monies are called 
" Foreign Attachments,^' according to the custom of the 
City. 

And upon this, the plaintiff shall find sufficient surety 
to the Court by pledges, before delivery is made to him ; 
the condition being, that he shall make restitution to the 
defendant of aU the goods and chattels so taken, or of 
the value thereof, and of the monies as to which he has 
BO had execution, if so be that the defendant comes to 
the Court within a year and a day next ensuing, and is 
able to discharge and justify himself by law, to the effect 
that he owed nothing to the plaintiff at the time of the 



42 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

plaint being made. And [if] the same defendant shall 
think proper to appear within the year and day, as 
before-mentioned, to justify himself and to plead with 
the plaintiflF, then he shall have a Scire facias out of 
the same [Court of] Record against the party who has 
had such execution, to give him notice to appear at 
the next Courb, if he know aught to say why resti- 
tution shall not be made in manner aforesaid 

And if he against whom the Scire facias is so sued 
has such notice, and makes default, or if it is testified 
that he has nothing within the City, ^or that he can 
receive notice, and he does not appear at the next 
Court, then the person who sued the Sdre facias shall 
have restitution of all the goods and chattels so taken, 
or else of the value thereof; as also, of all the monies 
of which the [other] party had delivery, by reason of 
F. 190. a. ^xxoh. Foreign Attachment. In the same manner he shall 
have restitution, if he can discharge himself by way of 
plea. And in the same manner shall restitution be made, 
in due proportion, if the defendant can discharge him- 
self by way of plea of a part of the debt, even though 
he shall not be able to discharge himself of the whole. 
And if the party who has had such execution has not 
a sufficiency to make restitution in manner aforesaid, 
then his said pledges shall be charged. 

And if he against whom such foreign attachment is 
made does not appear within the year and day to 
justify himself, as already mentioned, then shall he be 
foreclosed from thenceforth. And be it made known, 
that if, during such Foreign Attachments, any other 
person comes into the Court of Record before the fourth 
default is recorded, or before execution is sued, and is 
ready to prove that the goods arrested were his own 
goods at the time of such arrest being made, and stiU 



* This passage is apparently imperfect 5 — * cannot receive notice ' is 
probably the meaning. 



PTI.] FOREIGN ACQUITTANCE ALLEGED. 43 

are so, and not of him as being whose goods they were 
arrested, and that the same person as being whose 
goods they were arrested had no right of property in 
the said goods, nor any other person, except himself, 
to the amount of four pence, then he shall be put to 
his proof, and shall make oath in manner ^aforesaid, 
by his own hand, eta ; and he shall have delivery of 
all such goods so arrested, or of part of them, accord- 
ing as he shall have made proof [in reference thereto]. 

Of the same. Page 209. v, m. a. 

And so too, a servant shall have proof as to the 
goods of his master which are in his charge, according 
to the discretion of the Court, And also, if the de- 
fendant in such Foreign Attachment comes into Court 
at the fourth default recorded, or before, he shall be 
admitted to plead with the plaintiff; and in the same 
manner he shall be admitted, if he comes before exe- 
cution sued, provided the plaintiff be present in Court 
or otherwise have notice. And in the same manner, 
in such cases of Foreign Attachment, those in whose 
hands any goods are so arrested upon suggestion of 
plaintiffs, and those in whose hands any monies are 
stopped, may come into a Court of Eecord before the 
same Sheriffs, and be excused and discharged upon 
oath by them made, to the effect that they had no 
such goods in their charge, and that they owed no 
money to such defendants, at the time that such ar- 
rests and stoppages were so made [as to the property] 
in their hands. 

Of Foreign Acquittance or Release alleged. Page 209. F.ido.a; 

Item, where a man is impleaded before one of the 
Sheriffs of London by plaint of debt, and the plaintiff 

^ Alluding probably to the oath | party bad no btber bands, or corn- 
made at the six churches, where tbe I purgators. See page 37, cwte: 



44? LIBER ALBUS. [b. Ill, 

produces an obligation bearing date in London, in proof 
of the debt so due to him, whether the said obligation 
be simple, or endorsed, or made by indentures there- 
upon, in such case, by usage of the City, the defendant 
shall not be admitted to plead any acquittance or re- 
lease by the plaintiff bearing date in a foreign county, 
or any payment there made, or condition or other 
matter, but only such matter as can be enquired into 
and tried in the same city. And if any defendant, in 
such case, pleads any such acquittance or release, or 
alleges any payment made or other matter done in a 
foreign county, out of the said city, to oust the Court 
of its jurisdiction, and sucli defendant thinks proper to 
say nothing else, he shall be barred for default of an- 
swer. But if so be that the endorsement of the obli- 
gation, or the indentures made thereupon, make express 
mention of making or performing any condition or 
other matter elsewhere out of the City, and such 
matter is alleged by the defendant, then the Court 
shall surcease, and the plaintiff shall be told to sue at 
Common Law. 

And after the same manner is the usage in plaint 
of trespass. And in other personal actions as to bar- 
gains and contracts made in the said city, the de- 
fendants shall not be admitted to plead or allege any 
matter out of the said city, but only such matter as 
can be enquired into and tried within the same city. 

0/ an Ohligation ^vithout date at a certain place* 

Page 210. 

Item, where an obligation is proffered which bears 
date at no certain place, and the plaintiff in declaring 
alleges that the said obligation was made in a certain 
F.ioD.b. Parish in the City of London, and the defendant on 
his part alleges that such obligation was made in a 
certain place without the City, and is ready to prove 
the same, and therewith pleads foreign matter as to 



PTl.] 



ALLEGATION OF PART-PAYMEKT. 



45 



the same in avoidance of the said obligation ; while 
the plaintiff tenders to make proof by the ' country 
that the said obligation was made within the City of 
London, in such manner as he has declared ; in such 
case, it is the usage to take the Inquisition in London, 
from the Parish wherein the plaintiff has declared that 
such obligation was made, if the plaintiff prays to that 
effect. And if it be found that the obligation was 
made in London, as the plaintiff has alleged by his 
declaration, then shall the defendant be condemned in 
the debt, and in damages to be taxed by tlie same 
Inquest. 

Of an Obligation mth a double ijenalty. Page 211. p.ioo.b. 

Item, where an obligation is made with a double 
penalty by endorsement or by indentures, and the ob- 
ligor is impleaded and acknowledges the obligation, 
and the day of payment has expired, as may be seen 
by the same obligation ; yet, nevertheless, the plaintiff 
ought to recover only the clear debt that is in arrear, 
and that by oath of such plaintiff, or by lawful infor- 
mation of his attorney, if the plaintiff be not present, 
and not the two-fold amount of the debt that is con- 
tained in the said obligation ; and his damages shall 
be taxed for him by the Court according to the time 
that has expired, at its own discretion or else by In- 
quest. And even though the defendant in such case, 
against such obligation made with a double penalty, 
plead that it is not his deed, or that he ^ has completed 
the days for payment contained in the endorsement or 
in the indentures made thereon, or other like matter, 
and put himself upon Inquest as to the same, and it 
be found against the defendant by verdict of such In- 



^ Le. by jurors. 

- The passage is probably im- 



perfect ; * not completed ' would 
seem to be the meaning. 



46 



LIBEE ALBUS. 



[B. III. 



quest ; stUl, the plaintiff shall recover nothing but that 
which is found clearly due by such Inquest, that is to 
say, the single debt and his damages as taxed by the 
same Inquest. 

And if an obligation in the single is produced, and 
the defendant acknowledges the obligation, and the 
day has expired and the defendant alleges that the 
plaintiff has been paid part of the debt ; then the 
plaintiff, at the request of the defendant, shall be ex- 
amined upon his oath as to how much is in arrear; 
and in such case, the plaintiff shall recover nothing 
beyond what he shall be willing to swear is due and 
in arrear; and his damages shall be taxed by the 
Court. And if, against such obligation made in the 
single, the defendant pleads that it is not his deed, 
and it is found that it is the deed of the defendant ; 
still, the plaintiff shall recover nothing but what is 
found due by the Inquest, and clearly in arrear, and his 
damages as taxed by the same Inquest. And the defen- 
dant in such case shall pay a fine for contradicting his 
own deed ; and in the other cases he shall be ^ amerced^ 



F.190 b. Of an Obligation 'on certain Conditions! Page 212. 

Item, where an obligation is made for payment of a 
certain sum upon divers conditions to be performed, 
by endorsement or by indentures made thereon, and 
plaint is made thereupon, and the parties are at traverse 
and at issue upon some especial condition broken ; and 
it is found by Inquest, on wager of the parties, against 
the defendant, to the effect that he is so bound and 
that he has broken the said condition ; still, the plaintiff 
shall not recover the whole sum named in such obliga- 



^ I,e, pay a more moderate sum 
than that exacted for contradictiDg 



his own deed; amercements being 
on a more moderate scale than fines. 



A 



PTI.] ABSCOKDING DEBTORS, 47 

tion, but he shall recover such damages as he has sus- 
tained by reason of such condition being broken ; and his 
damages shall be taxed by the same Inquest, and the 
obligation shall bo saved to him, that he may avail 
himself of the other conditions thereafter. But as to 
this custom some are in doubt. 

Of an Acquittance alleged to be in distant parts. I'.ioo.b. 

Page 212. 

Item, if an obligation of debt is produced and the 
defendant alleges that he has an aquittance or inden- 
tures, or other matter under seal of the plaintiff, which 
would avail him and discharge him as against the 
plaintiff, if he had the same ready in hand ; and further 
says, that the said muniments are in a foreign county P.iDi.a, 
and out of the City, and is ready to make oath as to 
the same; then the said defendant, after such oath 
made, shall have a day assigned by the Court to have 
ready his said muniments under seal at a certain Court 
thereafter, according to the distance from such place, 
and for this shall find sureties at his peril ; so that, if 
he appears on the said day given and produces the same 
deed under seal, [the existence of] which he alleged, 
he shall then be admitted to plead and to take his 
advantages by virtue of the same deed: and if he 
makes default on such day, or if he fails as to that which 
he has alleged, then he shall be condemned in the 
amount of the said obligation^ and damages shall be 
taxed by the Court; saving always, that the* plaintiff 
or his attorney shall be examined as to [the amount 
of] the debt. 

Of Absconding [Debtors']. Page 213. F.m.a. 

Item, if plaint of debt is made against a freeman 
and one resident within the City, where by law of the 
City he would have one summons by reason of his 



F. 191. a. 



48 IIBEK ALBX;S. [b. IIL 

freedom ; if the plainfciif comes to the Sheriff, and has 
brouglit with him six or four freemen of the said city, 
and men of credit, who are willing to bear witness 
that the defendant is absconding, and that he wishes 
to withdraw and absent himself; then the said Sheriff, 
upon their testimony, may arrest the defendant by his 
body or by his goods, just the same as a foreigner. 



* Replegiare. Page 2 1 3. 

Item, the Sheriffs may hold before them pleas of 
seizure of naams in lieu of Re^jlegiare, and avowry 
may be made and return awarded in such pleas, the 
same as in the Hustings, if the cause does not bear 
reference to a freehold. And such suit is called "^De 
" placito captionis et deteniionis catallorum /' and 
pledges shall be found to make return of the goods or 
of the value thereof, just as in Replegiare, 

Item, it is the usage in such personal actions before 
the Sheriffs, that upon the first day, when both parties 
appear and the plaintiff has declared against the defen- 
dant, the same defendant shall make answer upon the 
same day, without having any further day to imparl : 
and in the same manner, if the defendant pleads any 
plea or alleges any matter against the plaintiff, the 
same plaintiff shall make replication forthwith, without 
having any further day to imparl; unless assent be 
given by the parties. 

Item, if any customs or usages are pleaded or alleged 
in the Sheriffs' Courts, as to which neither the Sheriffs 
nor their oificers are fully informed, then such customs 
and usages shall be discussed by the Mayor and Alder- 
men, and that, before judgment given thereupon. 



' This title, it will be seen, is 
liardly correct. As to naams, see 
the Glossary, s.v. ^Neyme,' 



^ * Upon plea of seizure and de- 



( 



tention of chaltels/ 



Pri.] KECOGNIZANCES TAKEN BY THE SHERIFFS. 49 

And be it made known, that there is no adjournment 
made in the Sheriffs* Court, and no day given by pre- 
vious notice; but only that the parties are to keep 
their day at the next Court generally, unless such be 
not the case for some especial cause. 

Item, actions of debt are maintainable by usage 
upon simple grants, and assignments, and bailment, 
and covenant, made simply without specialty. 

Of a Sealed Tally, Page 214. F.i9i.a; 

Item, a sealed tally of debt by usage of the City is 
as binding as an ' obligation ; and in cases where plaint 
of debt is made, and such sealed tally is proffered in 
proof of the debt, the defendant shall not have his 
law in proof that he owes nothing, or any other matter, 
any more than against an obligation ; still, he shall 
be at liberty to assert that the day of payment is 
other than the plaintiff has declared. 

Of Recognizances to be taken by the Sheriffs. f. iri.a. 

Page 215. 

Item, the Sheriffs of London are wont, and each of 
them by himself, to take recognizances of debt in 
their Courts as to any sum whatever ; and if the day 
of payment is expired and the money not paid, then, 
at the suit of him to whom the recognizance was 
made, if it be within the year, all the goods and chattels 
of the recognizor found within the City shall be ap- 
praised and delivered to such other party, up to the 
amount of the debt contained in the said recognizance, 
without ^extending any land of the recognizor. And F.i9i.b. 
if the year be expired, then Scire facias shall be issued 



' Or bond. | purpose of satisfying the plaintiff 

^ Le, valuing his lands, for the | therefrom. 

VOL. III. D 



50 



LIBER ALBTJS. 



[B. III. 



against the recognizor, to appear if he knows aught to 
say why execution shall not be made of his goods, as 
is already mentioned. 

F.ioi.b. Of Custody of Prisoners condemned. Page 215. 

Item, the Sheriffs may, by usage, keep any prisoners 
condemned before them, or committed to their keeping, 
[confined] as well at their houses where they are residing, 
and at their Compters, as in the common gaols; so 
that they be always kept in safeguard, and not going 
at large from out of the houses or of the Compters 
aforesaid. 

p. 191,11). Of Pleas between Merchant and Merchant Page 215. 

Item, in plaints of debt and account, and other 
personal contracts made between merchant and mer- 
chant, if the plaintiff declares that the defendant at 
any market-town, or at any place of merchandize within 
the realm, bargained for or bought of the same plaintiff 
any merchandize, or received his money for the pur- 
pose of paying him, deUvering, or rendering to him to 
account thereof, in any place within the City of London ; 
in such case, the defendant, according to usage, shall be 
put to his answer, notwithstanding that such contract 
was made out of the City ; and if the parties are at 
traverse and plead for issue thereon by Inquisition, 
then shall the Inquest be taken from people of the 
said city, that is to say, from merchants passing be- 
tween the said city and the market-town where such 
contract is alleged [to have been made] ; to the 
intent that such merchants who are so passing may 
have ^notice of the said contract. 



^ The word * notice ' may possibly 
mean ' previous knowledge ;' or it 
may mean, * notice * for the purpose 



of putting the merchants on their 
guard. 



Pri.] OF ABSCONDIKG BEBTOES. 61 

Of the same. Page 216. p. m.b. 

Item, the Sheriffs of London have been wont for 
all time to hold pleas before them between any mer- 
chants whomsoever, in cases where both parties are 
merchants, as to all bargains and personal contracts 
that concern merchandize, made beyond sea at any 
market-town or at any place of merchandize, where 
such bargains and contracts are made by express words 
as to payments for, or delivery of, merchandize, or as 
to rendering account in the said City of London. 
And in such case, if the parties have recourse to issue 
by Inquisition, then shall the Inquest be taken from 
persons residing within the said City, that is to say, 
from merchants passing to and fro, who are wont to 
pass beyond sea ; who may best have knowledge of 
the bargains and contracts aforesaid. And if any 
merchant-stranger and alien is a party to the plea, 
and such Inquisition has to be taken, then the alien 
merchant shall have a moiety of the Inquest of his 
own tongue. 

Of \a DehtoT\ withdrawing himself from the Gity. r* i9i. h. 

Page 216. 

Item, if a plaint of debt is made, and it is testified 
by the officer that the defendant is not residing within 
the City, but that he has withdrawn himself and has 
removed his goods, and it is testified that he has 
lands or tenements within the said city ; then, at the 
suit of the plaintiff, after the fourth default, the same 
lands and tenements, by usage of the City, shall be 
'extended and delivered to the said plaintifi^, to hold 
the same upon the same extent until he shall have levied 
therefrom the monies that are due to him ; he finding 



* Zc. valued. 

D 2 



52 LIBER ALBTJS. [B. III. 

security duly to maintain the tenements, and also to 
repay the defendant the monies received therefrom in 
the meantime ; if so be that the same defendant shall 
come into a Court of Record within a year and a day 
after delivery made, and be able to discharge him- 
self [by shewing] that he owes nothing to the 
plaintiff. 

F.i9i.b. Of Examination in a Personal Plea, Page 217. 

Item, the Sheriffs are wont to examine the parties in 
all personal actions that are pending before them, if 
either of the parties prays the same, and to proceed to 
judgment according to what has been found upon such 
examination. 

Item, where any personal action is pending before 
either of the said Sheriffs, and any matter is alleged 
by the defendant in bar of the action, or any material 
thing to delay the plaintiff, and the plaintiff puts 
himself upon the peremptory oath of the defendant, 
[in proof] that the plea or exception presented by the 
F.i92.a. same defendant is not true; then the said defen- 
dant, if he is in Court, or if he is resident in the City 
so as conveniently to appear at the discretion of the 
Court, shall be put upon his oath, if he will, that his 
plea or exception so made is good and true. And if 
he aj)pears and refuses to make such oath, then he shall 
be held as though convicted in the cause ; and upon 
this, the plaintiff shall recover what is in demand 
according to what shall be ascertained by examination 
of such plaintiff, or by Inquest of office if need be. 
And if [the defendant] makes the oath, the plaintiff 
shall be cast in his suit. 

And in the same manner shall the plaintiff be cast 
in his suit or in his action, if he will not swear 
on his part that his suit, or such other matter 
as is alleged by him, is good and true. And if such 
oath is put to the plaintiff, and the plaintiff makes the 



PH.] ACTION OJF ACCOUKT. 53 

oath, he shall recover by such oath, if the exception 
be material. And thus are such oaths peremptory on 
the one side and on the other, according to the matter 
in the exceptions. 

Of Default made after Mainprise. Page 218. F.i92.a. 

Item, if a man is arrested upon plamt of debt or 
for other personal action, and he finds mainprise to be 
ready to appear before the Sheriffs at the next Court, 
to make answer to the [other] party ; even if at such 
Court the defendant is demanded at the proper time to 
appear and save his mainprise, and he makes default, 
and such default is recorded; still, if the same de- 
fendant appears [at last], while the same Court is 
sitting, he shall be admitted to plead ; save that, in 
such case he has lost the advantage of waging his law, 
even though he might have had his wager of law had 
he appeared in due time. 

Note here — Of the Amendnfient of Bills. Page 218. iM33.a. 

Item, where the parties appear in the Sheriffs' Court, 
it is the usage that the plaintiffs may amend their 
plaints and their bills at any time before the same 
parties are at issue, or have pleaded for judgment, in 
[such] Court of Eecord. 

Action of Account Page 218, F.ios.a. 

Item, in an action of account before the Sheriffs, the 
plaintiff, by usage of the City, may not declare in any 
case that the defendant was his bailee, but that he was 
receiver of his monies or of li^s goods. 

Item, an action of account is maintainable by usage 
against a single woman, and against infants under ago, 
if they are merchants or if they keep common shops 
for trade or for merchandize ; as also actions of debt, 
in the same manner, as to that which concerns their 
trading or their merchandize, 



54 LIBER ALBTO. [B. III. 

F. 192. a. 0/ Plaints removed out of the Sheriffs' Court 

Page 219. 

Item, where pleas are pending before the Sheriffs, it 
has been the usage for all time, that the Mayor of 
London, for the time being, may send unto the Sheriffs 
to cause the suit and process to be brought before 
himself and the Aldermen, in order to determine and 
discuss the same suit before them ; or may remand the 
said suit before the same Sheriffs, that procedure may 
be continued according as the Mayor and Aldermen 
shall see proper to do ; ^ or he may command the 
Sheriffs to surcease the same at their own pleasure. 

p,i92.a. How that the Debtor may be arrested before the day 

contained in the Obligation, or for House-hire. 
Page 219. 

Item, when a debtor is bound within the said city 
by an obligation to pay a certain sum on a certain 
day to come, the which debtor was held to be suffi- 
cient at the time when he entered into such obligation, 
and has since become a runaway or non-sufficient : then, 
if the creditor comes before the Mayor or Sheriffs of 
the said city, making suggestion to such effect, and 
brings with him six or four trustworthy persons of the 
same city, who are ready lawfully to testify that the 
debtor wishes to withdraw himself and to remove his 
goods from the City, or that he is not of ability to 
make payment ; then the Mayor or one of the Sheriffs, 
before whom the suggestion is made, is wont to arrest 
the debtor, even though the day contained in the obli- 
gation have not arrived, and to detain the same debtor 
F.i92.b. in prison, until such day of payment has arrived, or 
otherwise until he shall find pledges that he will await 

* The word ^et' seems here to have the force of *or.' 



Prr.] LANDLORDS PKEFEBENCE CREDITORS. 55 

such day; as also, to arrest for house-hire before the 
day [on which it is due], if the tenant be about to 
abscond. 

Arrest of a man without a Serjeant, Page 220. r.i92.b. 

Item, if a freeman of the City finds his debtor sud- 
denly within the same city, which debtor has before 
withdrawn himself or is about to abscond, and such 
debtor should wish to escape before the creditor can 
find an oflScer to make the arrest; it is the usage in 
such case that the freeman himself, by aid of his neigh- 
bours, without any officer, may arrest his said debtor 
and bring him to the office of one of the Sheriffs, and 
there make his suit as the law demands. 

Of Amercements, Page 220. i'.i92.b. 

Item, touching the amercements to be taken upon 
plaints made in the Sheriffs' Courts, it is the usage, if 
the demands are for forty shillings or less, to take four 
pence for the amercement ; and if they exceed forty 
shillmgs, it is the usage to take twelve pence for the 
amercement. 

Of Landhrds. Page 220. F.m.b. 

Item, if a renter within the City be absconding or 
have withdrawn himself, for which his goods within his 
house are arrested or appraised at the suit of other 
parties, on plaint ; stiU, the lessor, called the * land- 
' lordsy shall be before all others for rent of his house 
in arrear for two years ; and up to such amount shall 
the goods within the said house be seized in the same 
house on behalf of the said laTidlorde. And even 
though such a renter within the said city commit 
felony or other contempt, for which his goods and chat- 
tels are liable to arrest or forfeiture, still, the lessor, by 
usage of the City, shaU be awarded his rent in arrear 



56 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

for two years, as aforesaid, from the goods found within 
the same house. 

p.i92.b. The notice that TcTiants shall give unto their 

Landlords. Page 221. 

Item, where tenants within the City hold at will, 
and wish to go out and give up possession of their 
houses, they shall give notice to the lessor before their 
departure ; tliat is to say, as to houses that are rented 
for forty shillings and under, notice shall be given one 
quarter before. And if the rent of the bouse exceeds 
forty shillings, the notice shall be given half a year 
before the departure, at peril of the tenant. And 
in the same manner shall notice be given unto the 
tenant, if the lessor wishes to be rid of the tenant. 

F.i92.b. Note here— Of eUctvng execution at peril of the 

Plaintiff. Page 221. 

Item, when a man is condemned at the suit of a 
party in debt or in damages before the Sheriffs, the 
party who has so recovered may elect to have the 
body of him who is condemned committed to prison 
until he shall have made satisfaction, or to have 
execution of his goods, at his own peril. 

F.i92.b. Of receiving Mainpernors and Attoomeys. Page 222. 

Iteni, sureties, and mainpernors, and attorneys, taken 
and received in the Compters of the Sheriffs, and 
other process there duly made, are held of Record as 
much as at the Courts holden in the Guildhall. 

F.i92.b. Of Attorneys entered upmi the Records by the 

Aldermen. Page 222. 

Item, every Alderman of London may by usage 
enter attorneys upon the Records in pleas pending in 
the Sheriffs' Courts and elsewhere, in the Hustings, 
and in the Chamber [of the Guildhall], 



pi I.] CUSTOMS FOR SHOWAGE OF MERCHANDIZE. 57 

Of days given for Inquests, Page 222. f. 102. b. 

Item, when Inquest is joined between parties and 
sworn before the Sheriffs in personal pleas, if the 
parties will assent thereto, the Court by usage may 
give a day unto [the men of] the Inquest, for them to 
advise upon their verdict until such future day, in 
such manner as the parties may agree upon ; and this, 
at peril of the plaintiff, if any juror change his mind 
or other matter arise in the meantime. 

Amercement of Jurors. Page 222. F.i92.b, 

Item, jurors who are summoned upon Inquisition 
are not amerced, even though they make default, in 
more than three pence ; but if they tarry a long time 
and are not willing to appear, the Sheriffs, according 
to usage, may close their doors to constrain them to 
come. 

Inquests of offi.ce not traversable. Page 223. F.m-a. 

Item, Inquests of office that are taken \>y the She- 
riffs, for enquiry into affrays and batteries committed 
against the peace, are by usage not traversable by 
new Inquests ; but at the suit of a party, each party 
shall have his answer, such Inquest of office notwith- 
standing. 

And be it made known, that there are many other 
points and usages touching the Sheriffs' Courts ; 
wherefore no man can have remembrance of them all. 

Of Scavage. Page 223. f. m. a. 

^Herein is contained of what merchandize coming 
into London Scavage ought to be taken on behalf 
of our Lord the King ; and how much ought to 



I ' 



These enactments arc probably of the reign of Edward I. 



68 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. IIL 



be taken for each [kind.] Of which custom one half 
belongs unto the SheriflEs, and the other half to the 
hosts in whose houses the merchants are harboured, 
who bring the merchandize from which the Sca- 
vage arises ; provided always that such hosts be of 
the franchise of the City. And be it made known, 
that Scavage is so called as being a ' shewing ' ; 
because it behoves the merchants that they shew unto 
the Sheriffs the merchandize for which the custom is 
to be taken, before that any of it be sold. And be it 
made known, that as to all wares, for which custom shall 
be taken by the *kark, such kark ought to weigh 
four hundredweight ; grain excepted, the which kark 
shall weigh three hundredweight; and pepper, the 
which kark shall weigh three hundredweight and a 
half 

A kark of grain, of three hundredweight, is the 
only one that shall pay haK a mark ; a kark of alum, 
weighing four hundredweight, shall pay sixteen pence. 



A kark of pepper 
sugar 



\ 



■^ 



» 



yj 



» 



}i 



a 



9f 



i9 



V 



5> 



» 



jy 



» 



}} 



jj 



» 



cummin - 

almonds - 

' brasil 

quicksilver 

ginger 

^ cetewale - 

liquorice - 

1 lake 

spices 

vermilion - 

glass 

figs - 

raisins 

shumac 



o 

a 



X 



A kark of sulphur - 

ivory 
cinnamon - 

incense 

^ pyoine « 

anise 

dates 

chesnuts - 

orpiment - 

olive oil - 



fi 



)> 



)i 



3? 



7) 



>> 



>} 



}} 









y 



» 



V 



)> 



>i 



}f 



3J 



ginger- 
bread - 
rice - 
turpentine 
cotton 
whalebone y 



K 



See the Glossary. 



Pri.] 



SCAVAGE ON FINE GOODS. 



59 



0/ FiTie Goods. Page 224. 

And also, as to fine goods, if they come by the kark 
or half kark, or by the hundredweight or half hun- 
dredweight, according to the amount of the weight, 
twelve pence shall be taken for the kark. And wher- 
ever a person has less than a kark of the other articles 
named, [the kark of] which ought to weigh four 
hundredweight, or than the kark of grain, which ought 
to weigh three hundredweight, or than the kark of 
pepper, which ought to weigh three hundredweight 
and a half, he shall pay a smaller sum, according to 
the quantity of such merchandize. 

The pound of safiron shall pay one halfpenny, the 
half of which custom belongs to the Sheriff, and the 
other half to the host where it is harboured, he being 
a freeman of the City. 

The load of— 
pile - 



p. 193. a. 



The load of— 




mercery - 


» 


wool of Spain 


» 


^ wadmal 


f> 


canvas - 


y> 


cloths a.nd caps 


}} 


marten-skins - 


» 


coney-skins 


)> 


fur trimmings 


77 


woolfels - 


» 


linen cloth 


>y 


fustian - 


J> 


felt 


33 


^ lyinere - 



\ 



N 



>J 



;> 



}) 



9 



X 



/ 



;? 



jj 



>> 



kersey 

^ hapertas - 

raw textures and 
other articles 
coming from 
' Linoges 

squirrel-skins of 
Spain 

^ parmentery 

shalloons and 
cloths of ^Kejms 
cloths of silk - 



g 

P4 



X 



y 



Of the same. Page 225. 

And he who has less than one load, shall pay ac- 
cording to the quantity of the thing. A pound of 
silk shall pay one penny; a dozen of ^cordwain shall 



K 193. b. 



P.193.b. 



' See the Glossary. 



60 . LIBEK ALBUS. [b. III. 

pay two pence ; a dozen of basil shall pay one penny- 
And be it remembered, that it is only for merchandize 
coming from beyond sea that the aforesaid Scavage 
ought to be taken : but for the articles of merchandize 
here-under written, nothing ought to be taken, for 
the reason aforesaid ; wax, for example, ^ argoil, copper, 
tin, ^grey-work, and other articles of merchandize 
which the merchants of Almaine bring, provided thej'' 
do not bring those above- written ; that is to say, those 
which owe Scavage, as is before noticed. And be it 
made known, that Scavage ought to be taken for 
such articles of merchandize as come into the City by 
merchants ^who owe custom. 



T'.m.b. Of Pesage, Page 226. 

Unto Pesage it pertaineth, that each article of mer- 
chandize that shall be sold by weight, when brought into 
the City by merchant- strangers, and sold in gross by 
the hundredweight or by half hundredweight, ought to 
be weighed by the King's beam ; in which case, the 
buyer shall pay unto the Sheriffs, for one hundred- 
weight weighed, one halfpenny ; and for several hun- 
dredweight weighed he shall pay no more, up to a 
thousand- weight, and then for such thousand- weight he 
shall pay one penny ; and for eleven hundredweight he 
shall pay three halfpence, and no more up to two 
thousand- weight ; and then, for such two thousand- 
weight weighed he shall pay two pence, and so on. 
And be it made known, that the buyer shall always at 
his own cost cause the King s beam and weights to bo 
brouojht to the house where the vendor is harboured ; 
so that the vendor shall pay nothing to ?ary one by 
reason aforesaid. 



* See the Glossary. [ ^Foreigii mei'chants not privi- 

^ See the Glossary s.v, * Gi^ys overc' ! Ieged,aiid those not free of the City. 



2 



; 



J 



ptl] custom payable for tronage. 61 

Of Tronage. Page 226. ^•^^3•^• 

Unto Tronage pertain those things which are weighed 
by the King's tron, as also many things that are not 
v/eighed at all (that is to say, the custom due upon 
wine, woad, and other things) : thus, for a sack of wool, 
three weys in weight, going out of London to the 
parts beyond sea, by merchants who owe custom, the 
Sheriff ought to have eleven pence [for Tronage] ; and 
if there is more wool contained in such sack than three 
weys and a half, or four weys, the Sheriff shall take 
for it for the sack no more than eleven pence. And if the 
merchant has several sacks of the said weight going out 
of the City, the Sheriff shall take for the first sack eleven 
pence, and for each of the others ten pence. For a 
sack of two weys going out of the City by merchants 
who are liable to custom, the Sheriff shall receive six 
jjence. And if the merchant has several [such] sacks, 
then he shall take for the first sack six pence in manner 
aforesaid, and for each of the others five pence ; and 
if in a sack there is contained more than two weys, he 
shall take no more, unless it contain twelve cloves. 
But if it contains more than twelve cloves, then the 
Sheriff shall take for it as much as for a sack of three 
weys, that is to say, eleven pence. And be it made 
known, that ^ worsted in sacks owes the Sheriff nothing, 
except in manner aforesaid; that is to say, if in a 
sack of two weys the worsted weighs more than twelve 
cloves, then he shall take for the same eleven pence, in 
manner as is before stated. 

Of the Weighing of Wool, Page 227. f. 194. a. 

The merchant may lawfully make his election not to 
weigh with the King's tron, if he pleases, and [in such 
case] he shall pay no more than has been stated. And 



^ This is perhaps the meaning of * cruturenne j* though in no other instance 
has the word been met with. 



62 LIBER ALBXTS. [B. III. 

if his wool has not been [so] weighed, he shall not pay- 
less than the custom aforesaid. 

Ri94.a. Of the Sale of Wool, Page 227. 

For wool that is to be sold in the City, even 
though it be brought by merchants who are liable to 
custom, [the Sheriff] ought not to have Tronage ; nor ) 

yet for lead, or for lard, or for other things that shall 
be weighed by tron. Bat at the will of the vendor 
and the buyer, they may be weighed by the other trons 
in the seld, and by whichever tron they may please. 

For each tun of wine coming into the City by 
merchants who owe custom, the Sheriff takes two 
pence. 

For each quarter of woad going out of the City, 
the Sheriff takes one halfpenny ; which thing [how- 
ever] does not pertain unto Tronage. 

V. m. a. Of Woad. Page 228. 

It should also be known, that in ancient times no 
woad used to be harboured in the City, but all was 
sold in the vessels. In times that are [long] past, 
the merchants harboured their woad, renting the ware- 
houses by leave of the Sheriffs. After this, in the 
time when Andrew Bokerelle was Mayor, by assent of 
the greatest persons of the City, the merchants of 
^Amias, of Nele, and of Corby, obtained a letter sealed 
with the Common Seal of the City, by which it was 
granted unto them that they might at all times, and 
whenever they might please, harbour their woad, and 
for the same should pay unto the Mayor fifty marks 
sterling per a/mium ; that is to say, at the Fair of Saint 
Ives 25 marks, and at the Fair of Wyncestre 25 marks. 
And at a stiU later period, they were to pay one 
hali^enny for each quarter of woad, as is before stated. 

' Amiens ; these places are in j sively exported to this country, 
Picardy, whence woad vas exten- I packed in large osier frails. 



ptl] eekt paid by the people of cologne. 63 

Of the Custom of the Merchants of Normandy. ^- 1^*- a. 

Page 228. 

The merchants of Normandy pay ii fine unto the 
Sheriffs for leave to harbour their woad. But never- 
theless, it was provided at the ^tirne when Thomas 
Fitz-Thomas and Matthew Bokerelle were Sheriffs, — 
when they were making outrageous demands upon the 
merchants for the said leave, — ^that from thenceforth 
they should pay unto the Sheriffs seven shillings for 
each frail, for leave to harbour ; and at a still later 
period, one halfyenny for custom, as is before stated. 

Of Vessels with ^bulwarks. Page 229. F.i94,.a 

From every vessel with bulwarks that anchors in 
the Thames, the Sheriff takes two pence; and even 
though she should anchor in several places, he shall 
take no more, if it so happen that she does not anchor 
within the limits of Queen-Hythe. And in such case, 
[the vessel] shall pay unto the Warden of that hythe 
two pence for custom. 

For the rent of the Cemetery that is called the 
' New Cemetery,' the person who collects Scavage takes 
one mark per annum to the use of the Sheriffs, at 
the four terms of the year. 

[OfthefeTTKh of the people of Cologne.^ Page 229. F.i94.a. 

For the ferm of the people of Cologne, that is to 
say, for the Hall of the Deneis, forty shillings are 
received per annum; at Easter and at the Feast 
[of Saint Michael], that is to say, for holding their 
own Court and having their own attachments in their 
Court, without aid of the Sheriffs. 



' A.D. 1257. I 'hocscip (or *high ship,*) of Flan- 

2 The same, no doubt, as the | ders,' mentioned in folio 220. b. 



64. 



LCBER ALBUS. 



[b, hi. 



F. 194. a. 



^ Here ai^e notified the customs that were wont to 
be taken for things coming into London or going out 
therefrom for sale ; as by the citizens, at the command 
of our Lord the King, was presented unto the Barons 
of the Exchequer, while the City was in the King's 
hands, after the disturbance of the realm that took 
place in the time of Sir Symon de Mountforde, Earl 
of Leycestre. 

Of Gnstoms payable in the City. Of Scavage. 

Page 230. 



This is the Inquisition made in the City of London, 
by the citizens of the same city, as to the prises and 
customs which the King ought to take from the mer- 
chants and merchandize entering and going forth from 
the same city ; that is to say, from those who owe 
custom. — 

The kark of grain that weighs three hundredweight, 
owes for Scavage forty pence. 

The kark of pepper that weighs three hundredweiglit 
and a half, six pence. 

The kark of alum that weighs four hundredweight, 
eight pence. 
i?.i94.b. The kark of sugar, cummin, almonds, brasil, quick- 
silver, ginger, cetewal, lake, liquorice, small spices (such 
as cloves, mace, cubebs, [and] nutmegs), vermilion, glass, 
figs, raisins, shumac, sulphur, ivory, cinnamon, ginger- 
bread, rice, turpentine, cotton, whalebone, frankincense, 
^pioine, anise, dates, chesnuts, orpiment, olive oil, and 
other kinds of avoir-du-poise, the kark of which ought 
to weigh four hundredweight, owes for Scavage six 
pence. And if there is less than one kark, then 



^ This list of customs closely re- 
sembles that already given ; -which 
is probably of the time of Edward I., 



■while this is of about A.D. 126C, or 
50 Henry IIL 
2 See the Glossary. 



•* 



PTI.] CUSTOMS LEVIED UPON VICTUALS. 65 

according to the quantity of the thing, down to the 
fourth part [of one kark] ; that is to say, for the half 
kark three pence, and for the fourth part one penny 
hal^enny. The same custom the King takes for fine 
wares that pertain unto spicery, as also for small seeds, 
according to the amount of the weight, and for confec- 
tures of spicery. 

Tlie charges upon Wool of Spain and Haberdasherie. F,i94.b. 

Page 230. 

The fixed charge upon wool of Spain, wadmal, mer- 
cery, canvas, marten-skins, coney-skins, woolfels, linen 
cloth, fustian, felt, ' lymere, pile, ' haberdassherie, squirrel- 
.skins, ^parmentery, shalloons, cloth of ' Eeynes and cloths 
of silk, and upon other things that pay custom at a 
fixed rate, is six pence ; and the half of such fixed 
charge three pence ; and the fourth part of the fixed 
charge one penny halfpenny. 

The dozen of cordwain [pays] one penny, the dozen 
of ^ godelnjynges one penny, the dozen of basil one 
lialfpenny, the pound of silk one halfpenny, the pound 
of saffron one farthing. And be it made known, that 
this custom is only taken for wares that come from 
beyond sea; wax, 'a.rgoil, copper, tin, [and] grey-work, 
owe no custom, if they do not pass beyond Thames 
Street towards the North. And if such does pass, it 
shall pay a fixed charge of six pence, and for the half 
of such fixed charge three pence, and for the fourth part 
of such fixed charge one penny halfpenny. 

Of the Custmns payable upon Victuals. Page 231. F.i94.b. 

The customs that pertain unto the small -trades in 
the market of London. — Every load of poultry that 
comes upon horse, shall pay three farthings, the franchise 



' See the Glossary, bread, poultry, and the like. 

* Those bearing reference to 

VOL. iir. E 



66 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[b. til 



^excepted. Every man who brings cheese or poultry, 
if the same amounts to four pence halfpenny, shall pay 
one halfpenny, the franchise excepted. If a man on 
foot brings one hundred eggs or more, he shall give 
five eggs, the franchise excepted. If a man or woman 
brings any manner of poultry upon horse, and lets it 
touch the ground, such person shall pay for stallage 
three farthings. And if a man carries it upon his back 
and places it upon the ground, he shall pay one half- 
penny, of whatever franchise he may be. 

Every basket of bread shall pay one halfpenny per 
day. The basket of bread of the baker who brings it 
towards the West of Walbrok, entering the market on 
a Sunday, shall pay three hal^ence, and upon other 
days but one hal^enny. Every foreign butcher who 
sells flesh in the market, shall pay upon Sunday one 
penny for stallage. 

Every cart that brings corn into the City for sale, 
shall pay one halfpenny; and if it enters by way of 
Holburne or by the ^ Flete, it shall pay one penny, the 
franchise excepted. Every man who brings corn upon 
horse, whether it be a quarter or half quarter, and places 
it upon the ground, shall pay one farthing, of whatever 
franchise he may be. And if he is a freeman, and sells 
the same on his horse, he shall pay nothing. Every cart 
of ^Bremble or of ^Stevenhethe that comes into the City 
with bread, shall pay each day one halfpenny. A cart 
that brings bread into the City from another town, shall 
pay each day one halfpenny or a loaf, of whatever fran- 
chise [the owner] may be. A cart that brings earthen pots 
shall pay one halfpenny, of whatever fi'anchise [the owner] 
may be. A cart that brings charcoal for sale, shall pay 
^ [one farthing] where such charcoal is sold, of whatever 



' /.e. freemen of the City ex- 
cepted. 

^ Xe. over Meet Bridge, at the 
end of Fleet Street. 



* The present Bromley, near 
Stratford, in Essex. 

* Stepney. 

^ Supplied from Liber Horn. 



PTI.] CUSTOMS LEVIEB IN SMYTIIFELDE. 67 

franchise [the owner] may be. A cart that brings wood 
of alder for sale, shall pay one halfpenny, A cart that 
brings timber, with the bark or without the bark, 
squared oak timber excepted (which shall give nothing), 
shall pay one hal:^enny. A cart that brings boards for 
sale, if it brings a quarter of a hundred or more, shall 
give one board ; and if it brings less than a quarter 
of a hundred, it shall give nothing. The cart that 
brings planks of oak, shall give one plank ; and if it 
brings planks of beech, it shall give one halfpenny and 
one plank. The cart that brings nuts or cheese shall P. 195. a. 
pay two pence ; and if it enters by the Flete or by 
Holebum, it shall pay two pence halfpenny. 

The cart that brings fish or poultry into Westchepe, 
shall pay two pence. The hired cart that comes into 
the City with wool, or hides, or other merchandize, 
shall pay two pence. And if it enters by Holburne, or 
by the Flete, or by ^Allgate, it shall pay two pence 
halfpenny. For every dead Jew buried in London, 
three pence halfpenny. For every cart that brings bark, 
one halfpenny ; and if it enters by Holburne or by the 
Flete, it shall pay nothing. Every cart that brings 
leeks in Lent, shall pay one halfpenny and one fesselet of 
leeks. The cart that carries woad out of the City, if 
it carries four quarters or more, shall pay seven pence 
halfpenny; and if less, for each quarter it shall pay 
one penny. The cart that brings melwels, herrings, or 
other manner of fish, shall pay one halfpenny for such 
cart. If a man or woman brings bread for sale from 
Saint Alban^ of the value of four pence halfpenny, such 
person shall pay one farthing. 

The Customs of Smythfelde, Page 233. f. 195. a. 

These are the customs of Smythefelde. — For every 
cow or ox sold that is fuU grown, one penny, the fran- 
chise excepted. For every dozen of sheep, one penny ; 

* Aldersgate is probably meant here, and not Aldgate* 

E 2 



68 



LIBER ALBUS, 



[B. III. 



and if there are less, one halfpenny ; and if there is 
one only, one halfpenny. If foreign dealers bring 
oxen, cows, sheep, or swine, between the Feast of Saint 
Marfcin [11 November] and Christmas, they shall give 
to the bailiff the third best beast after the first two 
best ; or else they must make satisfaction to the bailiff 
before they enter the County of Middlesex. And if 
the bailiff takes an ox or cow for ^ Scavage upon the 
field, of the value of one mark or more, such bailiff is 
bound to return forty pence for the hide. If a foreign 
dealei' brings lean swine for sale between Hokeday 
and the Feast of Saint Michael, he shall give unto 
the bailiff the third best pig after the first two best, 
unless he make fine unto the bailiff in the sum of six 
pence or twelve pence. 

p. 195. a. The Customs of the Bridge. Page 234. 

These are the customs of the Bridge. — ^The vessel that 
brings melwels, without any other fish, shall give two 
melwels, the franchise excepted. The vessel that comes 
with melwels together with rays, shall give one melwel 
and one ray, the franchise excepted. The vessel that 
comes with herrings, fresh or salted, shall give one hun- 
dred herrings, the franchise excepted. The vessel with 
bulwarks that anchors in the Thames, shall pay two pence 
for strandage,the franchise excepted. The vessel that 
brings sea-bass, conger, -[dory], surmullet, turbot, shad, 
[or] eels, shall pay no custom, beyond two pence for 
the ship, for strandage. The vessel with ^ bails that 
anchors in the Thames, shall pay one penny, the fran- 
chise excepted. The vessel that brings mackerel, shall 
give six-and-twenty mackerel, the franchise excepted. 
The same custom the bailiff takes for the vessel that 
brings *merliDg or haddock. The boat that brings five 



} 



^ I.e. showage. 

2 Inserted from Liber Horn and 
Liber Citstumarum. 



' Hoops nailed to the sides, for 
supporting a tilt or awning. 
'' Sea-ling. 



Pri.] 



CUSTOMS LEVIED AT LONDON BRIDGE. 



69 



panniers of whelks, shall give one pannier and one half- 
penny, the franchise excepted. ^The same custom the 
bailiif takes for the vessel that brings merling ; and if 
it brings more, it thall pay no more. If a boat be- 
longing to a foreigner brings merling, mackerel, or 
haddock, and the fish belongs to a freeman of the City, 
it shall pay no custom, except one halfpenny for the 
boat, for strandage. And if the fish belongs to a 
foreigner, the bailiff shall take six-and-twenty fish, 
and for the boat one halfpenny. And if one half of 
the fish belongs to a foreigner, he shall pay but one 
half of the custom. 

The boat that is rowed with tholes that comes to Ois- 
tergate, shall pay one halfpenny, the franchise excepted. 
The boat rowed with ^ oarlocks that comes to Oistergate, 
shall pay one penny ; and if one half of the boat be- 
longs to a jfreeman of the City, and the other half to 
a foreigner, the foreigner shall pay one half of the cus- 
tom, that is to say, one halfpenny. If a strange man 
buys melwels in the City, and carries them out thereof 
for resale, he shall pay for one hundred two pence, a;nd r.ios.b. 
for half a hundred one penny, and for a quarter of a 
hundred one halfpenny, the franchise excepted. If a 
strange 'man buys white herrings in the City, or red 
herrings, he shall pay for the thousand of white herrings 
one hal^enny ; and for a thousand of the others, one 
farthing. Dealers who bring fish into the City by land 
on horse, shall give for each dorser one fish, and one 
halfpenny for the horse, melwels and ray excepted. 
Strange dealers [who] buy fish in the City and carry 
it out of the City for resale, shall pay upon each 
horse-load one farthing for the horse. If a cart brings 
into the City salmon belonging to a foreigner, the 
bailiff shall take one salmon, the second best, for cus- 
tom, and two pence for the cart. And if the salmon 



* !From this word down to ' mer- 
* ling/ is probably inserted by inad- 
vertence. 



2 Or * rowlocks,* as they are now 
called. 



70 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

belongs to a freeman of the City, the bailiff shall take 
nothing for the fish, but only two pence for the cart. 
The cart that brings white or red herrings into the City, 
shall give five herrings, and two pence for the cart, the 
franchise excepted. The cart that brings mackerel, shall 
give five mackerel, and two pence for the cart, the 
franchise excepted. And after the same manner, the 
bailiff takes for merling that comes by cart. The cart 
that brings melwels, shall give one melwel, and two 
pence for the cart, the franchise excepted. ^After the 
same manner the bailiff takes for merling that comes 
by cart. The cart that brings eels, shall pay two pence, 
and nothing for the fish. 

Where a horse brings apples or pears, or other manner 
of fruit, there shall be paid one halfpenny for the horse. 
The cart that brings other manner of fi:uit, shall pay 
one halfpenny for the cart. 



p.i95.b. Fees of the Bailiff of the Bridge. Page 236. 

As his fee for a ^man the bailiff takes nothing. 
For every boat that brings sprats, if the boat is not 
of the franchise of London, the bailiff shall have one 
tandel of sprats, and for the boat one farthing. The 
vessel that brings dabs, shall give six-and-twenty dabs 
for each hundred ; and if it brings less, it shall give 
nothing, and if it brings more, it shall give no more 
than ^ [one hundred dabs]. A porpoise owes one penny, 
and if it is cut up for selling by retail, the bailiff 
shall have the ^chawdron, and the tail, and the three 
fins. For the vessel that brings conger, the bailiff 
shall take the best, and the second best for his money. 



^ This passage is probably in- 
serted by mistake. See a similar 
error noticed in Kote 1 in the pre- 
ceding page. 



'^ Carrying provisions. 
^ Supplied from Liber Horn. 
The entrails. 



4 



PH.] CUSTOMS LEVIED AT BILLYNGESGATE/ 7l 

according to the price set thereon upon sale. And if 
[the owner] is of the Cinque Ports, he shall give nothing. 
The vessel of Scotland that brings salmon, shall give two 
salmon. And if it brings salmon and melwels, it shall 
give one salmon and one melwel ; and if salmon and 
haddock, one salmon and thirteen haddocks; and for 
the vessel two pence. The first vessel that comes from 
^ Gernemue with white herrings, that owes full custom, 
shall give two hundred herrings ; and every other ves- 
sel that shall come afterwards, shall give one hundred 
herrings, the franchise excepted. 

The Customs of Billyngesgate. Page 287. Kigs-b. 

Every great vessel that grounds, shall pay two pence 
for strandage. For a small vessel with oarlocks that 
grounds, one penny. For a boat that gromids, one 
halfpenny. For two quarters of corn, measured by the 
King's quarter, one farthing, For one coomb of com 
that comes by water, one penny. For every quarter 
of woad going out of the City by water, one half- 
penny. For two quarters of sea-coal, measured by the 
King's quarter, one farthing. For every tun of ale 
going to the ports beyond sea by merchant-strangers, 
four pence. For every thousand of herrings entering 
and going away by strangers, one farthing, the franchise 
excepted. If a stranger carries melwels out of the 
City, he shall pay two pence upon each hundred. If 
a merchant-stranger exports butter, tallow, or lard, be- 
yond sea, he shaU give for the first wey three pence 
halfpenny, and for each other wey one halfpenny. For 
every wey of cheese exported by a stranger, four pence. 
For every last of leather going forth by a stranger, twelve 
pence. For the ^ dacre of leather going forth, two pence. 
For nonpareil leather going forth, one halfpenny. For p.i96.a. 
every ^ trussel of leather tied with cords, four pence. 

^ Yarmouth, in Norfolk. | ^ See the Glossary. 



72 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. III. 



For every trussel tied with cords, of whatever mer- 
chandize it may be, great or small, four pence. For 
every trussel of cloth going beyond sea by a stranger, 
small or large, four pence. For ^ harpoys and ^ fysshe- 
ponde, one penny farthing. For a ^ coda of sulphur, one 
penny farthing. For every tun of wine that owes 
custom, entering and going forth, two pence. For every 
ton of honey that ow^es custom, twelve pence. For 
every [vessel] that brings nuts, four pence. For a 
single ship's ^ store [four pence.] [For] a kark of nuts, 
four pence. For every ^ karre of lead going forth by 
a stranger, four pence. For eveiy hundredweight of 
iron, entering and going beyond sea by a stranger, 
one farthing. For every two quarters of onions en- 
tering by a stranger, one farthing. For every hundred 
bunches of garlic, one halfpenny. For every last of 
clay and Spotters earth entering and going forth by "a 
stranger, three pence. For every last of barrelled her- 
rings [exported] by a stranger, three pence. For every 
hundred of boards called ' weyjiscotte/ one halfpenny. 
For every hundred of boards called ^ ' Kyghholt/ one 
penny. For one ton of flax entering and going forth by 
a stranger, four pence ; and if there is less than a ton, 
two pence. For flax that comes in bundles, for every 
dozen one penny. For every wey of feathers [imported] 
by a stranger, two pence. For horses and other beasts 
going forth by a stranger, four pence per head. For a 
barrel of litmus [imported] by a stranger, one farthing. 
For one hundred stockfish coming from *Pruz, one 
fcirthing. For ® pottery coming, that is to say, tu- 
reens, pipkins, patens, earthen pots, and for other small 



* See the Glossary. 

2 The meaning of these words — 
** De un soul garner en une nief'^ — 
seems to be doubtful ; ^garner * may 
possibly mean a hold for storing 
grain. 



^ The word is 'pud/ evidently ab- 
breviated. Its meaning is doubtful. 
^ * Wood of Riga.' 
^ Prussia. 
« See the Glossary, s.v, * VcdatiV 



pi I.] 



CUSTOMS PAYABLE FOR TKONAGE. 



73 



articles entering or going forth beyond sea, not above- 
written, the said bailiff shall take nothing. 

Item, it is ordered that no waterman carrying per- 
sons from Billyngesgate to Gravesende, or back again 
to Billynggate, shall take more than two pence for one 
person* 

Of Boats bringing oysters, whelks, mussels, or soles, r.i97.a. 

Page 244. 

And that no boat that brings oysters, whelks, mus- 
sels, or soles, shall remain longer upon sale than one 
high tide and two ebbs. And whosoever shall lie a 
longer time — as for his oysters, whelks, or mussels, let 
them be forfeited. 



Of Wool Page 245. 

As to the custom upon sacks of wool that come by 
the Thames to Queen-Hythe. — No custom shall be taken 
[there] for the carts of persons of the franchise of the 
City, And if the bailiff of the said hj'^the wishes to 
have custom upon such carts, let him appoint one of 
the helpers at the place where the carts are unloaded, 
to take the rightful custom. Item, whereas the bailiff 
of Queen-Hythe takes one^ for custom 

from strangers for each quarter, before ^they go to 
serve the strangers, we do tell you that such is an 
extortionate charge, seeing that the bailiff of Billynges- 
gate takes no [such fee]. 



p. 197. a. 



Of TroTiage, Page 245. 

Tliis is the custom of Tronage — ^A merchant-stranger 
who exports wool beyond sea, shall pay for one sack 



* The denomination is omitted. 
It is probably one penny, 
^ Meaning his assistants, proba^ 



bly, who were to help at the un- 
loading of the wool. 



F.197.b. 



74 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

which contains two weys six pence ; and if there are 
several sacks of two weys, he shall pay for the first sack 
six pence, and for each of the others five pence. And if 
the merchant has several sacks that contain two weys 
and a half, or three weys, or four weys, he shall give for 
the first sack eleven pence, and for each of the others 
ten pence. And if a merchant exports butter, tallow, or 
lard, heyond sea, he shall give for the first wey of 
butter, tallow, or lard, one penny halfpenny ; and for 
each of the others one halfpenny. And for every wey of 
cheese going beyond sea, four pence. For every last 
of leather going beyond sea, twelve pence. For a 
dacfe of leather, two pence ; and of nonpareil leather, 
one halfpenny. For every trussel of leather bound 
with cords, four pence. For every hundred of woolfels, 
four pence. For every trussel bound with cords, of 
whatever merchandize it may be, great or small, four 
pence. For iharpoys and for ^fispounde, one penny 
farthing. For a coda of sulphur, at the same valuation, 
one penny fiixthing. For every tun of ale going beyond 
sea, that owes custom, four pence. 

And if the merchant pays at Billyngesgate, he is 
cleared throughout; or if he pays to the Warden of 
the tron, nevertheless it then belongs to the tron. For 
every tun of wine that owes custom, two pence. For 
every large vessel that anchors, two pence. For every 
quarter of woad that owes custom,^ . For 

every small vessel that grounds, one penny. For every 
small boat that anchors, one halfpenny. For every tun 
that comes with honey, owing custom, twelve pence. 
For every vessel that brings nuts, four pence. For a 
single ship's ^ store, four pence. For every ^ karre of 
lead, going beyond sea by a stranger, four pence. 



See the Glossary. [ ^ See a similar passage in page 

The sum is omitted. | 72, ante. 



i 



PTI.] CUSTOMS LEVIED AT GEASCHIRCHE. 75 

Wolehirchaw. Page 246. F.i97.b. 

This is the custom of ^WoUechirchawe. — For one poimd 
of wool [sold] to a foreigner, one hal:^enny ; and for 
one sack, only one halfpenny. For two woolfels and 
more, one halfpenny; and for one hundred, only one 
hal%enny. For one pound of woollen yarn, one half- 
penny ; and for one hundred, only one halfpenny. If 
any foreigner brings wool, woolfels^ or yarn, through 
the City for sale, to the value of ten pence and more, 
he shall pay for custom one farthing. 

The Custom of Ora^cJdrche, Page 247. . y.ior.b. 

This is the custom of ^ Gerchirche. — Every foreign 
cart that brings corn or malt, shall pay one halfpenny. 
Every cart that brings cheese, two pence. Item, every 
cart that brings corn and cheese together, and the cheese 
is worth more than the com, shall pay two pence ; and 
if the corn is worth the most, it shall pay only one half- 
penny. Every cart that brings nuts and corn together, 
if the nuts are worth more than the corn, shall pay two 
pence ; and if the corn is worth the most, it shall pay 
only one hal^enny. Upon two horses that bring corn 
or malt to Graschirche, the bailiff takes one farthing. 
A cart that belongs to the ^franchise of the Temple and 
of Saint Martyn le Grand, one farthing. The cart 
of the Hospital of Saint John, with their own corn, 
shall pay nothing ; and if the corn is bought for resale, 
it shall pay one hal%enny. 

Pesage, Page 247. ^' i97. i^. 

The custom of Pesage.- — Merchandize that is weighed 
by beam of one hundred pounds, shall pay one halfpenny, 



* Woolchupch Haw. A •wool- 
market was held there, in the 
vicinity of the Poultry. 

- Or, 'Graschirche,' the modem 
* Gracechurch.' A corn and vege- 



table (gcers) market was held there. 

3 The' exemption enjoyed by the 

inmates of the Temple, St. Martin's 

le Grand, and St. John's, Clerken- 

well. 



fei.. 



76 LIBER AtiBUS. [B. HI. 

and up to one thousand no more ; and beyond that, it 
shall pay one penny. And for eleven hundred, one penny 
halfpenny, and up to two thousand no more ; and then 
the warden of the beam shall take two pence, and so on, 

F.i97.b. Of Wines. Page 24^7. 

The King s Prisage upon wines.— If nine tuns of wine, 
or less than nine, come in a ship or in a boat, the King's 
Chamberlain ought to take nothing for the King's Pri- 
sage, as of right. And if ten tuns come, he shall take 
one tun ; and if there are nineteen tuns, he ought to take 
notching upon account of Prisage beyond one tun ; and 
upon twenty tuns he shall take two. And if one 
hundred or two hundred tuns come together in one 
ship, the Chamberlain shall take for the King's Prisage 
only two tuns. And if a great ship that comes with 
wines desires to unload into boats before it arrives [at 
F.i98.a. the wharf], and follows the boats, with the remaining 
wines, to the wharf, the Chamberlain ought to take 
for the ship and the boats only a single Prisage. And if 
the mariners of the ship or of the boat can shew that 
the King's Prisage has been taken at ^ Sandwiz, or at 
any other seaport, by the Chamberlain or by any other 
bailiff acting on behalf of the King, the Chamberlain 
ought to take nothing at London; but throughout all 
dominions of the King the merchants to whom such 
wines belong, ought to go quit by reason of the first 
Prisage. 

When nineteen or nine tuns come to London by boat, 
it is fully lawful for the Chamberlain to take the assur- 
ance or the oath of the merchants to whom such wines 
belong, that they do not cause the wine to arrive in 
such manner, by small quantities, for the pui'pose of 
avoiding or of withdrawing the King's Prisage. 



^ Sandwich, in Kent. 



Pril.] TABLE OF CONTENTS. 77 



THIRD BOOK. 



PART THE SECOND. 

Page 259. . F.mb. 

You shall present if the peace of our Lord the King 
has been broken, and by whom, and as to aifrays 
and evil covin. 

Item, if there is any person resident within the 
Ward who is not a lawful person or under frank- 
pledge. 

Item, if any woman of lewd life, or common scold, 
bawd, or common brothel-keeper or courtesan, is resi- 
dent, etc. 

Item, if any oven, furnace, or reredos, is defective ; 
and if they use other fuel than wood or charcoaL 

Item, if any taverner, brewster, hosteler, or chandler 
sells without measure [duly] sealed, or against the 
assize ; or if any one receives gamesters or other riot- 
ous persons ; and if there is any outlawed person 
within the Ward. 

Item, if there is any huckster within the Ward. 

Item, if there is any house covered with reeds or 
straw, and not with tiles, stone, or lead. 

Item, if any person places filth in the streets and 
lanes, and places the same before the doors of others. 

Item, if any swine or cows are reared within the 
Ward, to the annoyance of the neighbours. 

Item, if there is any leper resident within the 
Ward. 

Item, if any bargain of usury [has been made], or 
usurer resides, within the Ward. 



m. 



78 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

Item, if any purprestures are made in the streets or 
lanes, or upon the walls or fosses of the City, or upon 
the Thames, or other the common soil within the Wa«rcl. 

Item, if any baker of tourte bakes white bread, or 
the converse. 

Item, if [there are] any persons in the habit of 
wandering after the forbidden hours. 

Item, if any officer of the City has made extor- 
tion or affray within the Ward under colour of his 
office, to the wrong and detriment of any person ; and 
what it is that has been so done, and how ; or if any 
person is a maintainer or champertor of suits. 

Item, if any person pays, or gives as wages unto 
masons, carpenters, daubers, tilers, or unto any other 
labourers whatsoever, more than is ordained. 

Item, if any ale-stake of any taverner is longer or 
projects further than is ordained. 

Of the Peace. Page 260. 

1 [These are the Articles, of ancient usage, as to the 
assize of bread, and of ale, and of other victuals, and 
as to various trades, in the City of London, that ought 
each year, after the Feast of Saint Michael, to be 
proclaimed throughout the said City,] 
p.ies-a. In the first place, that the peace of God and the 
peace of our Lord the King shall be well kept and 
maintained among denizens and strangers; and that 
the places and the lanes of the City shall be kept 
clear of all manner of annoyance, such as dung, rub- 
bish, pigsties, and other annoyances, under heavy 
penalties. And that all manner of victuals that are 
sold by persons in Ghepe, upon CornhuUe, and else- 
where in the City, such as bread, cheese, poultry, 
fruit, hides and skins, onions and garlic, and all other 



^ Supplied from the Liber Custumarum, fol. 201, it being omitted in 
Libus Albus, 



I 



PT.TI.] UEGULATTONS AS TO COEN-DEALERS. 79 

small victuals for sale as well by denizens, as by- 
strangers, shall stand mid-way between the kennels ot 
the streets, so as not to be a nuisance to any one, under 
pain of forfeiture of the thing. And that no market 
shall be held upon Fair-days, as well for pots, pans, 
hutches, [and] coffers, as for other utensils of iron and 
of brass, save only at ComhuUe ; and this to be mid- 
way between the kennels, so as not to be an annoy- 
ance to any one passing, under penalty of losing the 
thing. 

Of Corn-dealers, Page 261. p.igs.a. 

Also, as to corn-dealers who bring corn unto the City 
for sale — that no one shall sell by show or by sample. 
But they shall come to certain places in the City esta- 
blished with their carts laden, and with their horsef- 
having the loads upon them, without selling anything 
and without getting rid of anything, tintil [they 
reach] the established places ; that is to say, within 
the Gate of Newgate, before the Friars Minors [there, 
and] at Graschirche ; and this, without putting any- 
thing into house or into hiding-place, whether the 
same arrive by night or by day. And that no com shall 
be sold until the hour of Prime 'rung at Saint Paul's, 
under penalty of forfeiting such com. And that all 
ships, scouts, and boats, of whatever kind they may be, 
that bring corn to sell, as well at BiQyngesgate as else- 
where on the Thames, shall remain upon common sale 
after they have arrived, without selling anything in 
gross for one whole day ; that so the common people 
may buy for their sustenance what they shall need ; 
and this, nnder heavy forfeiture. 

Of the same. Page 261 F.i98.a. 

And whereas some buyers and brokers of corn buy 
com in the City of country-folks who bring it into the 
City to sell, and give, on the bargain [being made], a 



80 LIBER ALBCrS. [b. IIL 

penny oi* halfpenny by way of earnest ; and tell tlie 
peasants to take tlie com to their house, and that there 
they shall receive their pay. — And when they come 
[there] and think to have their payment directly, the 
buyer says that his wife at his house has gone out, 
and has taken the key of the room, so that he cannot 
F.i98.b. get at his money; but that the other must go away, 
and come again soon and receive his pay. And when 
he comes back a second time, then the buyer is not [to 
be] found ; or else, if he is found, he feigns something 
else, by reason whereof the poor men cannot have their 
pay. And sometimes, while the poor men are waiting 
for their pay, the buyer causes the corn to be 'wetted ; 
and when they come to ask for their pay, which was 
agreed upon, [they are told] to wait until such a day 
as the buyer shall choose to name for them, or else to 
take off a part of the price ; which if they will not do, 
they may take their corn and carry it awa j ; a thing 
which they cannot do, because it is wetted, [and] in 
another state than it was in when they sold it. And 
by such evil delays on part of the buyer, the poor men 
lose half of their pay in expenses before they are 
fully settled with. — 



VAQfi.h. Of the same matter. Page 262. 

It is provided, that the person towards whom such 
knavishness shall be committed, shall make complaint 
unto the Mayor ; and if he shall be able to make 
proof, and convict the buyer before the Mayor of the 
wrong so done to him, the buyer shall render unto the 
vendor double the value, and full damages as well, in 
case the Mayor shall see that the value aforesaid does 
not suffice for the damage which he has received ; and 
nevertheless, let him also be heavily amerced unto the [ 

; \ 

' For the purpose of ixiakiag malt. 

: 






PT II.] REGULATIONS AS TO FOEESTALLERS. 81 

King, if he have wherewith. And if he have not 
wherewith to pay the penalty aforesaid, or to find the 
amercement, then he shall be put on the pillory, and 
remain there one hour in the day at least, nnd a serjeant 
of the City standing by the side of the pillory with 
good hue and cry as to the reason why [he is so 
punished]. 

Of Butchers. Page 263. F.ios.b. 

And whereas some butchers do buy beasts of country- 
folks, and, as soon as they have the beasts in their 
houses kill them, and then at their own pleasure delay 
the peasants of their pay; or else tell them that they 
may take their beasts: — It is provided, that the penalty 
which in such cases is as to buyers and brokers of corn 
ordained, shall be incurred by such butchers as shall 
be attainted thereof. 

Of Forestallers, Page 263. p.i98,b. 

And that no dealer, denizen or stranger, whoever he 

may be, shall go to meet dealers coming by land or by 

water with their merchandize and victuals towards 

the City, to buy or to sell, until such time as they shall 

have arrived at the said City, and have put up their 

merchandize for sale; under forfeiture of the article 

bought and pain of imprisonment, from the which 

imprisonment [the offender] shall not escape without 

grievous chastisement. And that no one shall put up 

his wares for sale, that owe custom, until he has paid 

custom thereon, under pain of losing the article. 

» 
Of the same. Page 263, v.i98.h. 

And that no merchant, denizen or stranger, whoever 
he may be, shall go to the ^Pole or elsewhere in any 



* The Pool of the Thames ; t.e. from the Tover to Limehouse. 
VOL. Ill, IT 



82 LIBER ALBTia [3,111. 

quarter on the Thames, to meet wines or other mer- 
chandize, or go on board vessels to buy wines or other 
things, until such time as they shall have come to 
land, under pain of losing the article. 

?.i98.b. Of Strangers, Page 264. 

And that no freeman of the City shall hold part- 
nership with a strange man, or avow the merchandize 
of a strange man, whereby the King or his bailiffs of 
the City may lose custom upon the same ; and this, 
under pain of losing the freedom, 

^i^-a- Of Rebellvms Persom. Page 264. 

-« 

And that there be no one who shall make resis- 
tance in deed or in word to the Serjeants or the 
bailiffs of the City ; and be it ordered them, that no one 
shall molest them in making execution upon judgments, 
attachments, distresses, or other things which unto 
such baiUffs pertaia to do, under pain of imprison- 
ment. But if any one shall consider that the bailiff 
has done him wrong, let him make his suit thereon 
before his superiors, and have his recovery before those 
unto whom it pertains to make amends. 



r.ma. Of Bakers. Page 264. 

And that two loaves shall be made for one penny, 
and four loaves for one penny ; and that [no loaf] shall 
be coated with bran. And that no baker shall sell bread 
before his oven, but [only] in the market of our Lord 
the King. And if any one is found selling in Ms 
house, he shall be amerced in the sum of forty shil- 
lings. And that no one shall buy such bread, under 
pain of losing the bread. And that each baker shall have 
his own seal, as well for brown bread, as for white 



PHI.] PUNISHMENT OF FRAUDULENT BAKERS. 83 

bread; that so it may be the better known whose 
bread it is. And that each Alderman shall view the 
seals of the bakers in his Ward. And that no baker 
of white bread shall make tourte bread, and no one 
[who makes tourte] make white bread. And that 
no baker shall buy com to sell again. And that no 
baker who makes tourte bread shall sell his flour to 
cooks for making pastry ; nor in any other manner 
shall get rid of the flour, on peril that pertains 
thereunto. And that the bread of the bakers shall be 
* taken every month, once at the very least, or more 
times if it be necessary. And that each baker shall 
shew his seal at each Wardmote, that so it may be 
known. 

Of Meamres. Page 265. F.i99.a. 

Whereas some persons do say that the assize of 
bread and of ale is not so well kept, through the 
taking of fines from bakers and brewsters. — It is pro- 
vided, that no Sherifi* shall take a fine from bakers or 
from brewsters. And if any Sheriff shall do so, and 
be convicted of the same, he shall be forthwith 
ousted from the ofiice and another established in his 
place. 

And if any defitult shall be found in the bread of a 
baker of the City, the first time, let him be drawn 
upon a hurdle from the Guildhall to his own house, 
through the great streets where there may be most 
people assembled, and through the midst of the great 
streets that are most dirty, with the faulty loaf hanging 
from his neck. If a second time he shall be found in 
the same transgression, let him be drawn from the 
Guildhall through the great ^ street of Chepe, in form 
aforesaid, to the pillory; and let him be put upon 



^ For examination as to weight | ^ The plural ' ruwes * is found 
and quality. | from another copy, to be incorrect. 

F 2 



84 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

the pillory, and remain there at least one hour in the 
day. And the third [time that such] default shall be 
found, he shall be drawn, and the oven shall be pulled 
down, and the baker [made to] forswear the trade 
within the City for ever. 

And that no [baker] of the town shall give unto 
the regratresses the six pence on the Monday morning 
by way of hansel-money or the three pence on 
Friday, for curtesy-money ; but, after the ancient 
manner, [let him give] thirteen articles of bread for 
twelve. Nor let [any one] take back bread from the 
regratresses when cold, under pain of heavy amerce- 
ment, whoever shall be attainted thereof; but let 
[each] throw all such outlays into his bread, for the 
profit of the people. 

Fa99.a. 0/ Bakers. Page 266. 

As concerning foreign bakers who sell bread, — at 
all times in the City that default shall be found in 
their bread, let all the bread be forfeited tinto the 
Sheriffs of the City, to go unto their ferm, as here- 
tofore has been done. And from henceforth let no 
foreign baker put his bread into hutches or into selds, 
or elsewhere in hiding-places for storing, beyond a 
F.WD.b. single night, under pain of losing the, bread. And 
those who bring their bread in carts, without baskets, 
are to refrain from selling unto any regratress before 
they come into Chepe, under pain of the forfeiture 
aforesaid. 



Of Brewers, Taverners, and their Measures, Page 266. 

* [And that the gallon of wine shall be sold at three 
pence, and not dearer. And that a gallon of ale shall 



' Omitted in Llher Albus^ but given in the Liber Custumarum.^ ' 



PT II.] 



REGULATIONS AS TO BREWERS, ETC. 



85 



be made for three farthings, and another gallon for one 
penny, and not dearer. And if any shall be found 
dearer, it shall be forfeited to the use of the Sheriff.] 

And that no brewster or taverner shall sell from r.iog.b. 
henceforth by any measure except by gallon, pottle, 
and quart; and that these shall be sealed with the 
seal of the Alderman ; and that the tun of the brewster 
shall be of one hundred and fifty gallons, and be sealed 
with the seal of the Alderman. And if any one shall 
be found selling by measure not sealed, let her be 
amerced the first time in the sum of forty pence, and 
the measure burnt or broken. The second time, let 
her be amerced to the amount of half a mark. 
And the third time, let her be amerced to the amount 
of twenty shillings. And whereas it often happens, that 
gallons, pottles, and quarts are partly broken, and that 
some of them are marked while they are * green, and 
after being used for a long time, through dryness are 
shrunk, and thereby are made not so good as they 
ought to be; — it is provided, that every taverner and 
brewster shall carry his gallons, pottles, and quarts 
to the house of his Alderman four times in the year, 
that the same may be examined if they are sufficient in 
all respects ; and for such labour and usage, and for the 
marks when made at first, let two pence be given for 
the gallon, for the pottle one penny, and for the quart 
one halfpenny. And let the same thing be done as 
to the gallon of taverners of wine, the bushel, and the 
half bushel. For one bushel [so marked] let one 
penny be given, and for half a bushel one halfpenny. 
And if any one shall be found, who on summons to do 
this shall not come or send, or shall not do as afore- 
said, let such person be amerced by the Alderman iii 
the sum of two shillings. 



* The ale measures were ordinarily 
made of turned wood ^ the makers 



of them were called *the pottersf' 
of London* 






86 LIBER ALBUa [b. III. 

F. m. b. Of Hostelers. Page 267. 

And that no one in the City shall harbour any man 
beyond a day and a night, if he be not willing to pro- 
duce such person to stand his trial. In case such per- 
son shall commit an offence and absent himself, the host 
shall make answer [for him]. And that no one shall be 
resident in the Ward of an Alderman beyond a day 
and a night, if he be not in view of frank-pledge, or if 
his host be not ready to have him to stand his triah 

l^ 199. b. Of the same. Page 268. 

And it is provided, under heavy penalties, that no 
stranger, or alien, shall enjoy the franchise of the City, 
or sell by retail, if he be not first admitted to the fran- 
chise, and sworn thereunto and enrolled in the Guildhall. 
And for being admitted and enrolled, let him make 
compensation according as his means may admit of 
And it is provided, that no native of a strange land, 
or other person, of whatever country he may be, shall 
be herbergeour or hosteler within the City, if he be 
not admitted a freeman of the City^ [and] sanctioned by 
the Mayor and Aldermen as a good and lawful man. 
And that he have good testimony from the places 
whence he shall have come, that he has well and law- 
fully departed from his own country ; and that he find 
safe and responsible pledges unto the Mayor and unto 
the bailiffs of the City, to be answerable unto the peace 
of the King, and for the keeping of the citizens of the 
Gty without harm. And if perchance any person of a 
strange land, through surety that he finds, or through 
freedom of the City that has been granted unto him, is 
about to become hosteler or herbergeour in the City, 
then let him make provision to dwell in the heart of 
the City or elsewhere: but let no such person dwell 
upon the waterside of the Thames, either for keeping 
hostel or for being herbergeour. 






FT II.] ALL FKEEMEN TO PAY LOT AND SCOT. 87 

Of the same. Page 268. f. 199. b. 

And that all those who are herbergeours or hostelers 
in the City, in manner aforesaid, within forty days en- 
suing from the day that these articles shall be read, 
shall cease therefrom and shall withdraw themselves so 
as not to do so in future. And if any person shaU be 
found contravening the form aforesaid after the afore- F.2oo.a. 
said forty days, let him lose the freedom for ever ; 
and nevertheless, let him be punished with imprison- 
ment, according as the offence demands. 

Of Brokers. Page 269. p. 200. a. 

And that no person shall be a broker within the 
City, except those who shall be sworn and admitted by 
the Mayor and Aldermen. And if any broker shall be 
attainted of having gone out of the City and having 
made forestalment of any manner of merchandize coming 
towards town, let him have forty days' imprisonment. 
And if a second time he shaE be attainted of such 
offence, let him have forty days' imprisonment, and at 
his departure from prison let him forswear the calling 
within the City for ever. And that no sworn broker 
shall be the host of merchants who bring the mer- 
chandize of which he is such broker. And that no 
person shall be admitted as broker except upon the 
presentment of good folks of the trade in which he is 
about to be broker. And he shall not be a broker, 
except only in that trade which he has assigned to 
him. 

Thai the OitkenB shall he in Lot and Scot Page 269. If. 200.^1. 

And that aU those who wish by the franchise of 
London to be protected, shall be residing and dwelling 
in the said city, commoners of the said city, making 
contributions and aids, such as commoners of the town 



88 LIBER ALDUS. [b. 111. 

ought to make ; under pain of losing the franchise after 
forty days from the proclamation made, of whatever 
condition such person may be. And he who shall not 
do this, after such forty days, let him be ousted from 
the franchise, and let him be dealt with as a foreigner 
for ever after. 

:p.2oo.a. Of Sivine. Page 270. 

And that no swine shall be found about the streets 
or about the lanes in the City, or in the suburbs, or 
in the fosses of the said city, from this time forward. 
And if swine shall be found in the places aforesaid, 
they may be killed by those by whom they shall be 
so found; and those who kill them shall have them 
freely and clearly without any challenge thereof; or 
else let the swine be bought back by him who owns 
it, at the price of four pence. And he who shall wish 
to feed a pig, must feed it in his house. 

F. 200. a. Of Barbers. Page 270. 

And that no barbers shall be so bold or so daring 
as to place blood in their windows openly or in view 
of folks; but let them have it carried privately to the 
Thames, under pain of paying two shillings to the 

use of the Sheriffs. 

« 

Of RegratoTs, Page 270. 

And that no regrator of com, of fish, or of poultry, 
shall buy provisions for resale before the hour of Prime 
rung at Saint Paul's ; or before the substantial men of 
the land and of the City shall have bought their provi- 
sions ; under pain of losing the thing bought. 

And that no market shall be held upon London 
Bridge, but [only] elsewhere in the City where they 
are established ; under pain of losing the thing [sold]. 



i 






J 



P*II.] REGULATIONS AS TO PENTHOUSES. 89 

Of Com-dealers. Page 270. 

And it is provided, that no monger of corn, or re- 
grator of any other victuals, shall go forth from the City 
to buy any manner of victuals coming towards the Cit)''. 
And if any such shall be found, and shall be attainted 
thereof, let him be heavily amerced. And further, it 
is provided that no monger or regrator shall buy vic- 
tuals coming into the City by land or by water, before 
that the good folks of the City shall have bought as 
much as they have a necessity of for their use. And 
if the aforesaid mongers or regrators shall wish to buy 
any manner of victuals, let it be between Tierce and 
Noon. And he who shall do otherwise, and shall thereof 
be attainted, let him be amerced in the sum of forty 
shillings to the use of the Sheriffs, [the same to go] 
unto their ferm. The same thing is to be provided as 
to fishmongers, unless they have leave to buy from and 
after Prime ; so nevertheless, that [if] any citizen shall 
come to the boat or vessel, he shall have therefrom 
for his own use as much as he shall need, for the same F.2oo.b. 
price at which the fishmongers shall have bought it. 

Of Penthouses. Page 271. F.2oo,b. 

And that the penthouses and ^jettees of houses 
shall be so high that folks on horseback may ride be-- 
neath them. And that they shall be of the height 
of nine feet, at the very least ; and that all others 
shall be forthwith rearranged within forty days, under 
a penalty of forty shillings, unto the use of the Sheriffs. 
And that no stall shall project out [from the house] 
beyond the breadth of two feet and a half; and the 
same is to be moveable and flexible, for the conve- 
nience of the neighbours. 

— ^ — W ■■• »■■■■■■■ ■■■■^■^ ^m^mU,, J ■II ■ I !■ IWW WWII ■■■^111 Mill I ^ ■■■■■ II » ^^p^W^^»^i^»^,B ^M^il^#M|I^M%»»ll— >^^^«^#— ^— >»^ « ^ ^M* 

* A general name for the projections of a house. 



90 LIBER AliBUS. [b. III. 

i\20o.b. Of the Water-cowrse of Walbroke. Page 271. 

And that the water-course of Walbroke and the 
highway of our Lord the King shall be kept clear, 
that so no dung or other filth be thrown therein, to 
the disturbance or annoyance of folks. 

1^200.1}. Of Apprentices, Page 272. 

And that no person shall from henceforth receive an 
apprentice, if he be not himself free of the City, and 
cause their covenant to be enrolled, of whatever con- 
dition the apprentice may be. And that no appren- 
tice, after his term fully served, shall follow his trade 
in the City, before he shall have been sworn of the 
freedom, and thereupon enrolled. And that no appren- 
tice shall be received for a less term than for seven 
years, according to the ancient establishment. 

i\2oo.b. Of VictvAillers, Page 272. 

Also, it is forbidden that the Mayor, Sheriffs, Alder- 
men, or their clerks, Serjeants, or bedels, shall from 
henceforth brew, themselves or by others, for sale, 
or shall keep oven or wine-tavern, or shall trade in 
any other thing to which a low estimate is attached. 
And he who shall not be willing to make oath to 
that effect, or who shall contravene this Ordinance, 
shall be ousted from office : and also, that of no manner 
of provisions or other things shall they be regrators. 



1^.200,^ 



Of OoTTh-porters. Page 272. 

And that no corn-porter shall sell or measure corn, 
or shall enter any church-yard, house, or vessel, to 
value [com], or shall lay hand upon com, until he 
shall be required by those who shall have bought the 



Px IL] 



REGULATIONS AS TO LEPERS. 



91 



com. Aad that no cart shall from henceforth stand 
in the City with firewood, timber, or charcoal, before 
it has sold the same ; but it shall remain without 
the gate, and in Smythefeld or elsewhere, where it is 
provided ; ^ ComhuUe only excepted, under forfeiture 
of the thing. 

Of Cloths. Page 273. 

And that no one shall cause cloth to be woven for 
sale except in the City, or in the Portsokene, or within 
the liberties of the City ; and not in Suthewerk, 
under pain of forfeiture, and losing the cloth. And 
that no long cloth shall be dyed ^ black, except in 
woad. 

And that no one of the City shall go into Suthe- 
werk to buy corn, beasts, or other merchandize, whereby 
market may there be held, under pain of forfeiture of 
the thing there bought; timber only excepted. 

And that no merchant shall bring woad, or have 
the same measured, except by those who are sworn 
thereunto and by [certain] quarters assigned. 



p. 200. 1). 



Of Lepers. Page 273. 

And that no leper shall be going about in the City, 
or shall make any sojourn in the City, by night or 
by day, under pain of imprisonment ; but such persons 
shall have a common ® attorney for themselves, to go 
each Sunday to the parish churches, to collect alms 
for their sustenance. 

And that no sellers of fish shall throw their water 
into the King's highways or into the lanes, but shall 
cause the same to be carried unto the Thames, under 
a penalty of two shillings. 



F. 200. b. 



^ Gornhill ; vhere such cart was 
allowed to stand. 
* Or rather, dark blue. 



^ Or * proctorj' as he was some- 
tunes called. 



92 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. III. 



F.2oi.a. Of Measures and Balances, Page 273. 

And that no person shall have a measure or balance, 
or other weight, except it be good and lawful, and 
that according to the weight of our Lord the King. . 

And that no person shall keep a school for fencing 
or for buckler-play within the City, under pain of 
imprisonment. 



]?. 201. a. Of Butchers. Page 274. 

And that all foreign butchers shall come into the 
City with their flesh for sale, and shall bring the hides 
and pelts of every beast together with the flesh, under 
pain of losing the price of the hide : that is to say, for 
the price of an ox-hide two shillings and six pence, the 
price of a cow-hide two shillings, for the pelt of a woolled 
mutton six pence, and for the pelt of a mutton without 
wool one penny halfpenny. And then let him stand 
to sell his meat in pieces, both small and large, just 
as he shall please to cut, until ^high noon ; so that by 
such time he shall have fully made his sale, without 
getting rid of any meat, or harbouring it either secretly 
or openly, or putting it in ^salt or otherwise. And if 
any such shall be found in town carried into the house 
where he is staying, after an hour that is forbidden, 
let the same be forfeited unto the Sheriffl 



J", 201. a. 



Of cleansing the Streets and Lanes. Page 274 

And that aU the lanes leading towards the Thames, 
belonging to the highway from Castle Baynard unto 



^ Probably from one to three 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

* This, there is little doubt, is 
the meaning of " mettre deaV* The 
original passage, as in Liber Horn 



and Liber Custuniarum, is ** mettre 
** cndeal;^' which, from a mistake 
on part of the scribe, may not im- 
probably represent " mettre en seal** 



PHI.] GOING ARMED AFTEE CURFEW PROHIBITED. 93 

the Tower of London, shall be kept clear, that so per- 
sons on horseback may without hindrance ride and go 
unto the Thames ; and if it be not so, let the Sheriffs 
cause the same to be done at the cost of those who 
have caused the impediment ; and nevertheless, let 
those who thus impede be heavily amerced. 

And that no courtesan, [or] common brothel-keeper 
shall be residing within the walls of the City, imder 
pain of imprisonment. 



Of Regraiors, Page 275, 

Also, it is forbidden that any one shall be so daring as 
to go on board of vessels or of boats that bring scallops, 
mussels, whelks, and cockles, or any other victuals, when 
they have arrived, for the purpose of regrating the 
same, under pain [of losing] the same article. But 
let the same stand for common sale by him who shall 
have brought the wares, that so the commmunity 
may be served without regrators ; and this, under 
pain of losing the article. And if any such person 
shall be found, let him be heavily punished. 



h\ 201. a. 



Of PcTBons wandering by Night Page 275. 

It is also forbidden, that any person shall be so 
daring as to be found going or wandering about the 
streets of the City after curfew rung out at Saint 
Martin's Le Grand and Saint Laurence, or at ^Berk- 
yngchirche, with sword or buckler, or with other arm 
for doing mischief, whereof evil suspicion may arise, or 
in any other manner; unless it be some great lord or 
other substantial person of good reputation, or [a ^person] 



p. 201, 



^ Barking Church, now known 
as'AlIhallows Barking,* near the 
Tower. 

* Judging fyom a similar Ordi- 



nance in the Slatutes of tlie Realm 
(1810), Vol. 1, page 102, the pre- 
sent passage is in a defective state 
in the original. 



94 LIBER ALBTJS. [B. III. 

of their household, who from them shall have warranty, 
[and] who is going [from] one or another with a light 
to guide him. And if any one shall be found going 
about, contrary to the form aforesaid, if he have no 
occasion to come so late into town, let him be taken 
by the keepers of the peace and put into the Tun, which 
for such misdoers is assigned. And on the morrow, let 
him be arrested and presented before the Mayor of the 
City and the Aldermen ; and according as they shall 
find that such persons have offended and are thereunto 
accustomed, let them be punished. 

p. 201. a. Q-f shutting the doors of Taverners and Brewers at 

proper hours. Page 276. 

And whereas such persons, going about by, night, do 
commonly have their resort and hold their common 
meetings in taverns more than elsewhere, and do there 
seek shelter, and lie in wait and watch their time to 
do iU; — ^it is forbidden that any person shall keep a 
p. 201. b. tavern for wine or for ale open after the hour of curfew 
aforesaid ; but they shall keep their taverns closed after 
that hour. Nor shall they have any persons therein, 
sleeping or sitting up ; nor shall any one receive [per- 
sons] into his house from out of a common tavern, by 
night or by day, except those for whom Jie shall be 
willing to be answerable unto the peace of the King. 

And if it shall be found that any tavemer does 
otherwise, let him be put on his surety, the first time 
by the ' hanap of the tavern, or by some other good 
pledge therein found; and let him be amerced in the 
sum of forty pence. And if a second time it shall 
be found that he has offended, let him be amerced in 
the sum of half a mark ; and the third time, in ten 
shillings. The fourth time let him pay the whole 



* A two-handled drinking cup, often made of silver. 



PTII.] ATTACHMENT OF MISDOERS, 95 

penalty double, that is to say, twenty shillings. And 
the fifth time, let him forswear such trade in the 
Oity for ever. And if any tavemer shall receive any 
bad character, knowing that he has been a transgres- 
sor, let him have the imprisonment that is provided 
for all receivers of felons. And it is provided, that 
every Alderman, in his Wardmote, shall diligently 
enquire as to misdoers resorting to and staying in his 
Ward ; and if any such persons shall be found by pre- 
sentment and indictment of the good folks of the 
Ward, let them be forthwith bodily attached ; and 
that by the Aldermen, if the Sheriffs or their bailiffs 
are not present. But if they are present, they are 
to do the same by command of the said Aldermen; 
and let [such persons] be brought before the Mayor 
and Aldermen, and be interrogated as to that for which 
they are indicted, and which is presented against them. 
And those who cannot clear themselves, let them be 
punished by imprisonment or other punishment, at 
their discretion, according to that which the offence 
demands. 

And every Alderman is to hold his Wardmote, in 
all points as heretofore they have done, that is to 
say, four times in the year. 



That^persons arrested ^ for some grievous cause shall not p. 201. b. 
be released without assent of the Mayor. Page 277. 

Whereas misdoers attached for offences, such as 
battery, bloodshed, and other misdeeds against the 
peace of our Lord the King, and upon evil suspi- 
cion taken and arrested, are often released in too 
light a manner, by reason whereof others fear the less 



* The word ^sine^ here is an error. 



96 LIBEU ALBUS. [b. III. 

to offend ; it is provided that no person attached for 
a great offence shall be released wHhout [assent of] 
the Mayor and Aldermen. 



p. 201. 1). Of Boatmen, Page 277. 

And . it is provided, that no boatman shall have his 
boat moored and standing over the water after sun- 
set ; but they shall have all their boats moored on 
this side of the water, that so thieves or other mis- 
doers may not be carried by them, under pain of 
imprisonment : nor may they carry any man or woman, 
either denizens or strangers, unto the ^ Stews, except 
in the day-time, under pain of imprisonment. 



F.2oi.b. That no persmi shall cavi^ a bow called a 

' Stonehowe.' Page 278. 

And that no person shall be so daring as to carry 
a bow for doing mischief, that is called ^ stanhovje* 
within the City or in the suburbs, under pain, the 
first time, of [losing] the bow; and the second 
time, let him lose the bow and [pay] forty pence ; 
and the third time, let him be imprisoned 



F.2oi.b. Of Chalky called 'Lyme! Page 278. 

And that lime shall be well measured by quarter 
and by bushel of assize ; and that the same shall be 
well burnt, according to the ancient ordinance. And 
that every sack shall contain one bushel of assize. 

And that tiles shall be of the ancient dimensions; 
and that they shall be well burnt and well leaded. 



* Houses of ill fame in Southwark. 



PT ir.] REOULATIONS AS TO SKINNERS AND FURRIERS. 97 

Of Balances and Measures. Page 278. p. 201. b. 

And that no person shall have any balance or mea- 
sure found, or other weight, but such as are good 
and lawful ; and let the same be according to the 
King s standard, tinder heavy penalties. 

Of PaviouTs, Page 278- f. 201. b. 

And that paviours shall receive, for making the toise 
of pavement, at all seasons, well and lawfully, that 
is to say, seven feet and a half in length, and the F.202.a. 
foot of Saint Paul in breadth, two pence and no more ; 
and they shall make the same of good ^ assize. 

Of Butchers. Page 279. p. 202, a. 

And that no butcher shall sell woolfels so long as 
they are on the living animals ; but let him carry the 
skins, together with the flesh, to market, in manner as 
[is] ordained; and let him sell none of such skins and 
hides in his own house or elsewhere in secret ; but 
only in the King's market, and that after Prime rung 
out, under pain of losing the thing, whether the 
same be found in the hand of the vendor or of the 
buyer. And that no butcher, or wife of a butcher, shall 
sell tallow or lard to a strange person for carrying 
to the parts beyond sea ; by reason of the great deamess 
and scarcity that has been tliereof in the City of late. 

Of Pelterers. Page 279. F.202.a, 

And that no ^pelterer, from henceforth, or worker 
in peltry, and no ^ fripperer, or other person, whoever 
he may be, who is engaged in the trade, shall make 



* Dealer in old clothes and fur- 
niture. 



* /.c. quality, as fixed by regu- 
lation or assize. 
^ Or skinner. 

VOL. Ill, G 



98 LIBEK ALBUS, [B. III. 

• a set of furs of less than fifty skins ; so that the same 

be of six Hiers in length, and that of one manner 
of workmanship and not intermingled ; that is to say, 
grey-work by itself; pure new pople by itself; red 
polajme by itself; [and] roskyn by itself; all of 
squirrel-skins that are to match : nor let any one work 
new [skins] intermingled with old. And he who shall 
do otherwise or shall work otherwise, and shall thereof 
be attainted, let him be set upon the pillory. And as 
to ^peltry found intermingled and made up of two 
kinds, in whose hands soever the same shall be for 
sale, let it be adjudged false, and judgment be done 
thereon, as upon a false article. And let work inter- 
mingled of old and of new, and sets of furs found to 
be made up of less than forty skins and six tiers, 
be forfeited unto the use of the City, and the maker 
found guilty thereof heavily punished. 

Kao2.a. Of [heeping] the Peace, and of those who fly unto the 

Church. Page 280. 

^ [These are the Ordinances which King Edward 
made, when he *took into his hand the franchise of 
the City. And some of them are in use at the time 
when it has its franchise.] 

For the safe-keeping of the City it is ordained, 
that from henceforth, in place of the Mayor, there 
shall be a Warden appointed by the King, and Sheriffs 
and Aldermen by the Treasurer and the Barons of the 
Exchequer ; the which shall all be obedient and sworn 
unto the King to keep watch and ward, and to main- 
tain the peace in such form as they shall be charged [to 
do] : that is to say, to preserve the peace by night and 
by day, and to cause the watches and the waits to be 



* A tier, or ' timbre,'' was a 

» 

breadth containing a certain niun- 
ber of skins. I the Liber Cusiumarum, fol. 217, a. 

- Work made of "woolfels, or I * A.D. 1285. 



sheep-skins with the wool on. 
^ This portion is inserted from 



PriL] PUNISHMENT FOB MINOR OFFENCES. 99 

set, according to the points under-written: and that 
the Sheriffs, Aldermen, and all the people shall be 
wholly obedient unto the Warden. 

And the King doth will and command, to preserve 
the peace in his city, that if any felony shall be com- 
mitted within the City or offence against his peace, 
each person who shall be near when such oflfence or 
felony is committed within the City, or who shall 
hear, or see, or know of, offence against his peace 
or felony [committed], shall arrest or attach such 
felons or transgressors to the utmost of his power ; 
and if he have not power to do the same forthwith, 
let him raise hue and cry against the misdoers. Upon 
which hue and cry, the King doth will and command 
that all those who shall be near and shall hear the 
cry, shall come upon the cry for the taking and 
arresting of such felons and misdoers. And so soon as 
they shall be taken, let them be delivered unto the 
bailiffs of the King. And he who comes not on hue 
and cry raised, let him be heavily amerced. 

And if it so happen that any felon escapes unto a 
church before he is taken, let the folks of the Ward, 
where the church is situate unto which such felon has 
betaken himself, keep watch upon that felon, until 
such time as he shall have been made to ^ quit the 
realm, in case the folks of the Ward suffice there- 
unto ; and if not, let them have aid of the nearest 
neighbours and of the Wards adjoining unto that 
Ward, according to the ordinance and counsel of the 
Warden of the City ; care being taken that no person 
shall with such watch be unreasonably charged. 

Of Offenders, Page 281, F.202.a. 

And the King doth will, that all understand that 
no franchise or ancient usage shall hold good, by 

• By solemnly abjuring it before the proper authorities. 

G 2 



100 LIBER ALBUS. [B. lit 

reason whereof this Ordinance may not be observed. 
And as to those who shall be convicted of such 
offences as battery, or bloodshed, where death or 
i?.202.b. ^mayhem lieth not, let them also be punished by 
fine ; and more especially, by imprisonment, at the 
discretion of those before whom the offence shall be 
judged ; to the end that the severity of such punish- 
ment may cause dread in others to offend. And always 
let them have regard to the extent of the offence, and } 

to the extent to which they are culpable and in the 
habit of offending or not. 

And let each person beware of raising hue and cry 
upon affray in the City by day or by night, without 
reasonable occasion. And if any one shall do so, and 
thereof be attainted, let him be punished according to 
the offence. 

And if any misdoer shall escape from a church, let 
those who ought to have kept watch be held answer- 
able unto the King in one hundred shillings for 
escape: and this is to be understood as to escapes 
made from churches in the City. And as to escapes 
from Newgate, let the same be as they have been 
heretofore. 



p. 202. b. Of Misdoers who lie concealed. Page 282, 

And whereas some persons do resort unto the City, 
in some cases from beyond sea ; and some of the same 
land do there seek shelter and refuge, by reason of 
banishment from their own country, and of having for 
great offences or other misdeeds had to fly from their 
country ; and of such, some become brokers, hostelers, 
and herbergeours within the City, for denizens and for 
strangers, as freely as though they were good and 
lawful men, and of the freedom of the City. And 






' Mutilation of a limb necessary for defence in fight. 



priJ.J REGULATIONS AS TO MALEFACTORS. 101 

some of such know nothing but how to go up and 
down about the streets, more by night than by day, 
and are well attired as to clothing and array, and feed 
upon delicate meats and costly; and they follow no 
trade or merchandize, nor have lands or tenements 
by which they niay live, or friends who may find 
them, and are continually removing from one house 
to another : and through such persons do arise many 
of the perils in the City, and many of the evils. 
And some are found openly offending, as by rob- 
beries and other evil deeds. — It is [therefore] provided, 
that no person of a strange land, or other person, 
shall be a herbergeour or hosteler within the City, 
unless he be a freeman, within the City admitted, and 
confirmed by the Warden, and Mayor, and Aldermen, 
as a good and lawful man ; or unless he have good 
testimony jfrom the place whence he shall have come, 
and have riglitftdly come and lawfuUy departed there- 
from, and find safe sureties amenable unto the Bailiffs 
of the City, to be answerable unto the King's peace 
and unto the citizens of the City, for keeping [the 
same] vidthout harm. 

And if perchance any person of a strange land, by 
the surety that he finds, or by the freedom that has 
been granted unto him of the City, is about to be- 
come a hosteler or herbergeour within the City, let 
Mm make provision to reside in the heart of the 
City, according to the tenor aforesaid ; [and if any 
such persons shall be doing otherwise], within forty 
days next ensuing after the day on which these 
Articles shall be read and published in the City, let 
them forego the same and withdraw themselves, that 
they do so no longer. And if any person shall be 
found contravening the form aforesaid after the forty 
days aforesaid, let him lose the freedom for ever, and 
nevertheless let him be punished with imprisonment, 
according as the offence demands.' 



1.02 LIBER ALBUS. [B. HI. 

x\2d2.i3. Of Thieves and Courtesans. Page 283. 

And whereas thieves and other persons of light and 
had repute are often, and more commonly, received and 
harboured in the houses of women of evil life within 
the City than elsewhere, through whom evil deeds and 
murders, by reason of such harbouririg, do often happen, 
and great evils and scandals to the people of the City, 
— the King doth will and command, that from hence- 
forth no common woman shall dwell within the walls 
of the City. And if any such shall hereafter be found 
within the City residing and dwelling, let her be 
impiisoned forty days. And let the Warden cause 
search to be made throughout the City in the best 
i<'.2oa.a. manner that he shall see fit, where such women are re- j^ 

ceived, and who they are ; and then, when they shall 
be found, let their limits be assigned unto them. 
And let no [such person] from henceforth wear minever 
[or ^ cendal] on her dress or on her hood ; and if any 
one shall do so, let her lose the minever and the 
cendal. And as to such minever and cendal, let the 
same be forfeited unto the serjeant who shall find 
such woman and take her in such guise. 

F.203.a. Of Watch and Ward in the City. Page 284. 

And our Lord the King doth will, for the safe keeping 
and maintaining of his peace, that the ^ watch shall be ^ 

set at night within the City in due manner, and when 
need shall be. That is to say, in each Ward let certain 
persons be chosen, up to a certain number, according 
to the extent of such Ward, and at times when there 
shall be great resort of folks unto the City. And let 
such persons be strong and with good arms well able to 



* This passage is supplied from 
the Liher Custwmarum. 



2 Or 'yf^iV-^'geitJ 



PTII.] WATCH AND WARD WITHIN THE CITY. 103 

defend, and presented by the folks of the Ward unto 
the Alderman; before whom they shall make oath 
well and lawfully to keep ward, [and], without favour to 
any one, [or] corruption through either gift or affinity, 
to arrest and attach those who act and go about by 
night, in breach of the peace and in contravention of 
the tenor of the proclamation made, and lawfully to pre- 
sent the same before the Warden or Mayor ; before 
whom, according to their offence, let such persons be 
punished. And towards the sustenance of such per- 
sons, let all such make contribution as shall be hostelers 
and housekeepers in such Ward, officers of the King 
excepted. And if any of those sworn, who keep watch, 
shall be attainted of not having duly kept watch, or of 
having shown favour unto any one who for his offence 
ought to be attached and arrested, by reason of any 
corruption, affinity, or indulgence, or for any other 
reason, let him be punished by imprisonment, at the 
discretion of the Warden and of the Aldermen, and 
according to the extent of the offence. And let the 
arms which they shall have for keeping the watch 
be provided and bought according to the ordinance of 
the Warden of the City, at the cost of the people of the 
Wards. 

And the King in especial dotb will, that by these 
enactments neither the usages nor the enactments here- 
tofore followed in the City, in aid of keeping his peace, 
shall be abolished; such usages being reasonable and 
allowable according to law and reason, and not in 
contravention of these enactments. The King doth 
command that, for the maintaining of his peace, these 
Articles shall be well maintained and safely kept; 
or such other amendments as the King, at his will, 
shall make thereunto, according as he shall consider 
what is best to be done for the profit of the City, when 
necessity shall be. 



104 LIBER ALBUS, [B. III. 

T.203.a. 0/ the place for Weighing. Page 285. 

Whereas merchants do feel themselves aggrieved, by 
reason that the weight in the hostels and in the selds 
of citizen-merchants of London, by which they sell, do 
not agree with the weight by which they buy. — It is 
accorded, that the King shall have his weights in a 
certain place, or two places, or three, or four, if neces- 
sary, within the City ; and that all merchandizse sold by 
weight that exceeds five-and-twenty pounds, shall be 
weighed with the King's weights in weighing for the 
custom that pertains thereunto, according as shall be 
ordained. And unto such weights of the King as well 
buyers as sellers are to resort, after the form above 
stated. 

And if any person shall be found weighing merchan- 
dize, that is weighable, above the weight of five-and- 
twenty pounds, otherwise than by the King's weights, 
and be attainted of the same, let the merchandize of 
such person be forfeited unto the King, in whatever 
hands the same shall be found ; and let the other party 
be heavily amerced unto the King. And let the 
weighers be sworn unto the King lawfully to weigh for 
1?.203.b. vendor and for buyer. And if the weigher shall be 
attabited of having weighed falsely, for gift or for pro- 
mise, for the one party or the other, let him be im- 
prisoned for a year and a day, if he cannot make 
restitution at the will of the King ; nor shall he ever 
unto that office thereafter be re-admitted. 

^.2o3.b. Of Servants buying Merchandize and Goods. 

Page 286, 

And if it so happen that any servant or apprentice of 
a man of the City shall buy goods of foreign merchants 
VT others, and shall carry such goods to his master's house 
where he is, let his master be answerable unto the 
said merchant for the value of the goods aforesaid, if the 



y^ 






FT IT.] MERCHANTS NOT TO BE MOLESTED. 105 

merchant can prove that such apprentice or servant 
was [living] with the said master when he took the 
merchant's goods, and that the goods in his house, or 
elsewhere in his possession, have come unto the master 
aforesaid. And this Ordinance is made, by reason 
that folks of the City sometimes, after such manner 
of goods so taken by their servants and by their 
apprentices, have been in the habit of discharging 
their apprentices and their servants and disavowing 
their acts, but have retained the goods ; whereby the 
merchants have lost their goods without recovery. 

Feoffees not trading shall pay Tallage. Page 286. F.203.b. 

And when tallage shall be assessed upon the people 
of the City, let the tallage be assessed, as well upon 
landholders enfeoffed who do not trade, as upon dealers 
who trade. And always, let consideration be had, that 
each person is assessed unto the tallage according as 
he is able [to pay]. And in a case of tallage which falls 
upon landholders enfeoffed, let only those lan^ds and 
rents be comprised therein which they hold within 
the City, and not their tenements that are with- 
out. And the tenements of denizens are comprised 
in the tallage because the same are devisable, and 
therefore are property of a more certain nature than 
merchandize. 

That Merchants coming towards the City shall not he P.203.I). 

molested. Page 287. 

And whereas merchants have been oftentimes molested 
by the bailiffs of the City, sometimes for eight days and 
more, so that they could not unload and harbour their 
goods and merchandize which they had brought by 
water, or place the same in safety. — The King doth will 
and command, that from henceforth no one shall be 
molested in such manner that he cannot freely, on his 



106 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

r 

arrival, unload his goods in the due and ordinary places 
[for the same], and harbour the same where he shall 
think best ; saving always the estate of the King, as to 
his Prisage and as to all other things which unto him 
pertain. 

F.203.b, That Merehant'Strangers, sufficient thereunto, may 

enjoy the Franchise, Page 287. 

And the King doth will, that if any merchant of a 
strange land, [a man] good and sufficient, through 
whom the King, his city, and his territory may be 
profited, shall come and wish to dwell in the City 
and enjoy the standing of the citizens of the city ; 
and shall be testified to be a lawful merchant and 
of good repute, or as contributing in tallage and 
all other customs and charges, and to have well 
and lawfully behaved himself in his own [country], 
and well and lawfully to have departed therefirom ; 
let such person be admitted to the standing of 
the citizens aforesaid, unto the like franchise, in such 
manner as the King shall have ordained for his own 
citizens in respect of buying and selling ; as also, unto 
ail customary franchises ; so nevertheless, that he shall 
be answerable with the citizens, according to his pro- 
portion, in the matter of tallages and all othei* things 
' that unto the City pertain ; and let him be in every 
:way on an equal footing with them, as well in [bear- 
ing] the charges as in [enjoying] the franchise. 

F. 203. . Of Penthouses^ Gutters, etc. Page 288. 

And the King doth will, tbat all usages heretofore in 
the City established for the amendment and profit of the 
City, as to the streets, keeping clean the lanes without 
accumulation of dung and filth, and annoyance by 
chips and stones, penthouses, gutters, jettees of houses, 






pril] REGULATIONS AS TO WAGES OF LABOURERS. 107 

stands for carts [sliod] with iron for the use of the City, F.204.a. 
corn-porters, carts with wood for sale, [shall be observed] 
that so no one enter the City except at the certain place 
thereunto assigned. 



^Of the Weaving of Woollen Cloth. Page 288. 

Of the weaving and dyeing of long cloth. Of markets, 
— that none shall be held except in certain and esta- 
blished places. Of streets [and lanes leading down to 
the Thames, — that they shall be cleansed and kept free 
from filth. Of lime, — that it shall be well burnt and 
lawfully measured. Of good tiles, — [that they shall be] 
well burnt and well leaded, and of the old dimensions. 
Of woad, — [that it shall be] lawfully measured, and 
that by lawful persons thereunto sworn, and by 
rightful quarter thereunto assigned. Of lepers, — 
that no one shall come into or make sojourn in the 
City. Of vendors of fish and of flesh, — that they shall 
not throw their water upon the pavement in which 
thev wash their fish and their flesh, but shall have it 
carried unto the Thames. Of fishmongers, — of the form 
and manner of selling their fish. Of poulterers and of 
pelterers, — after the like manner. Of the assize and 
ordinance as to nets, great and small, for fishing in the 
river of Thames. Of making the pavement, and repair- 
ing the same. Of taking away and removing from the. 
streets [aU] filth and dung. 



V. 204. a. 



Of Labourers, Page 289- 

Further, as to carpenters, masons, plasterers, daubei^s, 
tilers, and their servants, — ^what they shall take through- 
out the seasons of the year together, with all the other 
good usages, and good and reasonable customs, by the 



r.204.a. 



^ This title is incorrect, as the 
Chapter is only an aggregate of 



former regulations which are still to 
be observed. 



&i^ 



108 LIBER AIBUS. [b. Ill, 

Mayors and Aldermen heretofore made and ordained, 
for the profit and advantage of the City : as is before 
said, let the same be strictly kept and observed in all 
points, under the penalties thereon provided and 
ordained. 

F.2o*.a. Of FishmoTigers and Poulterers. Page 289. 

And that no fishmonger, or poulterer, or regrator, f 

shall buy victuals in any manner for resale until after 
Prime rung out at Saint Paul's ; that so the btiyers for 
the King and for the great lords of the land, and the 
good folks of the City, may after their own good 
[pleasure] purchase as aforesaid what for them may 
sufiice. 

^.204 3. TItat no one shall receive the Tenants of others. 

Page 289. 

And that no one shall receive the tenant of another 
in his own tenement, if he be not lawfully quit of 
the tenancy and have satisfied the landlord where 
he shall have before resided, and have made full satis- 
faction unto him for his rent. 

Nor shall any freeman of the City hold partnership 
with, or act as broker of merchandize for, a strange 
person, whereby the King or his bailiflTs may lose the 
custom due. \ 

p. 201 a. That all persons shall be obedient unto the Officers 

of the City. Page 290. 

And the King doth will, that aU persons shall be 
obedient \into all his bailifls, within Court and with- \ 

out, in all places ; and that no one shall be such as to 
do them injury, and that no one shall molest them in 
doing execution of judgments, attachments, and dis- 
tresses, or of all other things which, unto the bailiflT it 



1 



PTII.] ORDINANCES AS TO FORMS OF PLEABING. 109 

pertaineth to do. And be ifc announced unto them by 
their superiors, that if any one considers that a bailiff 
does him wrong, against him he may have recovery 
therefor before his superiors, to whom it pertaineth 
to cause amends to be made. 

And he who shall do otherwise, and shall of such 
injury be convicted, in word or in deed, within Court 
or without, or of any hindrance done unto any one of 
the bailifls or officers of the King, — let him be punished 
by imprisonment, or by fine, according to the offence, 
and according as he shall be in the habit of so doing. 

That Aldermen shall he not placed wpon Inquests. F.204.b, 

Page 290. 

And the King doth will, that the Aldermen of the 
City shall not be placed upon Inquests within the City, 
so long as they are Aldermen and judges for the carry- 
ing out of judgments and other pleas which unto them 
pertain, or to their chief 

The Ordinance for Pleading. Page 290. f. 204. b. 

The Ordinance as to pleading in the City shall be 
such. — ^That in pleas of land, order and process [shall 
be observed] in all points, and Hustings shall be holden 
at such times and in such manner, as has heretofore been 
the usage; save only, that each person, when he shall 
be solemnly demanded and does not appear forthwith, 
shall incur the [penalty of making] default ; and on the 
morning of the morrow shall receive judgment, and 
entry shall be made thereof. Save also, writs of cus- 
toms and of services, the which must be pleaded and 
determined in such form as heretofore they were wont 
to be ; but as to other judgments, let them be awarded, 
according to Common Law, by the Warden and by the 
Aldermen; devised lands excepted, as to which the 



1 



no 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. III. 



King doth will that the usages shall be maintained. 
And if judgment he matter of doubt, by reason whereof 
the judges have need of taking counsel — the which 
taking of counsel has heretofore been called ^ Hoquendm, 
— such time for taking counsel includes the space of 
two Hustings at most; that so at the third Hustings 
judgment shall be given without further delay. For of 
a longer time they have no need, seeing that they 
always - when their Hustings are held, and that there 
are Justiciars in the City whom they may consult. 
And the King doth especially forbid that any judgment, 
whatever it be, shall by colour of such postponement 
for taking counsel thereon be delayed. 






F. 204.1). Of Wrongful Judgment delivered. Page 291. 



a 



And if any man feels himself aggrieved by 
wrongful judgment, let those by whom the record is 
returned, forthwith cause the record to be brought in 
writing imto such place, and before such persons, as 
the King shall appoint to hear the same within the 
City, according as is the usage at Common Law. 






p. 204.1). That the Warden shall have a Roll, and the Aldermen 

a Counter-roll, of the Pleas, Page 291. 

And the King doth will, that the Warden shall have 
a EoU, and the Aldermen a Counter-roll, of all manner 
of pleas before them pleaded, and of all matters before 
them recorded. And upon Inquest held, let [the jurors] 
be sworn thereon, in the same manner as is done else- 
where in the Court of the King. And let this be 
observed as well in plea of trespass and of debt as 
in plea of land. 



) 



>> 



^ Le, * points to be discussed.' 
2 The words are omitted in the 



original that are requisite to com- 
plete the sense. 



ptil] warranty given by vendors of lands, ni 

And a joint Inquest, of denizens and foreigners, shall 
be made of twelve persons, the half of whom must be 
denizens and the other half foreigners dwelling in town, 
if the matter be contract of debt or trespass whereof 
foreign merchants may have knowledge. 



Of Vendors of Lands. Page 292, 

And whereas heretofore there was no remedy pro- 
vided in the City for warranty by those who are 
vendors of lands, when they have wholly sold all their 
lands, so that nothing remains unto them; by reason 
whereof the persons enfeoflfed, when they ^ vouch such 
[vendors], have no means of recovery, because such 
vendors have no [lands]. And yet, nevertheless, such 
vendors do trade upon the monies received for their 
lands so sold, and are rich in personalty.- — It is 
[therefore] ordained and established, that the persons 
enfeoffed, when they shall have need, shall ^have their 
voucher against those by whom they shall be enfeoffed 
and who are resident in the City. And if such person 
does not appear at the first summons, let the tenement 
for which he is vouchee be ^extended, at its exact 
value in the state in which it was, and of the goods 
of the vouchee let there be taken to the amount of 
such extent into the King's hand, in place of ^ Gape, 

And if he appears at the day given by the Gape, 
after his goods have been appraised, let the matter take 
such issue upon judgment given, and as to the goods 
so appraised, as it would have done in reference to 
land if [such vouchee] had been a landholder ; seeing 



F. 204. b. 



^ Give the names of the original 
vendors as warranty for the title, 
when they themselves make sale. 

^ Ze. shall be able, on defect being 
found in the title, to reconp them- 
selves from the personalty (as well as 



realty) of the original vendor. 

^ I.e. valued. 

^ Meaning procedure at Common 
Law by the ancient Writ of Cape ad 
valentiavi. 



112 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. III. 



P. 205. a. 



that tenements in the City are equally as devisable as 
chattels. For which reason, the warranty ought in 
such case to fall as much upon chattels as upon tene- 
ments, seeing that the one and the other are [equally] 
^ chattels : but so long as the vouchee shall have lands 
which may suffice for the warranty, this Statute is 
not to be held to apply to chattels ; nor is it to hold 
good against any one except against those who shall 
be residing in the City, and as to goods and chattels 
which they shall possess within the City, of which the 
Warden, by virtue of his jurisdiction, shall be able to 
make execution. And this enactment, as concerning 
chattels, shall hold good only as to the person of the 
vendor, and not as to his heirs ; nor shall it hold good 
[as to them], if they have not land by descent at law, 



p,205.a. That Purchasers of Lands shall not eject the Teimors. 

Page 293. 

And whereas some persons in the City do let their 
tenements in the City for a term of years, and during 
such term do sell the same tenements to others than 
such termors, [to be held by them] in fee for ever ; 
under colour of which feoffment the feoffees do eject 
the termors ; for which ejectment no remedy has here- 
tofore been provided. — ^The King doth will and com- 
mand, that from henceforth such persons ejected by 
feoffees in manner aforesaid, upon plaint newly made 
unto the Warden, within forty days next after eject- 
ment made, shall have their recovery at the Hustings, 
in the same manner that they shall have the same at 
Bank, by Writ of Chancery that is called *^ * Quare 
' ejecit' The which plaint and plea are to be brought 



!> 



^ Le, in an equitable point of 
view, as l^eing equally the subject of 
devise or bequest 



2 ' Why he has made ejectment,* 
within the term. 



i 



) 



PTII.] DEBT ALLEGED UPON A TALLY* 113 

unto the Hustings in the same manner and upon the 
same issue that such pleas are brought in Bank by 
writ ; seeing that the people of the City are traders, 
and have need of speedy remedj'' for grievances tliat 
are done unto them ; and the Chancery is sometimes 
^far awav from them. 

And if the person to whom such wrong shall be 
done, shall surcease during the forty days aforesaid 
making plaint thereon, after the forty days in no 
manner may [redress] be made without the writ afore- 
said ; provided always that such plea, [made] by writ 
and plaint, shall have the same issue. And by this 
enactment the writ of covenant is not to be annulled, 
so as no longer to hold good in its own proper case 
within the City. 

Of Debt and Contract Page 294. F.205.a. 

In plea of debt and of contract, no record of a man 
of tlie City shall hold good for a man to be charged 
thereon, unless it be of a matter as enrolled before 
the Warden, Sheriffs, [or] Aldermen, at their Hustings, 
or in their ^ Court. 



Of a Tally alleged Page 294. 

And if it happen that between merchant and mer- 
chant, or citizen and citizen, there is a dispute as to 
a debt, and a tally is produced by one party, and such 
tally is disowned ; then let the party bringing the 
tally have his proof according to Law-Merchant : pro- 
vided that the proof [is made] by citizens or mer- 
chants, or other good and lawful men, and not by 
ribald persons. 



* As moving wjtli the Court ^ j^ ^lie Sheriffs' Court, 

from place to place. 

VOL. IlL H 



114 



IIBER AliBXJS. 



[b. III. 



* The Tertia Lea:, or < Third 
Law.' 
2 Supplied fromLiberCustumarum. 
^Making an error in declaring, 



or stating his case. The same as 
'Miskenning,' previously mentioned. 
See Glossary to Liber Cvstumarurn, 
p. 743. 



'^m 



i',205.a. Of a person waging his law, his own hand the seventh 

Page 294. 

In plea of contract and of debt, when the party 
plaintiff has neither writing nor tally, the defendant 
may defend himself by [waging] his law. But in plea 
of trepass, as for bloodshed or for battery, the matter 
is determined by Inquest, unless it so be that the party 
plaintiff assents that the defendant shall clear himself 
by [waging] his law. And [in such case] the person is 
to make his law [with * six compurgators], his own 
hand the seventh. And this order is to be observed 
as to aU pleas that are pleaded in the City, as well 
with reference to denizens as to foreigners. And if it 
shall so happen that any one unadvisedly makes wager 
of law in a case where Inquest lies,^ [he is not there- 
fore to be adjudged as undefended, but is to be put 
by the Judge to the Inquest which so lies], without 
having other damage therel)y. And no person is to 
be too lightly challenged in such manner of pleas for 
^ miscounting or for [error in] making defence ; provided 
only that he use such words as are requisite for trial 
to be made of the whole [matter in dispute]. 



( 



1 

F.205.a, That no poor 'man shall he challenged because he does 

not use the words in Court due according to law. 
Page 295. 

Nor shall any poor man or foreigner, or one igno- 
rant of the law, be challenged for default made, in 



^> 



PTllJ AMERCEMENTS NOT TO BE EXCESSIVE. 115 

not using the words that are due and usual according 
to the custom of the realm, both in declaring and in 
making defence; but such persons shall be fairly ad- 
mitted to speak the truth upon the whole [matter in 
dispute]. Provided always, that on issue joined the 
matter shall receive such adjudication as is before, 
ordained. 

That nothing shall he taken for making execution, F.305.b. 

Page 295. 

And the King doth strictly forbid, that Warden, 
Alderman, Sherifi^ or any other officer of the King in 
the City, shall receive anything for doing aught that 
unto their office pertains, or for execution of judg- 
ment; save only fines and amercements, and such 
things as, according to ancient usage, are reasonable 
and admissible by law. 

Tliat a Court for Foreigners shall he kolden daily, r.sos.b. 

Page 296. 

And whereas the King doth wiU that no foreign 
merchant shall be delayed by a long series of plead- 
ings, the King doth command that the Warden or 
Sheriffs shall hear daily the pleas of such foreigners 
as shall wish to make plaint, or cases in which others 
shall wish to make plaint against foreigners ; and that 
speedy redress be given unto them. And if the War- 
den or Sheriff upon any day shall be unable [to act], 
then let there be some one in their stead to do the 
same, for whom they shall be ready to answer : that 
so the foreign merchants be in no manner delayed* 

That no one shall he amerced except according to the i\205.b, 
extent of the offence. Page 296. 

And the King doth command, that no merchant, 
denizen or foreigner, shall be amerced, except accord- 



116 LIBEE ALBUS. [B. III. 

ing to the extent of the offence, ^ saving his merchan- 
dize, according to the cognizance of the pleas that 
they are wont to hold. 

But in especial he doth will, that of all pleas that 
were wont to bo pleaded before the Mayor and Alder- 
men at the Hustings, cognizance shall be had by the 
Warden; and that the Sheriffs, in their Court, shall 
have cognizance of all pleas that were wont to be 
pleaded [before them] before these Ordinances. Pro- 
vided always, that the issue of such pleas, as well at 
the Hustings as in the Sheriffs* Court, shall be such 
as is before ordained. 

t\205.b. Of Pleas of the Grown. Page 296. 

In Pleas of the Crown, whei'e a citizen or other man 
of the franchise of the City of London, for felony by 
the death of a man caused within the City, is in- 
dicted upon Inquest taken before the Coroner, and 
put in prison ; and according to usage heretofore was 
wont to be bailed from prison by twelve reputable 
men, [ready] to have his body before the Justiciars 
Itinerant at the Tower, when they should come thither, 
— It is provided, that from henceforth, a person so im- 
prisoned shall be bailed by such twelve reputable men, 
who shall give security for him to have his body 
before the Justiciars Itinerant at the Tower, when they 
shall come thither, or before such other Justices as the 
King shall think proper to assign, to hear and deter- 
mine in such case. 

And whereas many persons imprisoned heretofore 
have died before the coming of the Justiciars Itinerant 
to the Tower, by reason whereof the felonies in such 
cases were not, and could not be, proved or punished.^ 
And when the King shall assign Justiciars so to act 

* This passage appears to te in- I * At this point there is some 
complete. 1 omission, to all appearance. 



p^il] oath of the mayor. 117 

out of the Iter, then are such Justiciars to give notice 
unto 'the SheriflFs by their Writ to cause the persons 
out on bail to be warned, wheresoever they may be, and 
also the bailors to be warned to have the persons so 
bailed before them on a certain day ; which day, from 
the time of warning, is to embrace the space of four 
months. And upon the day on which the Justiciars so 
assigned shall come, they shall proceed with such matter 
in the same way and upon the same issues as was the 
usage before the Justiciars Itinerant at the Tower. 
And be it made known, that this manner of law ought 
to be observed as against those accused of homicide, 
such accused being of the City and. of the franchise of 
London. And if a foreigner, or strange man, shall be 
challenged with having done such thing in the City, 
proceedings must be taken according to the Common 
Law. 

Oath of the Mayor, Page 306. l?.207.b. 

"You shall swear, that well and lawfully you shall 
" serve our Lord the King in the office of the Mayor- 
'' alty in the City of London, and the same City you 
" shall surely and safely keep to the behoof of the- 
** King of England, and of his heirs, Kings of Eng- 
*' land ; and the profit of the King you shall do in all 
*' things that unto you belong to do, and the rights of 
the King, in so far as unto the Crown they belong 
within the said city, you shall lawfully keep. You 
shall not assent unto the decrease, or unto the con- 
cealment, of the rights or of the franchises of the 
King ; and where you shall know the rights of 
the King or of the Crown, be it in lands, or in 
rents, or in franchises, or in suits, to be concealed 
or withdrawn, to your utmost power you shall do 
" to repel it ; and if you cannot do it, you shall tell 
it unto • the King, or unto them of his Council, of 
'' whom you shall be certain that they will teU it 



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118 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 






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" unto the King. And that lawfully and rightfully 
'^ you will treat the people of your bailiwick, ^ and 
" right will do unto every one thereof, as well 
*' unto strangers as to denizens, to poor as to rich, in 
" that- which belongeth unto you to do ; and that 
neither for highness, nor for riches, nor for promise, 
nor for favour, nor for hate, wrong you shall do to 
" any one ; nor the right of any one shall you disturb, 
'^ nor shall you take anything whereby the King 
" may lose, or by which his right may be disturbed, 
" And that in all things which unto the Mayor of the 
" said city it pertaineth to do, as weU in the regula- 
3?.208.a, « ^Jqj3^ ^f victuals as in all other things, well and 

" lawfully you shall behave yourself. — So God you I 

" help, and the Saints." 

^.208* a. Oath of the Sheriffs. Page 306. 

"You shall swear, that you shall be good and true 
" unto N. the King of England, and his heirs, and 
'' the franchise of the City of London you shall save 
'^ and maintain, within the City and without, according 
" to your power; and that well and lawfully you 
" shall keep the Counties of London and of Middel- 
" sexe, and the offices which unto the same Counties 
*' appertain to be done weU and lawfully shall you do, 
" according to your wit and power ; and that right 
" you shall do as well to poor as to rich ; and that 
" no good custom you shall break, or evil one main- 
" tain. And that the assizes of bread, and of ale, 
" and all other assizes which unto you pertain, within 
" the franchise of the City and without, well and 
" lawfully you shall keep and shall cause to be kept. 
" And that the judgments and executions of your Court 
^* you shall not delay without reasonable cause, nor 
" any right disturb ; and that the Writs which unto 
'^ you shall come, touching the state and the fran- 
*' chise of the City, you shall not return before you 



PHI.] OATH OF THE ALBERMEN. 119 



" have shown them unto the Mayor, for the time 
" being, and to the Council of the City, and of them 
" have advice. And that ready you ishall be, at 
" reasonable warning of the Mayor, for keeping and 
" maintaining the peace and state of the City. And 
" that all other thiags which belong unto [your] 
^' office and the keeping of the said ^ Counties, lawfully 
" you shall do, by you and yours, and the said City 
" shall keep from harm, according to your wit and 
" power. And that the Comity of Middelsexe or the 
" keeping . of the Gaol of Newgate you shall not let 
** to ferm." — So God you help, and the Saints/' 

Oath of the Aldermen, Page 307. :t\208.^. 

" You shall swear, that well and lawfully you 
" shall serve our Lord the King in the City of Lon- 
" don, in the office of Alderman in the Ward of N, 
'• wherein you are chosen Alderman, and shall law- 
" fully treat and inform the folks of the same Ward 
" of such things as unto them pertain to do, for 
*^ keeping the City, and for maintaining the peace 
*•' within the City ; and that the laws, usages, and 
" franchises of the said city you shall keep and 
" maintain, within town and without, according to 
" your wit and power. And that tender you shall 
" be to save and maintain the rights of orphans, 
" according to the laws and usages of the said city. 
" And that ready you shall be, and readily shall come, 
" at the summonses and warnings of the Mayor and 
" ministers of the said city, for the time being, to 
" speed the Assizes, pleas, and judgments of the 
" Hustings, and other needs of the said city, if you 
" be not hindered by the needs of our Lord the King, 
'^ or by other reasonable cause; and that good law- 
" fill counsel you shall give for such things as touch 

* Of London and Middlesex. 






120 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

'• the common profit in the same city. And that 
'' you shall sell no manner of victuals by retail; 
'' that is to say, bread, ale, wine, fisb, or flesh, by 
" you, your apprentices, hired persons, servants, or 
'^ by any other; nor profit shall you take of any 
" such manner of victuals sold during your office. 
" And that well and lawfully you shall [behave] your- 
" self in the said ofiice, and other things touching 
*' the City. — So God you help, and the Saints." * 



K208.a. Oath of the Recorder. Pfige 308. 

" You shall swear, that you shall be good and true 
*^ unto Richard, King of England, and to his heirs, 
'* Kings, and unto the City of London, in the ofiice 
'* of Recorder; and the franchises and usages of the 
" same city, both within town and without, according 
" to your po\\5^r you shall maintain, and the counsel 
" of the same city you shall not discover ; and that 
" well and continually you shall keep and rule the 
" King^s Courts, in the Chamber and the Hustings, 
*' according to the custom of the City. And that 
" you shall not omit for gift, or for favour, or for 
'^ promise, or for hate, that equal law and right you 
*^ shall do to all manner of folks, as well to poor as 
" to rich, to denizens as to strangers who before you 
V. 20S. b. « shall plead in the Hustings' Pleas, and in all other 
*' manner of Pleas; and in all pleas which before 
" you shall be pleaded you shall lawfully record 
" the same, and your diligence shall do to see that 
the said pleas are well and lawfully enrolled, and 
no right you shall disturb ; and that no judgment 
*' you shall delay, without reasonable cause, And if 
" you shall know the rights or profits of the King 
" or of the said city, be it in lands, rents, tene- 
" ments, or forfeitures, to be withdrawn or concealed, 
" you shall shew the same unto the Mayor and | 






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Prii.] OATH OF THE CHAMBERLAIN. 121 

'* Aldermen, for the saving of the rights of the said 
'' King and the City. And readily you shall come 
'' at the warnings of the Mayor and Sheriffs, or of 
" their officers, for good and wholesome counsel unto 
" them to give; and at all times when need shall 
" be, with them you shall go and ride, to keep 
and maintain the state of the City, And that 
nothing you shall take from any person, denizen or 
'^ stranger, who has before you any cause to plead ; 
" and no fees or robes shall you take from any one, 
" save only from the Chamber of London, during 
your office. And that attentive you will be the 
rights of orphans to save and maintain, according 
to the laws and usages of the City. And in all 
other things which unto your office it pertaineth to 
do, well and lawfully you shall behave yourself — 
" So God you help, and the Saints." 



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Oath of the Chamberlain. Page 309. P.2os,b. 

" You shall swear, that well and lawfully you shall 
serve the City of London in the office of Chamber- 
lain, and whatever you shall have in your charge 
touching the City, that same you shall safely keep, 
and the counsel of the City conceal; the rights of 
'• orphans, so far as unto you belongs, you shall save 
" and maintain; and no record or other muniments, 
whereby the City may be disadvantaged, you shall 
shew or deliver unto any one, nor shall any record 
'^ which contains the right of a person wrongfully con- 
ceal or deny ; nor shall receive any person unto the 
j5.*anchise of the City otherwise than is ordained. 
And that the lands, tenements, and rents, belonging 
unto the Chamber, you shall duly maintain ; and 
the profit of the City, so far as you shall know, 
shall according to reason increase ; nor any harm 



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122 



LIBER ALBtrS. 



[B. III. 



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unto the City shall you permit, but to the best of 
your power shall prevent the same, or otherwise 
unto the Mayor or to the Council of the City, for 
the time being, shall make known the same. And 
in all other things which unto your office pertain, 
well and lawfully you shall behave yourself. — So 
God you help, and the Saints." 



*> 



P.208.b. 



Oath of the Common ^Oomitor. Page 310. 

*^ You shall swear, that well and lawfully you sliall 
serve the City of London in the office of Common 
Serjeant, and the ]aws, usages, and franchises of the 
said city shall keep and defend, within the City and 
without, according to your wit and power ; and the 
rights of orphans you shall pursue, save, and main- 
tain; and good and lawftil counsel you shall give 
in all tilings touching the common profit of the 
same city, and the counsel thereof shall conceal ; 
and the common harm of the City you shall not know, 
but to the best of your power you shall prevent 
the same; or unto the Council of the City shall 
make it known. And attendant you shall be on 
the Mayor, and Aldermen, and Commons, for the 
causes and needs of the City, at all times when 
you shall be thereunto required and charged ; and 
the same, in all places where need shall be, you 
shall lawfully shew and declare, and shall attentively 
prosecute and speed, for the common profit of the 
City. — So God you help, and the Saints.'' 



v.m.h. Oath of the Common Serjeant-at-Arms. Page SIO. 

'' You shall swear, that well and lawfully you shall 
" serve the City of London in the office of Common 



■X- 



Or Pleader. 



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pril] OATH OF THE COMMON CLERK. 123 

" Crier, and the laws, usages, and franchises of the 
" said city yon shall keep and defend, within the City 
^- and without, according to your wit and power. 
" And the counsel of the City you shall keep ; and 
the common harm of the City you shall not know, 
but to the best of your power you shall prevent 
the same, or unto the officers and Council of the 
City shall make it known. And the common business 
of the City at all times that you shall be required, 
in all places where need shall be, you shall diligently 
perform ; and in all other matters which unto your p. 209. a. 
office pertain, well and lawfully you shall behave 
yourself. — So God you help, and the Saints/' 



Ocdh of the Common Clerk Page 311. i\2O0.a. 

" You shall swear, that well and lawfully you shall 
serve the City of London in the office of Common 
Clerk, and the laws, usages, and franchises of the 
City shall keep and defend, within the City and 
without, according to your wit and power ; and 
that you shall use your diligence that all pleas of 
Hustings and of Nuisances are lawfully entered and 
enrolled ; and no enrolment, by yourself or by any 
other, without assent of the Mayor and Recorder, 
shall you make or suffer to be made. And obedient 
you shall be unto the Mayor, Judges, and Council of 
the City ; and good counsel unto them, according to 
your power and wit, in all things touching the 
government of the City and the common profit of 
the people, you shall give. And the counsel of 
the City you shall keep, and the common harm 
of the City you shall not know, but to the best 
of your power you shall prevent the same, or unto 
the officers and Council of the City shaU make it 
known ; and whatever you shall have in your keeping 
touching the City you shall safely keep. You shall 



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124 LIBER ALBUS. [b. 111. 

" shew or deliver no records or other muniments unto 
any one, whereby the City may be hurt, and no | 

record that contains the right of any person shall 
you evilly conceal or deny; nor shall you keep 
any clerk serving under you in Court, but sucli 
as at your own peril you shall be willing to answer 
for ; and the same are to be sworn in presence of ^ 

the Mayor and Aldermen, and in all other things 

" that unto your oflic© pertain^ " 



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i\209.a. Oath of the Serjeants of the Mayor and Chamber 

Page 312. 



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'^ You shall swear, that well and lawfully you shall 
" behave yourself in your oflSce, and without delay 
*' due execution make of the matters with which you 
" shall be charged on part of the Mayor, Aldermen, 
" and Chamberlain, and of the judgments delivered in 
'* the Court of the Mayor ; and no fines or amerce- 
" ments, greater than such as shall be contained in j 

" the estreats which by the Court shall unto you ^ 

" be delivered, shall you levy from any person, 
" poor or rich ; nor shall you do any extortion by 
" colour of your office unto any one, and upon In- 
" quests you shall return good and lawful folks, 
" and not persons suspected or procured by your 
" assent. And the common profit of the City, in so 
'' far as unto you belongs, you shall promote, and 
" unto the contrary thereof, to the best of your power, 
" you shall not agree ; and towards the common people 
'' well and lawfully you shall conduct yourself, and 
" in all other matters which unto your office pertain, 
" well and lawfully you shall behave yourself — So 
** God you help, and the Saints." 



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* The conclusion of this Oath is omitted, probably by inadvertence. 






m:.- 



pill] OATH OF THE SCAVAGEKS. 125 

Oath of the Oovstahles, Page 312. p.sos.a. 

^^ You shall swear, that you shall keep the peace 
*' of our Lord the King well and lawfully according 
" to your power, and shall arrest all those who shall 
" make any contest, riot, debate, or affray, in breaking 
'^ of the said peace, and shall bring them unto the 
*' house or Compter of one of the Sheriffs. And if 
*' you shall be withstood by strength of such misdoers, 
'^ you shall raise upon them hue and cry, [and] shall 
^' follow them from street to street, and from Wai*d 
'^ to Ward, until they are arrested. And also, you 
" shall search, at all times when you shall be re- 
*' quired by Scavager or Bedel, for the common nuisances 
'^ of the Ward; and also, if there be anything done 
" within your bailiwick contrary to the Ordinances of 
" the City. And the faults that you shall find, you 
" shall present them unto the Mayor and to the 
" officers of the said City. And if you shall be with- 
" stood by any person or persons, that you cannot 
" duly do your office, you shall certify unto the Mayor 
" and Council of the said city the name and names of 
" such person or persons who trouble you. And this 
'^ you shall not fail to do. — So God you help, and 
'^ the Saints/' 

Oath of the Seavagers, Page 313. F.209.b 



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You shall swear, that you shall diligently oversee 
that the pavements within your Ward are well and 
rightly repaired, and not made too high in nuisance 
of the neighbours; and that the ways, streets, and 
lanes are cleansed of dung and of all manner of filth, 

" for the decency of the City ; and that the chimneys, 
furnaces, [and] reredoses, are of stone, and sufficiently 
defended against peril of fire ; and if you find any- 

" thing to the contrary, you shall shew it unto the 



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126 lilBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

" Alderman, that so the Alderman may ordain for the 
'^ amendment thereof. And this you shall not fail 
*' to do. — So God yon help, and the Saints/^ 



p.aoD.b. Oath of the Bedels, Page 313. 

*^ You shall swear, that well and honestly you shall 
'' keep the "Ward of which you are Bedel ; and shall 
^^ suffer no man accused of robbery or of evil covin, 
" or huckster of ale, or woman keeping a brothel, or 
" other woman commonly reputed of bad and evil life, 
*^ to dwell in the same Ward, but you shall forthwith 
" shew the names of such unto the Alderman, to the end 
" that he may have them turned out within fifteen days. 
^' And if Alderman do it not, you shall at once, and 
" after the fifteen days ended, make known the same 
" unto the Mayor* And if any one shall make affray, 
*^ or draw sword, or knife, or other weapon, you shall 
'^ make known the same unto the Chamberlain of the City 
^' or unto the Sheriffs, that so they be able to make 
^^ levy by their Serjeants of such misdoers, in manner 
" ordained for keeping the peace of our Lord the King. 
'* And also, you shall return good and lawful folks 
" upon Inquests at the Hustings, and before the Sheriffs 
" and Coroners, and not folks suspected of mainte- 
" nance of parties [to the suit]. And the returns 
*' that you shall make, you shall shew unto your 
'^ Alderman two or three days before the Hustings, 

that he may see if your return is sufficient or no. 

And that you shall know no poultry or other small 
" victual, or malt, or corn, to be received in any privy 
*' place, or to be sold in secret, or against the ordinance 
" of the Mayor, but you shall warn the Mayor and 
" the Sheriffs thereof; nor shall you be officer in 
'^ any Court Christian during your office of Bedel- 
'' ship ; nor shall you brew, by yourself or by any 









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V 



ptil] oath of the brokers. 127 

" other, to sell ; or keep an oven, or a cart for hire ; 
" nor shall you be a regrator of any victuals, or a 
" huckster of ale, or a partner with such. And all 
" other things which unto your office pertain to do, 
** well and lawfully you shall do. — So God you help, 
'^ and the Saints/' 



Oath of those who shall be put under Frank-pledge, F.209.b. 

Page 315. 

" You shall swear, that you shall be good and true 
unto the King of England and to his heirs, Kings, 
*^ and the Kings peace you shall keep; and unto the 
'^ officers of the City you shall be obedient, and at all 
" times that shall be needful, you shall be ready to 
" aid the officers in arresting misdoers, and those 
" disobedient to the King's peace, as well denizens as 
" strangers. And you shall be ready, at the warning 
'^ of the Constables and Bedels, to make the watches 
" and [to bear] the other charges for the safeguard of 
" the peace, and all the points in this Wardmote shown, 
according to your power you shall well and lawfully 
keep. And if you know any evil covin within the 
Ward or the City, you shall withstand the same, or 
unto your Alderman make it known. — So God you 
^' help, and the Saints." 



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Oath of the Brokers, Page 315. F.209.b. 

" You shall swear, that you shall not deal, by your- 
self or by any other, in any merchandize whereof 
you shall make brokerage ; nor shall you make any 
bargain if you do not bring the seller and the buyer 
together, and lawfully witness the bargain between 
them ; and no bargain shall you make between alien 
and alien of any wares. And all the bargains which 
you shall have to make, you shall effect them as well 



128 LTBER ALBUS. [B. Ilf. 






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for the poor as for the I'ich ; and you shall take for 
no brokerage more than at the Guildhall is and shall 
F.sio.a. " be ordained. And you shall make no bargain of 
usury, under pain of paying one hundred pounds 
nnto the Chamber, as also of incurring the penalty 
for usury for Brokers heretofore ordained. And if 
you shall know of any man meddling with any 
brokerage within the franchise of the said city, who 
has not been admitted by the Mayor and Aldermen, 
and sworn unto the said city, you shall make such 
laiown unto the Mayor and Chamberlain of the said 
city for the time being. — So God you help, and the 
'' Saints." 

F.210. a. Oath of the Ale-Conners. Page 316. 

" You shall swear, that you shall know of no brewer 
*' or brewster, cook, or pie-baker, in your Ward, who 
" sells the gallon of best ale for more than one penny 
^^ halfpenny, or the gallon of second for more than 
" one penny, or otherwise than by measure sealed 
^' and full of clear ale; or who brews less than he 
" used to do before this cry, by reason hereof, or with- 
" dra,ws himself from following his trade the rather 
'^ by reason of this cry ; or if any person shall do 
" contrary to any one of these points, you shall certify 
" the Alderman of your Ward [thereof] and of their 
names. And that you, so soon as you shall be re- 
quired to taste any ale of a brewer or brewster, shall 
be ready to do the same ; and in case that it be less 
good than it used to be before this cry, you, by assent 
of your Alderman, shall set a reasonable price there- 
" on, according to your discretion ; and if any one 
shall afterwards sell the same above the same price, 
unto your said Alderman you shall certify the same. 
'' And that for gift, promise, knowledge, hate, or other 
'' cause whatsoever, no brewer, brewster, huckster, cook, 
" or pie-baker, who acts against any one of the points 



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PT il] oath of under-sheriffs and their clerks. 129 



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aforesaid, you shall conceal, spare, or tortiously ag- 
grieve; nor when you are required to taste ale, 
shall absent yourself without reasonable cause and 
true ; but all things which unto your office pertain 
to do, you shall well and lawfully do. — So God you 
help, and the Saints/' 



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Oath of the Under-Skeriffsy and of their Clerks, F.2io.a. 

Page 317. 

" You shall swear, that well and lawfully you shall 
serve your masters who are elected Sheriffs of London 
" and Middlesex for the year next to come ; and that 
you shall not fail, for gift, or for faVour, or for pro- 
mise, or for hate, to deal equal law and right unto 
" all manner of persons, as well poor as rich, denizens 
" as strangers, who before you shall plead, without 
*' making maintenance of any one's suit. And that, 
" to the best of your power, you shall not suffer other 
" persons to be summoned upon Inquests or juries 
" than such as are good and lawful, and not of kindred 
" to, or procured by, [either] party. And all pleas that 
" before you shall be pleaded, you shall lawfully re- 
" cord the same, and your diligence shall use to over- 
" see that the said pleas are well and lawfully entered 
" and enrolled, at the suit and prayer of the party, you 
" taking reasonable payment for the entry [thereof]. 
*' And no one's right you shall withstand, and no 
" extortion unto any person, by colour of your office, 
'* or of the office of your masters, do ; and no judg- 
" ment you shall retard, without reasonable cause. 
" Also, the franchise of the said City you shall keep and 
*' maintain to the utmost of your power; and obedient 
" you shall be unto the Mayor and to the Judges 
'* of the said City ; and good counsel unto them, ac- 
" cording to your power and wit, in all things touch- 
" ing the government of the City and the common 

VOL. III. I 



130 LIBER ALBUS. [E. III. 









profit of the people, you shall give ; their counsel 
you shall keep, and no one you shall amerce more 
" highly than is by the Common Council of the City 
" ordained: and for fines for affrays and bloodshed, 
" without any concealment, you shall unto the Cham- 
" berlain lawfully account, in manner thereupon or- 
** dained. And that you shall not suffer your fermors 
to take any other customs than those which are due 
and reasonable, and anciently of usage in the said city. 
" And that the Writs which come to you touching the 
"state and the franchise of the City, you shall not 
" return, before that you have shown the same unto 
" the Mayor for the time being, and unto the Council 
" of the City ; and that of them you shall have know- 
" ledge; and the issues, fines, and amercements that 
" come to you under the Green- Wax or the Pipe, you 
*' shall lawfully levy, and no part of them increase ; 
p. 210.13. " and those who shall have paid, you shall well and 
" lawfully discharge, and shall not again make demand 
" thereof. And that you shall charge the grooms of 
" the Serjeants who take cartage in the City, upon 
" their oath, that they shall take no more cartage 
" than they ought to take; nor shall aggrieve folks 
" coming to the City with their victuals, by way of 
" [taking] cartage that is for their own wares : and 
'' that you shall deliver no judgment contrary to any 
" Ordinances made by the Mayor and Common Council 
"of the said city, if the same have not been by the 
'^ said Council withdrawn or amended; and that in 
these things and all others touching your office well 
and lawfully you shall behave and comport your- 
" self — So God you help, and the Saints/' 

F.2io.b. Oath of the Sheriffs' Serjeants. Page 318. 

" You shall swear, that well and lawfully you shall 
" behave yourself in your office, and shall be obedient 



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Pril.] OATH OF THE SHERIFFS* GROOMS. 131 

" unto the Mayor and to the Judges of the same city, 

" and their honour, so far as in you lies, shall save ; 

*' and no fines and amercements you shall levy of any 

" person, poor or rich, greater than those which shall he 

*' contained in the estreats which shall be delivered 

" unto you by the Court ; and no extortion you shall 

" commit by colour of your office against any such. 

" And due and diligent execution of whatsoever you 

*' shall be charged with by the authorities of the City, 

" lawfully and without delay you shall perform. And 

" upon Inquests good and lawful folks you shall 

" return, and not, by your assenting thereto, persons 

" suspected or procured; and no execution for your 

" private profit you shall delay ; and the Ordinances 

" unto which the Common Council of the City have 

" agreed, for the peace of our Lord the King and for 

'* the common profit of the people, to the best of your 

*^ wit and power you shall maintain and keep ; and 

towards the common people well and peaceably you 

shall conduct yourself. — So God you help, and the 

« Saints/^ 

Oath of the Sheriffs Oroams, Page 319. P.2io.b. 

" You shall swear, that you shall be obedient unto 
" the Mayor and superiors of the City, and shall by 
" colour of your office no extortion commit ; and that 
'^ you shall take no more cartage than for the time 
" shall be needed, nor shall aggrieve folks coming to 
" the City with their victuals, by way of [taking] 
'* cartage that is for their own wares ; and that the 
'' punishments upon judgment given, wherewith you 
'* shall be charged by your superiors, in good and 
'^ righful manner you shaU execute, without giving 
'* warning unto any guilty persons, privily or openly. 
'* And that in aU other your deeds and words as a . 
'' good and lawful man you shall comport yourself. — 
^' So God you help, and the Saints/' 

I 2 






132 LTBER ALBUS. [B. lit. 



[ARTICLES OF THE WARDMOTES, AND THE 

INQUESTS THEREOF.] 

f.2i3.a. Of the Peace, Page 332. 

In the first place, that the peace of God and Holy 
Church, and the peace of our Lord the King, he 
strictly kept between clerks and laymen, rich and poor, 
in common. 

p.2i3.a. Of Strangers, Page 332. 

Item, that no person be resident or harboured within 
the Ward, if he be not of good repute and under frank- 
pledge charged before the Alderman of the Ward, even 
though he have been under frank-pledge in another 
Ward. 

p. 218. a. Of the same. Page 832. 

Item, that no one receive a stranger in his house 
beyond a day and a night, if he be not willing to 
have him ready to stand his trial, if it so happen that 
he offends. 

F.2i3.a. Of Courtesans and Procuresses. Page 332. 

Item, that no woman of lewd life, bawd, courtesan, 
or common scold, be resident in the Ward; but be 
forthwith removed by the Alderman and driven out of 
the Ward, or else be brought by the constables and 
bedel unto the Compter, and there to remain in man- 
ner that is provided in the Article as to the Peace. 



I 



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-7 

! 



F.2i3.a. Of erectimg Furnaces, Page 832. 

Item, that no man or woman erect any furnace or 
furnaces, or place any hearth beneath where they are ; | 



r 



pTII.] WAHDMOTE REGUIATIONS. 133 

or any reredos where a fire is made for preparing bread 
or ale, or for cooking meat, near unto partitions, laths, 
or boards, above or in a solar, or elsewhere, by reason 
whereof accident by fire may easily arise. And if any 
such there be, that the Scavagers cause the same im- 
mediately to be removed or destroyed ; for doing the 
which, the Scavagers shall have four pence for every 
such nuisance so removed or destroyed. 



Of Ghimifieys, Page 333. r.2i3.a. 

Item, that no chimney be from henceforth made, ex- 
cept of stone, tiles, or plaster, and not of timber, 
under pain of being pulled down. 



Of Rebellious Persons. Page 333. T'.2i3.a. 

Item, if there be any one, whether foreigner or de- 
nizen, who is not willing to be amenable unto the 
officers of the City who have the peace of our Lord 
the King to keep, all folks belonging unto the peace 
shall be ready and prepared to come in aid of the 
officers, for arresting and bringing to justice such dis- 
obedient persons, according as the law demands. 



Of Scotale, Page 333. ^- 218. a. 

Item, that no person of the "Ward make Scotale in 
the same Ward, or in any other place within the fran- 
chise, under pain of imprisonment. 

Of Labourers. Page 334. F.2is.a. 

Item, that no one hire or pay masons, carpenters, 
daubers, tilers, or any other labourers whatsoever, 
otherwise than according to the Assize thereon by tho 



p. 213. a. 



134 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

Common Council of the City ordained, under pain of 
paying unto the Chamber double the amount of the 
excess. 



Of Ladders, Page 334 

Item, that all persons who dwell in great houses 
within the Ward, have a ladder, or two, ready and 
prepared to succour their neighbours in case misad- 
venture shall happen by fire. 



F.2i3.a. Of Barrels filled with Water, Page 334 

Item, that all persons who occupy such houses, have 
in summer-time, and especially between the Feast of 
Pentecost and the Feast of Saint Bartholomew [24 
August], before their door a barrel fiiU of water for 
quenching such fire; if it be not a house that has a 
fountain of its own. 



F.ai3.a. Of the Carpenters' work in Houses, Page 334, 

Item, that no house within the liberties be other- 
wise covered than with lead, tile, or stone ; and if any 
such there be, that the same be forthwith rased by the 
constables and scavagers, they taking for their trouble 
as before [stated]. 



F.2i3.a. Of Oroohs of Iron, Page 335. 

Item, that the reputable men of the Ward, with the 
Alderman, provide a strong crook of iron with a 
handle of wood, together with two chains and two 
strong cords ; and that the bedel have a good horn, 
and loudly sounding. 



■ 



PiIL] 



WARDMOTE REGULATIONS. 



135 



Of Dirt Page 335. 

Item, that no person throw straw, dust, dung, ^ saw- 
dust, or other nastiness, into the streets [or lanes, but 
cause the same to be taken by the rakers or others 
to the places ordained for receiving such dirt, under 
penalty of two shillings [to be paid] unto the Chamber. 



f'.213.a. 



Of Rakers, Page 335. 

Item, that they have rakers sufficient for cleansing 
the Wards of divers refuse ; and order the constables, 
with the bedel, to help them to collect their salary 
from the folks of the Ward. 



p. 213. a. 



Of Swine and Cows. Page 335. F.2i3.b. 

Item, that no persons rear swine, oxen, or cows, 
within their houses, under pain of forfeiture thereof 
unto the Chamber. 



Of Sealed Measures, Page 335. 

Item, that all persons who sell by measure within 
the Ward, that is to say, by gallon, pottle, and quart, 
quarter, bushel, half-bushel, and peck, shew all their 
measures four times in the year unto the Alderman, at 
such place as he shall think proper to assign, under 
pain of paying two shillings to the use of the Alder- 
man ; and there they shall be sealed with the seal of 
the Alderman, if the same be not sealed with the 
seal of the Chamber : and [the party] shall pay for 
the seal of a gallon two pence, and for the seal of a 
pottle one penny, and for the quart one halfpenny ; for 



F.213.b. 



* This is, perhaps, the meaning of 
* wodegor'; a word that has not been 
met with elsewhere. If read as two 



words, it may mean *refase-wood 
' and mud.' 



■ivsa 



f 

« 

136 LIBER ALBUS, [B. III. 

the quarter eight pence, for the bushel two pence, and | 

for the half-bushel one penny, and for the peck one 
halfpenny. 

And if any measures be, upon the assay of the Alder- 
man, smaller than they ought to be, let the same be 
burnt forthwith in the principal street of the "Ward, 
that so they may not serve another time; and the 
name of him who has used them shall by the bedel be 
presented unto the Chamberlain, and [such person] 
amerced according to his deserts. And if it be found 
that the bedel puts the mark upon a false measure, 
let him have judgment of the pillory. 



^•2i3.b. Of Stalls. Page 336. 

Item, that no stalls be beyond the house of a greater 
breadth than two feet and a half; and let the same 
be moveable and flexible, at the discretion of the 
Alderman, according as the streets or lanes are broad 
or narrow. 

r.2i3.b. Of Penthouses. Page 336. 

Item, that the penthouses be so high that persons 
may easily go and ride beneath the same ; and if there 
be any such lower than they ought to be, let the same 
be amended by the end of fifteen days after notice 
given thereon by the constables, scavagers, or bedel ; or 
otherwise, let the same by them be demolished, they 
taking for their trouble four [pence], as above. 

F.zis.b. Inqidsitions at the Wardmotes, Page 337. 

You shall present if the peace of our Lord the King 
has been broken, or any affray made within the Ward 
since the last Wardmote, and by what person or per- 
sons the same was done ; or if there has been any 



I 



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I 

1 



1 



I 

I 



j.is; •'■•. 



ptil] wardmote inquisitions. 137 

covin, or assemblage against [the peace of our Lord 
the King]. 

Item, if there is any one resident or harboured within 
the Ward, who is not a lawful person, or not of good 
fame, or under frank-pledge. 

Item, if any woman of lewd life, or common scold, 
or common bawd, or courtesan, is resident within the 
Ward. 

Item, if there is any oven, furnace, or defective 
reredos, within the Ward, whereby it is likely that 
misadventure by fire may arise ; or if any persons use 
other fuel than wood or charcoal, against the Ordi- 
nance of the City. 

Item, if any taverners, brewsters, hostelers, or chand- 
lers, sell without measures sealed with the seal of the 
Alderman, or of the Chamber of the Guildhall ; and if 
any one of them sells against the assize made thereon 
by the Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council of the 
City ; and if any one of them receives gamesters or 
other riotous persons after the hour forbidden by the 
Ordinance of the City ; and if there are any persons in 
the Ward who are outlawed. 

Item, if there is any huckster in the Ward. 

Item, if any house in the Ward is covered with any 
other roofing than tiles, lead, [or] stone, and none with 
reeds or straw. 

Item, if there is any one whose custom it is to place 
filth in any streets and lanes within the Ward, and 
offensively before the doors of others. r.2i4.a. 

Item, if any swine or cows are reared within the 
Ward, to the annoyance of the neighbours. 

Item, if any leper is resident in the Ward. 

Item, if any bargain of usury has been made within 
the Ward since the last Wardmote. 

Item, if any purprestures are made in the streets or 
lanes, or upon the walls or fosses of the City, or upon 
the Thames or other common soil within the Ward. 



138 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 



resultiEg therefrom. 









Item, if any baker of tourte [bread] bakes white 
bread, or the converse. 

Item, if [there are] any persons in the habit of wan- 
dering within the Ward after forbidden hours, and in 
manner forbidden by the Common Council of the City. 

Item, if any officer of the City has made any extor- 
tion or aifray within the Ward under colour of his 
office, to the wrong and detriment of any person ; and 
what it is that has been so done, and how done ; or if ' 

any person is a maintainer or ^ champertor of litigation 
that is carried on within the Ward. 

Item, if any person pays, or gives as wages unto, 
masons, carpenters, daubers, tilers, or any other labourers 
whatsoever, more than is ordained. 

Item, if any ale-stake of any tavern is longer or 
projects further than is ordained. 

' One who encourages litigation with the view of sharing in the profits 
; therefrom. 






FT III.] THE MAKING AND aALE OF ALE. 139 



THIRD BOOK. 



PART THE THIRD. 

Of the Sale of Ale. Page 358. p.2i6.a. 

"Let proclamation be made, that every brewer and 
" brewster sell the gallon of best ale for one penny 
" halfpenny, and the gallon of second for one penny, 
" and not more, to any person ; and that they make 
" and brew as good ale, or better, as they were wont 
" before the proclamation, lately made in this same 
" year and place. And that every vessel that is 
" brought or removed unto any brewhouse to be filled, 
" stand there one day and one night, full of ale for 
*' working; and that upon the second morning, at the 
" taking away thereof, it be well filled with good 
" and clear ale. And that every brewer and brewster F.2i6.b. 
" follow his and her trade in such manner as they 
" were wont, brewing as much as such person has 
" been accustomed, and not less by reason of this 
*' Ordinance* And if any brewer or brewster be not 
** willing to brew, or brew less than such person was 
" wont to brew, let such person be held to be a with- 
" holder of victuals from the City, and for such dis- 
" obedience and malice incur the penalty of imprison- 
" ment, at the will of the Mayor for the time being ; 
" and nevertheless, let such person forswear the said 
" trade within the franchise of the City for ever, 
" And that each brewer and brewster, so soon as ever 
" such person shall have made a brewing, send for the 
'* Aleconners of the Ward wherein they dwell, to taste 
" the ale, that so he or she sell no ale before that the 
" said Aleconners have assayed the same, under pain of 
'^ forfeiture of the same ale so sold ; one half thereof 
" to go to the Chamber, and the other half to the said 
" Aleconners ; the which Aleconners shall be elected in 



140 LIBER ALDUS. [B. IIL 

" each Ward of the said City, according to the advice 
" and assent of the Alderman and reputable men of 
" the same Ward, and shall be removed when they 
" please. And that the Aleconners, or two of them, 
" be always ready, when they are required, to taste 
^* any ale and to perform their duty, under pain of 
" imprisonment, at the will of the Mayor. And in case 
" that any ale be not so good as it was wont to be, 
" that the same be then sold according to the price set 
" thereupon and ordained, by assent of the Alderman 
" of the Ward and of the Aleconners deputed there- 
" imto. And if any man or woman sell the gallon 
^" of best ale at a higher price than one penny half- 
" penny, and the gallon of second at a higher price 
" than one penny, as is aforesaid, and shall thereof be 
" attainted, let him or her pay, the first time, forty 
" pence ; that is to say, one half thereof to the Cham- 
" ber and fche other half to the Aleconners of the 
*^ Ward. And if such person be a second time thereof 
" attainted, let him or her pay half a mark ; and if 
'^ a third time, one mark, to be divided equally in 
" manner aforesaid. And if such person be a fourth 
" time thereof attainted, let him or her forswear the 
" said trade within the franchise of the City for ever. 
** And if any brewer or brewster be attainted by any 
" other person than an Aleconner, of having acted 
in contravention of the point aforesaid, let the 
Chamber have one half of the sum forfeited, and 
" the person at whose suit he or she shall have been 
" attainted, and the Aleconners of the Ward, the other 
" half, equally to be divided between them. And if 
'^ any person sell by measure not sealed, or at a higher 
" price than is ordered by the said Alderman and 
" Aleconners, [or] in case that the ale be not so good 
*' as it was wont to be, as is before mentioned, let such 
** person be imprisoned and make fine, at the will of the 
" Mayor. And further, let the Alderman in each Ward 
^* have power to sell the gallon of ale at such pwce 



« 



PTIII.] REGULATIONS FOR THE SALE OF ALE. 141 



« 

(I 



as he shall think fit, in case the brewer or brewsfcer 
be attainted before him of having sold the gallon of 
ale at a price between the prices above limited, 
" Item, that no brewer or brewster sell any manner 
of ale unto any huckster, under pain of paying 
to the use of the Chamber the value of the ale so 
sold, and of his or her body [being committed] to 



(I 



" prison, at the will of the Mayor/' 

Of Ale. Page 360. F.2i6.b. 

'' Item, that no huckster from henceforth buy any 
manner of ale for resale, under pain of losing the 
ale so bought, or the value thereof; one-half [to 
go] to the Chamber, and the other to the Ale-con- 
ners of the Ward ; the body of such person being 
also [committed] to prison, at the wiU of the Mayor. 
" And if any Aleconner, for gift, promise, or favour, 
shall screen any brewer, brewster, or huckster, who 
" has contravened any of the points aforesaid, or shall 
« not duly perform his office, aa is aforesaid, without 
" sparing any person, man or woman, and without 
" tortiously aggrieving, and shall thereof be attainted, 
" let him incur the penalty of imprisonment for eight p, 217. a. 
" days, without redemption or pardon granted by the 
" Mayor or any other person whatever; and let him 
" make fine, at the discretion of the Mayor for the*^ 
" time being/ 

0/ the same. Page 361. ^-an-a. 

" Item, that no brewer or brewster sell any ale to 
any person for resale ; and that no one buy it of 
any brewer or brewster for resale, under pain of 
" forfeiture of all the ale so sold or bought, and of 
" imprisonment of his or her body at the will of the 
" Mayor. But let it be fully lawful for aJl hostelers 
*' to buy their ale of brewer or brewster, so far 
'^ as they shall need the same for their guests ; pro- 
^* vided always, that they sell unto their said guests 









142 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

" only at the price of two pence per gallon, and no 
'' more; and that, by sealed measure, gallon, pottle, 
" and quart, under the penalty and pain of imprison- 
" ment aforesaid/' 

F.2i8.b. Writ against Usurers. Page 367. 

" Edwardj by the grace of God, King of England, 
'* Lord of Ireland and of Acquitaine, to our well- 
" beloved the Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs, and all the 
Commonalty of our City of London, greeting. 
Whereas we have heard that from day to day you 
'^ do your utmost to put an end to the horrible vice 
" and knavery of usury and ^extortion, which have 
'* been long suffered and upheld in our said city ; we 
«' do heartily congratulate you upon the same, and do 
'' command and charge you, upon the . fealty and alle- 
" giance that you owe unto us, that you continue your 
" diligence in this respect from one day unto another, 
" and that you make thereon, for better certainty, a 
*• reasonable Ordinance among yourselves for punishing 
" brokers who assent to such bargains by bodily 
*' punishment, and the principal actors therein by 
*' forfeiture of their chattels and imprisonment of their 
" bodies, in such manner as you shall be best advised 
to do, according to what is right ; and that you ap- | 

point from among youi*selves two Aldermen of the r. 

" most sufficient, who meddle not with such bargains, | 

and four commoners of the most sufficient among 
you, the said Commonalty, also in no way involved 
in such bargains, to be associated to sit with the 
" Mayor each time that such manner of disputes shall 
" be brought or agitated before him; and that they 
" hold final discussion thereupon, according to the 
^* Ordinance aforesaid, without sparing any one. And 
^^ [we do order] that you do inflict punishment for all 

^ There is, apparently, no exactly | for 'wio/e ckevance* meaxung 'evil 
corresponding English expression I ' acqttisition of property.* 



it 






': f 



/ 






ptiil] oebinance against usubers. 143 

" manner of such contracts made within our said city 
" and your franchise, as well by foreigners as by 
" denizens ; understanding for certain that we do hold 
'* him guilty in this respect, who shall counterplead 
^' the said Ordinance. And we do command and 
^' charge you, that after you shall have assented there- 
" to, and shall have caused to be engrossed in writing 
'* the said Ordinance, you do cause the same to be 
" proclaimed and pubUshed throughout all our said 
" city, that so every man may know the same, and 
" may strictly observe it always, without corrections 
" and adjustments thereof by us and by om* Council ; 
certifying us in our Chancery of the same Ordinance 
when you shall so have made it. Given under our 
Privy Seal at Westminster, the 7th day of March, 
in the eight-and-thirtieth year of our reign/' 3^ 






r^'t 






An Ordinance against Usurers, Page 868. ^ p.2i8.b. 

" Whereas heretofore the City of London has sus- 
tained great mischiefs, scandals, and damages, and in 
time to come might sustain the same, by reason of 
'^ «certam persons who, neither for fear of God nor for 
*' shame of the world, do cease, but rather do daily exert 
" themselves, to maintain the false and abominable con- 
" tract of usury, under cover and colour of good and 
" lawfiil trading; the which kind of contract, the 
" more subtly to deceive folks, they call ' exchange ' or 
" ' chevisance ; whereas it might more truly be called f. 219. a. 
" ^ * wickedness,' seeing that it ruins the honour and the 
" soul of the agent, and sweeps away the goods and 
" property of him who appears to be accommodated, 
" and destroys all manner of right and lawful traffic, 
" whereby, as well throughout aU the land as the said 
" city, they ought principally to be upheld and main- 
" tained. Wherefore, all the good folks of the city 
*' aforesaid, that is to say, the Mayor and Aldermen, 



1 ( 



MescheaunceJ' 



r 



144? LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 



« 



'i 



** with the assent of the Commons, to the honour of 
** God in especial, and for the amendment and relief f 

" of the people, as also for eschewing the mischiefs, * 

" scandals, damages, and knavery aforesaid, have or- 
" dained and established that no one of the said city, 
" nor any other person whatever, as well of foreign 
** lands as of this land, shall be so daring from henee- 
" forth as to intermeddle with, or carry out, such false 
'^ bargains. And hereupon, they have ordained and 
** established, that if any person of the said city, or 
*^ any other person whatever, shall be attainted from 
^' henceforth of having made and accomplished any 
" such bargain, and the person upon whom the loss 
" has fallen shall think proper to make complaint 
" unto the Mayor for the time being, within forty 
" days after his day of payment, the said Mayor shall 
" forthwith cause distraint to be made upon him 
" who shall be impeached thereof, as well by his 
" body as by all his goods ; and that when he shall 
have been attainted, he shall be kept in prison, with- 
" out mainprise, until such time as he shall have made 
" full restitution unto the other party of what he has 
" so lost, as also, until he shall have discharged him 
" of all manner of obligations, instruments, sentences, 
" or other claims whatsoever, touching the said bar- 
" gain : and further, until he shall have made [amends] 
" unto the Chamber of the Guildhall for the contempt, 
" — that is to say, [by payment of] a like sum to that 
" which he would have falsely gained if the said bar- 
" gain had remained in force. And in case that the 
" party so aggrieved, through fear or for any other cause 
" whatsoever, shall not think proper to make complaint 
" within forty days, as is before stated, it is agreed 
" that any person whatever, who shall think proper 
" to sue on behalf of the King and the City for con- 
" viction of such knavery, shall be heard. And if any 
" person shall be attainted in such maimer, either by 
" indictment or in any other manner, let him have 



► 



I 



•^ 



prill.] ORDmANCE AGAINST USURERS. 145 

<* the same punishment, so far as paying a fine unto 

" the Chamber ; and in addition thereto, he shall pay 

" as much unto the said Chamber as he ought to 

'' have paid unto the party, if he had been attainted 

" at the suit of the party. And the said good folks 

" do will, that every person who shall be attainted 

" three times of such knavery, shall forswear the said 

" city for ever without ransom, under penalty of per- 

" petual imprisonment ; and that no person who shall 

^ " be so impeached shall be allowed to have any other 

" counsel than himself, for making answer unto such 

" matter. And whereas such bargains are but rarely 

" carried out without false brokers, who for their own 

" profit do often intermeddle so as to deceive both 

^ " parties, the said good folks have also ordained and 

• ' " established, that all those who shall from henceforth 

" be attainted of acting as brokers in such knaveries, 

" shall, the first time, be put in prison for one whole 

" year; and if they shall be a second time attainted 

" thereof, that they shall forswear the said city for ever, 

" and shall be led through the City, with their heads 

.. " uncovered, unshod [and] without girdle, upon horses 

i " without saddles; and shall be so escorted from the r.2i9,b. 

*' midst of the place unto without one of the Gates of 

I " the said city ; that so, all others may be warned 

L " through them, and be the more abashed to commit 

" such or other like knaveries. And be it made known, 

> " that the intention is of all the good folks, that the 

" punishments aforesaid shall be incurred as well by 

" those who shall be attainted of being partners in 

" the said bargains, as by the principals [therein.] And 

k " be it made known, that this Ordinance extends as well 

" unto foreigners as unto denizens, in respect of all 

y " manner of such bargains made within the said fran- 

^ r " chise. It is also ordained and established, the more 

" utterly to root out such knaveries, that four times 

" in each year Inquisitions shall be taken for each 

" Ward of the City, before the Mayor for the time 

VOL. III. K 



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146 LIBER ALBtrS. [B. II. 

" being ; that is to say, by the best and most trust- 
" worthy persons who shall be found within the said 
*^ Wards ; such persons being diligently examined upon 
*' the same business. And also, all the good folks do 
will, that each Alderman be chai'ged to make en- 
quiry at his Wardmote in the same manner. And 
« to the end that people may the better distinguish 
" and know false and deceitful exchange from that 
" which is good and allowable, and also harmful con- 
" tract from that which is right and proper, as well 
" for the better eschewing scandals upon good and 
" lawful merchants, as for discovering the malice and 
" deceit of subtle and false compassers :— It is further 
" ordained and strictly established, as a profitable con- 
" elusion unto all the matter aforesaid, that there shall 
" be chosen two Aldermen and four Commoners of 
good repute and good discretion, and guiltless of 
such misdeeds; before whom, or three, or four of 
them, in presence of the Mayor for the time being, 
all such complaints shall be heard and determined, 
" and the contracts wisely examined, that so deceit 
" and falsehood may not lie concealed in any manner 
" therein. The which well and lawfully to accom- 
" plish, the Aldermen and Commoners so chosen shall 
" be especially charged upon their oaths, that, without 
" having regard to any, but unto God only and their 
" loyalty, they shall use their best diligence according 
" to the form and manner aforesaid. And if anv of 
" such Aldermen or Commoners shall be attainted 
(which may God forbid) of having taken substance 
[or] gift, in money or in goods, from any one of the 
" parties in such a case, or of promise before made 
" between them by covin, such person shall forswear 
" the Guildhall and shall pay unto the Chamber four 
" times the sum which he shall have so received, or 
" which he may think to have by reason of promise 
" before made/' 



n 



(( 






ptiil] fraudulent bills of exchange. 147 

Letter under the Privy Seal against tortious Contracts ip. 219. b. 

of Exchange. Page 371. 

Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, 
Lord of Ireland and of Acqnitaine, to the Mayor and 
*^ Sheriffs of London, greeting. We are continually 
" pressed by divers complaints of the great and of the 
" commons of our realm, for that many merchants and 
" others, dwelling in our city of London, colourably 
" and subtly have made, and do make from day to day, 
" divers exchanges of money and of other things that 
" do not concern the dealings of lawful merchandize; p. 220. a. 
" whereby very great damage has accrued unto our- 
" selves and to our people, and more will accrue (which 
'^ may God forbid) if remedy be not applied thereto. 
" We do therefore command and charge you, upon the 
" fealty and allegiance which unto us you owe, that 
** in all best manners and ways that you know of or 
*' may, you do cause diligently, and from time to time, 
*^ enquiry to be made as to such exchanges, and as to 
" the persons who have made [the same], and who shall 
" from henceforth make the like, be they Lombards, 
*' French, English, or of any other nation or condition 
" whatsoever ; as also, for whom and for what cause, 
" how and in what manner, and in regard to what 
" town, country, or place, such exchanges have been 
" effected or shall hereafter be effected; and that, 
" in so far as you may find thereon by such Inquisi- 
*' tions or by other credible information, you do certify 
" successively ourselves and our Council thereon, with- 
** out shewing remissness or favour in such case in 
" behalf of any person whomsoever : to the end that 
" such amendment and remedy may be applied thereto 
'' in fact as has been heretofore ordained thereon ; and 
" that our said people may have neither matter nor 
" cause for making complaint unto us for the same 
" reason. And further, you are to cause to be called 

" before you all and singular the merchants and other 

K 2 



148 LIBER ALBUS. [b, IIL 

*' persons, who do make, and whom yon reasonably 
*' think to liave, or do hold in suspicion of having, 
'^ made, or of being about to make, any exchanges 
" within our said city and throughout all your juris- 
" diction ; and to cause the same to be sworn upon 
'* the Holy Evangelists of God, and charge them on our 
" behalf, under pain of forfeiture of body and of goods, 
" that they, without our especial leave, by letters under 
" our Privy Seal, make not, nor suffer to be made, 
*' any exchange with any person other than a lawful 
'^ [and] known merchant, or in behalf of any person, 
*' other than one known as a lawful merchant, and that 
** by way of lawful merchandize, and as to things mer- 
*^ chandizable, exported from our realm or imported 
*' into the same, without favouring, comforting, aiding, 
or sustaining, under shadow or colour proceeding from 
them, any other persons, of whatsoever condition they 
" may be, in making any drawback or payment out 
of our said realm, in deceit, fraud, or defeasance, of 
the effect and tenor of the Ordinance thereon made. 
And this matter you shall cause so duly and dili- 
gently to be observed and put in execution, that no 
fraud may be committed therein by means of any 
exchanges or exchangers whatsoever, against the effect 
** or intention of our present command; as we do 
" put our trust in you, and as you would preserve 
*' yourselves from harm. Given under Privy Seal at 
" our Castle of Wyndesor, this 29th day of July, in 
" the year of our reign thirty-nine." 

p. 221. a. That 710 Person shall go by water or by land to 

regrate Fish. Page 377» 

It is provided and commanded by the Seneschal 
of our Lord the King, that from henceforth no fish- 
monger of the City of London be so daring, under 
penalty of forfeiture of goods and chattels, and of im- 



iC 



(( 



(( 
i( 
<{ 
t( 
i( 
t( 



Pr'lll.] OF THE BASKETS OF FISHMONGEKS, 149 

prisotmient of his body, as to go forth from the City 
of London by water, or by land, to meet sea-fish or 
freshwater-fish, his own or another's, coming towards 
the City aforesaid in boats or on horses, or to dispose 
of the same fish, or to send any part thereof unto any 
great lord, or unto any [house of] religion, or to re- 
grate the same, or ^ [to do] anything whereby to 
withhold the same fish from the City, until the hour of 
the day for the sale of fish shall be past, and the 
^ buyers for the King shall have made their purchases 

in the King's behalf. And if any person be attainted J'.22i.b. 
thereof, let him incur the penalty aforesaid. 

0/ the Baskets of Fishmongers. Page 378. F,22i.b. 

It is also provided and commanded, that from hence- 
forth the fishmongers of the city aforesaid, and their 
partners, shall so ordain that their baskets, in which 
they bring their fish from the sea, be more convenient 
and of larger size ; and that fii'om henceforth each 
basket contain in itself but one manner of fish. And 
that no one of the fishmongers aforesaid, or of their 
partners, be so daring as falsely to ^ dub their baskets ; 
that is to say, to make a show at the top of the 
basket of desirable fish, and beneath, in the baskets, 
to put undesirable fish of little value. And if any 
person be attainted of so doing, such fish is to be 
forfeited, and the dubber to be imprisoned; and 
from thenceforth let him be held as a cheat. And this 
matter is to be cried at London Bridge and in ^ Elde- 
fistrate, and elsewhere in the City where need shall be. 

Of the smnc* Page 378. F.22i.b. 

It is also provided, that in each basket there shall 
be one manner of fish, as is aforesaid ; and that each 



' This passage seems defective. 
" A term still known in Billings- 



gate Market. 
» Old Fish Street, 



150 LIBER ALBTJS. [B. IIX» 

basket shall contain in itself the measure of one 
bushel — ^This matter was proclaimed in London the 
Friday next before Pentecost, in the year of the reign 
of King Edward eighteen. 

p. aa. b. Th& Ordinance of the Fishmongers, Page 379. 

Whereas for some time the reputable men of the trade 
of fishmongers of London had a certain form, whereby 
they were boundto buy and sell their fish in certain 
places and within certain boundaries, according to 
certain points and certain Articles, which are found in 
the remembrances of the City ; the which points used to 
be read in the two ^ Laghalmotes which the reputable 
men hold in presence of the Sheriffs each year; but 
through frequent removal of the Sheriffs and the Bailiffs, 
[and] through too great sufferance on part of some 
of the Bailiffs, the said Articles are not duly observed 
and are abused; by reason whereof it is proper to 
apply a remedy thereto. — In the time of King Edward, 
son of King Henry, in the eighth year of his reign, 
Gregory de Eoke[s]ley, the then Mayor of Lon- 
don, with the reputable men. Aldermen of the City, 
ha^g heard J ^de^tood th, reason of the L 
putable men of that trade, in the way of certain 
amendments to the Articles aforesaid, which the [said] 
reputable men delivered for the common profit of the 
City and of all [other] folks and to the end that 
from henceforth there may be no doubting, but cer- 
tainty, as to how the folks of the trade ought to 
comport themselves, have established and assented in 
such manner as in this book is underwritten, — 

F.22i.b. Of the HaUmotes of the Fishmongers. Page 379. 

From henceforth, that there shall be two HaUmotes 
in the year, — one against the Feast of Saint Martin 

» Le, Law-Hallmotes, 



i 



) 



PT III.] 



REGULATIONS FOR THE SALE OF FISH. 



151 



') 



\ 



[11 November] and the other against Lent. To whicli 
Hallmote shall come all the fishmongers who belong to 
the HaUmote of the ^ one fishmongery and the other ; 
and upon such day as the Sheriff shall be able to attend 
and be there himself, and upon reasonable summons 
made one day before. And one Hallmote is to be holden 
at the Bridge and the other at ^ Westfistrete, whither 
all shall come, to the one and the other. And he of 
those who shall be in the City who shall make de- 
fault upon summons made, shall give 21 pence without 
release of aught or any pardon being granted. 



F. 222. a. 



Of Fresh Fisk Page 380. 

No man of the City, or other person, is to sell or 
buy fresh fish for resale before sunrise, or salt fish 
before the hour of Prime ; and this, as well as to fish 
that comes by land as by water. So nevertheless, 
that the reputable men of the trade may sell their 
own salt fish, in which no ^ foreigner has a share, 
after sunrise ; and the rest, in wMch foreigners have 
a share, after Prime. 

No man is to go forth to meet fish, or to send 
to buy any manner of fish by way of forestalling, 
either far or near, under pain of forfeiting such fish, 
whatever it may be. The boundaries are, the Chapel 
on the Bridge ; Castle Baynard ; and Jordan's Quay. 
No person is to buy fish in any vessel before the 
rope has been first brought to shore ; and not then, 
except in manner before-mentioned. 

No man of the City is to have partnership with 
a stranger, nor shall he receive the fish of a strange 
man in the way of any manner of partnership, or of 



F.222.a. 



^ Meaning that of salt fish and 
stock-fish, as well as of fresh fish. 



2 West Fish Street. 

* I.e, person not free of the City. 



152 



UBEE ALBUS. 



[B. III. 



any manner of Vavowry, either by water or by land. 
But tbe strangers [themselves] must come and sell 
their fish, and must do their best, if one half of the 
^fish is not theirs, for gain or for loss. And as to 
this the strange partner is to make oath [if he 
comes], or else the master mariner, if he pleases, if 
the owner does not come ; and if there be great 
suspicion as to the same, the partner that is free of 
the City [must make oath.] 



F.222.a. Of Oysters and Whelks, Page 381. 

And as to oysters, and whelks, and mussels, that 
come to the City, that no one shall sell them, or avow 
them, but only those who fish them and bring them ; 
nor yet any other fish that folks [usually] bring as of 
their own fishing. And that the King shall have as 
his custom from the boat that brings five tandels of 
whelks, one tandel ; to whatever person and persons the 
whelks belong, whether more or less. And that neither 
oysters, whelks, nor mussels shall lie for sale beyond 
two ebbs and a flood. Nor shall any boatload be sold 
in gross, save that, when the stranger shall not have 
sold all by noon, resellers may buy the remainder and 
put the same in their shops and sell it, and not in 
the boat. 

Nor shall any stranger [buy] of a stranger. And 
the reputable men of the trade who have their boats 
and their own nets, are to sell their fish as they were 
wont ; and strangers are to sell their own fish that 
they bring, without avowry of the fish, at the best 
[price] they may. 

And that all manner of fish that comes into the City 
and is enclosed in baskets, must be as good below as 



» Untrue assertion that it is his 
own. 
* This passage appears contradic- 



tory, and is perhaps imperfect ; the 
same remark extending to the end 
of the section. 



r px m.] UEGULATIONS FOR THE SALE OF LAMPREYS. 133 

above, or better; and each person must see to his 
basket, that so it is. And he who shall sell other- 
wise, is to lose the fish. 

. And as to sturgeon that comes in barrels, that it 

! must all be of one taking and of one salting. 

And as to each manner of fish that comes into the 
City at night, it is not to be removed from the boat 
before the hour of sunrise aforesaid, whether belonging, 
that is to say, to foreigner or to denizen ; supposing 

i that it be not in rainy weather that it comes at night. 

And in such case, it must lie upon the quay of the p.222.b. 
City in keeping of the serjeant of the street, until 
the hour aforesaid. 

And that no manner of fish that comes by land in 
baskets shall be harboured in shops or in house ; but 

i [the dealers ] are to sell the same before their shops in 

view of the people : save as to the reputable men of the 
trade, who may harbour their own fish upon view of 

■ the Serjeant ; provided that, without concealing or dis- 

posing of anything, they fdlly [bring] the same to 
market for sale on the morrow, under pain, as is be- 
fore mentioned. 

Of Lampreys. Page 382. F.222.b. 

And as to lampreys of ^ Nantes, no one is to conceal 
or harbour them upon their arrival with a stranger ; 
but the strangers who bring them are to sell them 
I by the wall of ^ Saint Margaret s. Nor is any one to 

buy them for resale, before the fourth day after their 
arrival. 

Nor shall any stranger sell them by retail after that 
time, except to men of repute and to great lords, and 



' The word * namices * here is an I * New Fish Street ; on the site 
error on part of the original tran- | now occnpied by the Monument, 
scriber for * Nannies* I 



154 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

that by the dozen, or by the half dozen, and not in a 
smaller quantity. 



F.222.b. Of the Oowi of the Fishmongers. Page 383. 

And that they shall have their Court holden by the 
Sheriffs, or by [their] clerks, with the same manner of 
pleading, with the same delays, and with the same 
adjournments as in the Sheriffs own ^house ; that is 
to say, as to all those in the trade in regard to 
matters which touch their trade, and the one with 
another, upon such day as the Sheriff can hear them, 
himself or by his clerks, for the two marks which 
it pays unto the Sheriff yearly. 



F.233.b. Of Apprentices. Page 383. 

And that from henceforth no one shall take more 
than two or three apprentices at most, and that 
only according as he is of ability to support them ; or 
[shall take] any apprentice for a less term than seven 
years, and such term to be completed ; and that, by 
view of four reputable men of the trade, in such man- 
ner that the master and the apprentice, while he is 
working at the trade, come to the Guildhall, and cause 
the covenant and the term to be enrolled ; and also do 
the same at the end of the term, if the death of the 
one or the other does not dissolve [the apprenticeship]. 



F.222.b. AlsOy of Apprentices, Page 383. 

And if the master dies within the term, that the 
apprentice shall come to the Guildhall before the repu- 



* The Sheriffs were in the habit of committing to their Compters after 
judgment given in their ovn houses. 



pr III.] fishmongers' APPEENTICES. 155 

table men, to do the same, that so they may provide 
beforehand that he does not do anything in the trade. 
Also, that no apprentice shall commence dealing, and 
no man shall commit ^ forechedp against another in 
dealing hereafter. But the reputable men of the trade 
are to make their purchases, from henceforth, in a fair 
manner, without injury done to any other person, and 
without forecheap. And that neither for anger nor for 
spite, shall any vendor hold his fish too dear ; and if 
vendors do so, the Mayor and reputable men shall 
assign proper persons to assess the same. 

As concerning those who are now apprentices, that 
no one shall work after Sunday [next], until such time 
as his master and he shall have come to the Guildhall, 
and have caused to be enrolled their covenant and 
the term. 

As concerning the Abbot of Saint Alban's, good 
care must be taken that his buyers buy nothing to 
be taken out of the City, except for the use of the 
Abbot and Convent of the house only. 

No man from henceforth is to buy herrings, mac- 
kerel, or other fish that comes to the City by cart, 
before the hour of noon, for resale. F.223.a. 

Sprats are [to be] sold and measured by tandel 
and half tandel, as from of old they were wont, and 
not otherwise; and not to be sold in gross by the 
boatload. 

The sworn Wardens of the Statutes of the afore- 
said trade, that is to say. — Robert Pykeman, John 
Cros, ^ [Robert le Lunge, John Baudri, Adam de Fule- 
ham the Red, Thomas Cros, Adam de Fuleham the 
Little, — on the West. Henry de Fingerie, Gilbert 
Finchard, Ralph de Brumleye, Richard de Chige- 
welle, Richard le Lunge, Geofirey Scote, Miles de 
Oystregate, William de Bolintone, — on the East.] 

' E:£tortion. 

^ Supplied from Ltber Custumarum. 



156 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

F,223.b. Of keeping the peace. Page 387. 

For keeping and maiiitaining the peace of our Lord 
the King in the City of London and in the suburbs 
thereof, it is ordained by our Lord the King and his 
Council, with the assent of the Mayor, Aldermen, 
and Commonalty of the same city of London, in manner 
following ; — that no one be so daring as to go wan- 
dering about within the said city, or in the suburbs, 
after the hour of curfew rung out at the church of 
Our Lady at Bow, unless he be a man known to 
be of good repute, or his servant, for some good 
cause, and that with a light ; the which curfew shall 
be rung at the said church between the day and the 
F,234.a. night. And if any one shall be found wandering 
about contrary to this Ordinance, let him be forth- 
with taken and sent to the prison of Newgate, there 
to remain imtil he shall have made fine unto the 
City for the contempt, and have found good surety 
for his good behaviour. 

i\224.a. That no one go armed. Page 387. 

Item, that no one, of whatever condition he be, go 
armed in the said City or in the suburbs, or carry 
arms, by day or by night, except the vadlets of the 
great lords of the land, carrying the swords of their 
masters in their presence, and the serjeants-at-arms of 
our Lord the King, my Lady the Queen, the ^ Prince, 
and of the other children of oxlt Lord the King, and 
the officers of the City, and the folks who shall 
come in their company in aid of them, at their com- 
mand, for saving and maintaining the said peace ; 
under the penalty aforesaid, and the loss of their arms 
and armour. 



* Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward m. 



^ 



Prirr.] PENALTIES FOR DRAWING SWORD OR KNIFE. 157 



Of Hostelers. Page 388. F.234.a. 

Item, that every hosteler and herbergeour cause 
warning to be given unto his guests, that they leave 
their arms in their hostels where they shall be har- 
boured ; and if they shall not do so, and any one 
shall be found carrying arms contrary to the said pro- 
clamation through default of warning by his host, 
let such host be punished by imprisonment and by 
fine, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen. 



Of the povjer of arresting Felons anA Misdoers. F.224a. 

Page 388. 

Item, that every man of standing of the said city, 
Alderman and commoner, who is of good repute, have 
power, in absence of the officers, to arrest felons 
and misdoers, and to bring them unto the houses of 
the Sheriffs, that so due punishment may be inflicted 
upon such misdoers. 



That no one draw Sword or Knife. Page 388. F.224.a. 

Item, the better to keep the said peace, and that 
each person may fear the more to break: the said peace, 
it is ordained, that no person draw sword, or knife, 
or other arm ; [and in such case,] provided he do not 
strike, he is to pay unto the City half a mark, or 
remain in the prison of Newgate for fifteen days. And 
if he draw blood of any one, he is to pay unto 
the City twenty shillings, or remain in prison forty 
days. 

And if he strike any one with the fist, but have not 
drawn blood, he is to pay unto the City three shil- 
lings, or be imprisoned eight days. And if he draw 
blood with the fist, he is to pay unto the City forty 



168 LIBER ALBXTS. [B. III. 

pence, or be imprisoned twelve days. And that such 
offenders find good surety, before their release, for 
their good behaviour. And nevertheless, let him upon 
whom the offence has been committed, have his re- 
covery by process of law; and let such offences, as 
to blood shed against the peace of our Lord the King, 
be pleaded before the Sheriffs from day to day, with- 
out any essoin or other delay. 

7.224.8. Of OhampeHors. Page 389. 

Item, the better to provide that right and equal 
law be dealt unto all persons ; — it is accorded, that no 
man, of whatever condition he be, shall come into any 
place of judgment, before any judge, to maintain any 
suit, or in maintenance of any party who has business 
before any judge, at the suit of the King or of [another] 
party; under pain of imprisonment, there to remain 
without mainprise, until he shaU have made fine unto 
the King and to the City for the offence aforesaid, 
and have found good surety that from thenceforth he 
will be maintainer of no suits. 

Item, that each man in trade, and other person 
keeping house in the said city, shall keep no man in 
trade, or in his service, or in any other manner, 
except persons for whom he shall be willing to answer, 
as to behaviour and deed, unto the King and the 
people at his own peril. 

i'.224.a. Of good Watches fm' [keeping] the peace. Page 389. 

Item, that each Alderman cause to be set in his Ward 
good and proper watches for the better preserving of 
the peace; that so, if evil happen through default of 
the watches, the Alderman and all the commons of 
the Ward may be answerable at their peril therefor ; 
F.a24.b. and that each Alderman have the names of all those 



PTIII.] OF PLEAS BEFORE THE MAYOB. 159 

who are inhabitants, and dwellers with the inhabitants 
in his Ward ; as weJl of those who are put in retired 
places to work, as of others. 



0/ Pleas before the Mayor. Page 390. f. 224. b. 

Item, it is ordained that all those who wish to 
make plaint before the Mayor and Aldermen by bill, 
shall find pledges to prosecute their biQs, and the 
Mayor shall do them speedy right, from day to day, 
without any delay, according to the Law-Merchant ; and 
that all the issues and amercements that shall result 
from such manner of bills, shall be levied by their 
officers to the behoof of the Sheriffs ; and that their 
clerks and Serjeants shall be ready, from day to day, 
to enter such pleas as shaU there be pleaded, [and] 
to receive the amercements in form that follows : — 

For every plaint of debt the sum whereof amounts 
to twenty shillings or more, the amercement shall 
be twelve pence ; and if the sum is within twenty shil- 
lings, the amercement shall be four pence; and so as 
to all other pleas, according to the sum recovered, in 
the same manner. Save always fines for affrays and for 
blood shed, [payable] unto the commonalty of the said 
city ; the which shall be received by the hands of the 
Chamberlain for the time being, as is more fully con- 
tained in the Ordinances lately enacted and established 
by assent of the Mayor and Aldermen, Sheriffs, 
and Commonalty; and afterwards by our Lord the 
King and his great Council confirmed, in tlie seven- 
and-thirtieth year of his reign ; the which are entered 
in Book G, folio 111. And further, such manner of 
fines have been for a long time past awarded nnto 
the said Commonalty, etc. 






160 LTBER ALBUS. [B. Til. 



F.225.a. Judgment cbgainst Usurers, Page 394. 

Ralph Cornwaille presented unto the Mayor and 
Aldermen a certain bill, in these words: — 

'^Very honourable Sirs, Mayor, Aldermen, and Com- 
'* mons of London, by way of plaint touching the 
'* horrible vice of usury assigned, sheweth unto you 
" Ea]ph Oomwaille, — that shortly before the Feast of 
" Saint Michael, in the nine-and-fortieth year of our 
'^ Lord the King now reigning, in the Parish of Saint 
" Bartholomew the Little in the Ward of ^Brad- 

stret, he came unto John de Saint Mariemount and 

Aldebrande Gascoigne, a Lombard, correctors, pray- 
'^ ing them to render him aid, in the way of lending 
" twelve pounds until a certain day upon sufficient 
** surety, [he] promising them a sufficient reward for 
*^ their trouble. And they agreed so to do ; whereupon 
" the selfsame correctors went unto Walter Southous on 
" the same business, and caused to be made an obliga- 
*^ tion in double the said amount unto the said Walter 
*' Southous ; in the which the said Ralph and John 
'' Tettesbury, skinner, were bound jointly and severally 
" in the whole. 

" And then the said Ralph, expecting to have the said 
*' sum of twelve pounds, comprised in the said writing, 
" came nnto the said Walter Southous, and the said 
" John Tettesbury with him, to receive the said payment 
" of the twelve pounds, comprised in the said writing, 
P.225.b. " for the use of the said Ralph, and to seal the said 
*' writing. At which time the said John de Saint Marye- 
" mount and Aldebrande delivered unto the said Ralph 
" in the name of the said Walter Southous ten pounds 
" in gold, and no more ; and said that he could not, and 



* Broad Street in the City. 



> 






^n 






¥t hi.] DECLARATOBY ARTICLES ON USURY. 161 

« 

" ought not to, have any more at that time ; where- 
" fore the said Ralph received the ten pounds in gold, 
" and the said Ealph and John Tettesbury sealed the 
" said obligation as to twelve pounds, made in double 
'^ [that amount], by way of surety for the ten pounds 
aforesaid, to be paid on the arrival of the day ap- 
pointed. 

" And on the day for payment, came the said Ralph 
^' unto the said Walter, bringing his payment of ten 
" pounds and demanding the obligation ; and the said 
" Walter made answer to him that this he would not 
*' do, without he were paid twelve pounds. And because 
** the said Ralph would not pay him forty shillings 
" more than his debt amounted to, the said Walter 
" sued him in the Court of one of the Sheriffs of 
'^ London, to the wrong and great damage of the said 
" Ralph. 

" Wherefore, very honourable Sirs, forasmuch as you 
" are ordained to take judicial cognizance of oifences 
" in such cases [committed], may it please you, for 
*' the love of God, to cause all the parties before-men- 
" tioned to appear before you; and to examine this 
" matter and the answer made thereunto, for making 
" known the truth thereon, that so the horrible sin 
" of uBury by such evil contrivance may not have its 



" course." 



A Declaration as to Usury. Page 399. F,268.b. 

"Whereas in the time of John Notte, 'formerly 
" Mayor of London, by command of King Edward, 
" grandsire of our Lord the King now reigning, in the 
" eight-and- thirtieth year of his reign, an Ordinance, to 
" put an end to usury and chevisance in the said 



^ A,D. 1363. 
VOL. III. 



cc 



162 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

^* city and the suburbs thereof, was made by the 
" Mayor and Aldermen ; the which Ordinance is 
** entered in the Chamber of the Guildhall of the said 
" city, in Book G, folio 118. — And whereas the same 
" Ordinance is too obscure, and it is not comprised 
" or declared therein in especial what is usury or 
" unlawful chevisance, Adam Bamme, ^Mayor, and the 
" Aldermen, with the assent of the Commons of the 
" same city, in the Guildhall assembled, on the twelfth 
" day of May, in the fourteenth year of the reign of 
" King Eichard the Second, with good advice and 
wise deliberation thereon, with the assent aforesaid, 
have ordained and declared these Articles as to usury 
** and chevisance, in manner following, that is to say ; 
" — if any person shall lend or put into the hands of 
" any person gold or silver, to receive gain thereby, 
*^ or a promise for certain without risk, let such per- 
" son have the punishment for usurers in the said 
" Ordinance contained. 

" And if any man, denizen or foreigner, shall sell 
" any merchandize and retain the same in his posses- 
sion, or forthwith upon such sale shall buy back the 
same merchandize, to the loss of the buyer, for the 
same let him be punished. 
And if any partners in trade, by covin before made, 
" shall sell goods for the purposes of chevisance, and 
" one of them shall sell the same goods, and the other 
" of them, forthwith upon the sale, shall buy them of 
" him who is so practised upon, for a less price than 
that at which they were at first sold, let them have 
the same punishment. — Provided always, that if any 
person shall be impeached upon any one of the points 
aforesaid, he shall be able to acquit himself by his 
" oath, with two good and lawful persons not sus- 
" pected of such default, without any Inquisition being 

^ A.D. 1390 and 1396. 



J 



« 
« 
« 



(C 

<i 



Priri.] PETITION AS TO WRIT OF ERKOR. 163 

« taken thereon, as is contained in the former Ordinance 
" aforesaid. 

" And that no broker shall meddle with any manner 
" of brokerage, if he be not admitted and sworn before 
" the Mayor and Aldermen ; and that [such brokers] 
" shall bring the vendor and buyer together, as in 
" their oaths is more fully set forth. And in addition 
" thereto, that every broker shall find sufficient pledges 
" that he will not intermeddle to make any bargain of 
" usury, under pain of paying one hundred pounds unto 
" the Chamber, and further, of incurring the penalty 
" in the aforesaid Ordinance contained. And if any 
" person shaU know of any man, a denizen, doing the 
" contrary of any one of the points aforesaid, he is to 
'' make the same known unto the Mayor and Aldermen 
" in the said city. And if the offender be convicted 
" thereof, the person so certifying shall have one fourth 
" part of the fine for his trouble/' 



Petition as to Writ of Error. Page 408. ^' 228. a. 

A certain Petition was presented by the reputable 
men of London in the Parliament of our Lord the 
King, m the eighth year of his reign, in the vjords 
that follow : — 

" To our Lord the King and to his Council, shew 
" the good folks of the City of London : — ^That whereas 
" where parties have pleaded before the Mayor or She- 
" riflfs of London, in their Courts, upon divers pleas, it 
" oftentimes happens that when the plaintiflf has proved 
" his demand, be it never so rightfully, the defendant 
" obtains a writ to have the record brought before 
" the Mayor or before the Justiciars at some distant 
*' day assigned, and in the meantime order is made 
" that execution be delayed. And then at the day that 
^' is given unto them, the person who in such manner 

L 2 



164« LIBER ALBITS. [B. III. 

" causes the record to be brought, causes himself to be 
" essoined first with a common essoin, and then "with 
'' an essoin of the King's Service, and at last makes 
" default. And then there is nothing else awarded, 
" except that the judgment shall stand in its force, 
« and the original complainant have execution ; while 
" in the meantime the defendant has ^ eloigned his 
"goods; as in case of debt, trespass, or covenant, in 
such manner that the original complainant cannot be 
relieved ; whereof they pray for remedy. And that 
" such essoins of those who shall cause such records 
to be brought, be not from henceforth allowed, and 
that some speedy remedy be ordained in the cases, 
" etcr 









F.23o.a. That no FreeTnan shall implead another without the 

Liberties. Page 417. 

" It is ordained, that no freeman of the said city 
" shall implead any freeman of the same city, out of 
'' the said city, for anything done within the same city, 
" where a person may have recovery before the Mayor 
" and Sheriffs of the city aforesaid ; under pain of 
" losing his freedom for ever, and of his body going 
" to prison until he shall have made fine unto the 
" said community : if he cannot reasonably shew be- 
" fore the Mayor and Aldermen that the ofllcers of the 
" City have failed him of right/' 



i?.23o.\>. Composition between the Merclmnts of London and 

of Amyas, Corby, and NeelU. Page 418. 

" To all those who this writing indented shall see or 
" hear, be it a matter known, that in the year of the 

* Or * removed,' 



PTIII.] COMPOSITION WITH MERCHANTS OF AMIENS. 165 



\ 



i( 



it 



" Incarnation MCCXXXVii,, the Monday next before the 

" Feast of Saint Luke, the fourth of the Ides [12th] of 

" October, in the same month, in full Hustings of London, 

'^ before Andrew Bokerelle, the then Mayor of London, 

*' John Tolosan and Gervaise le Cordewanere, the then 

*' Sheriffs of London, Richard Eengere, Ralph Asshewy, 

" William Joynier, John Vyel, Gerard Bat, Joce le 

Fitz-Piers, Robert le Fitz-John, Henry de Cokham, 

Jordan de Coventre, James le Blount, Waryn Fitz- 

" Nichol, Ralph Sperlyng, Roger le Blount, Philip de 

" Leycestre, Henry le Fitz- William, Robert de Basynge, 

" Hamond du Chastelle, John de Wouboume, and John 

" Wachere, then Chamberlain of London, and others 

" [there] sitting, it was granted by the common counsel, 

'* and with the assent, of all the City of London, unto 

" all the merchants of ^Amyas, of ^Corbie, and of 

" Nele, and to their successors, burgesses of the towns 

" aforesaid, to have for ever the franchises under- 

" written, that is to say; — that they might load and 

" imload, and harbour, their woad, garlic, and onions, 

" within the City of London, without molestation, and 

" might sell the same in the City of London, as well to 

" strangers of the realm of England as to citizens of 

" London. And that they might carry their merchandize 

'* out of the City of London, in the reahn of Eng- 

" land, by land and by water, to trade therewith, in 

*' such manner as they should see to be most advan- 

" tageous. And also, it was granted unto the same, 

that they might load and unload, and harbour within 

the City of London, without molestation, all other 

" their merchandize, wine and corn excepted, which 

" they might have brought from the parts beyond sea, 



« 



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' The old name of the city of 
Amiens. 
* Corby, or Corbie, and Neele 



(now Nesle), were towns in Picardy, 
where great quantities of woad were 
grown, and exported to England. 



166 



LIBEB ALBTJS. 



[B. III. 



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" and might sell the same unto the citizens, and not 
unto others, in the City : and might carry the same 
out of the City throughout the parts of England, to 

" trade therewith as they might please, saving the 
right and due customs of the City. This custom 
unreservedly was granted unto them and unto their 
successors, to have the same for ever, rendering for 

" the same each year unto the Sheriffs of London 
fifty marks sterling, unto the ferm of the City, at 
three terms of the year ^under-written, that is to 
say, at the Fairs of Saint Ives, ^Hoylande, and 

" Winchester. 

" And if, perchance, any one of the aforesaid mer- 
chants should not he willing to be tried in London 
by his companions of the towns aforesaid, the Sheriff 

" of London, upon the complaint of his companions, 
ought to distrain him until he should have complied 
with the wish of his companions. And if any one 
of the companions of the aforesaid merchants should 

" wish to keep hostel, and to receive his companions, 
it should be fully lawiul for him, provided he did 
not make stay beyond one whole year. 
" And if, perchance, it should so happen, which 
might God forbid, that the merchants of the three 
towns aforesaid, by fortune of w or by mandate 
of our Lord the King, should not be able to 
make stay in the City of London, it was agreed 

" that the aforesaid merchants should be acquitted 
of payment of their ferm for so long a time as 
should be wanting to the whole year, by reason of 

** [such] war or the mandate of our Lord the King. 

" Unreservedly, also, all merchandize that they might 



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^ The words * de jours ' are pro- 
bably a corruption of ' desmz* 
* beneath.' 



^ Meaning Boston, situate in the 
district of Hoyland, or Holland, in 
Lincolnshire. 



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PTIII.] COMPOSITION WITH MERCHANTS OF AMIENS. 167 

'^ buy in the realm of England, they should be able, ^J'-ssi-a- 
" without molestation or disturbance, to load in Lon- 
*^ don and carry to the parts beyond sea, in time of 
" peace, (provisions and arms excepted,) if the Mayor 
" and the commonalty should not have especially the 
" royal prohibition as to the merchandize aforesaid. 

" And now for some time the merchants of the said 
" towns, for certain causes, have withheld from com- 
ing unto the said city with their merchandize, in 
manner as they were wont to do. 

And hereupon, certain merchants, attorneys and 
f " proctors of the merchants of the said town of Amyens, 

that is to say, John de Coquerelle, Colart Chamber- 
lenc, John de Saint Fustien Fitz-Jadys, Eobert de 
" Saint Fustien, John de Turnoye, the elder, and John 
" Fitz-Jadys ^ John le Monnere, frequenting the realm 
" of England, and having sufficient power, for them- 
selves and for all the merchants of the said town 
of Amyens, have come before the Mayor, and Alder- 
men, and Commonalty of the City of London, and 
" have amicably treated for enjoying the franchises 
'' aforesaid, and for enlarging certain franchises thereof, 
" and for having others granted afresh. 

" Upon which treaty it is agreed, at the request 

" of the said merchants of Amyens, for the common 

" profit and the nurturing of love on the one side 

" and on the other, that the merchants of Amyens 

" and their successors shall have and enjoy all their 

I " ancient franchises, together with the franchises unto 

" them newly granted ; that is to say, that the 

* " meters and brokers of woad shall be chosen by 

the merchants of London and of Amyens, who deal 

in the wares comprised in the composition, and 

shall be presented unto the Mayor of London, and 

" before him be sworn lawfully to do that which 

^ This is most probably intended for but one name. 






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168 LIBER ALBtJS. [B. IIL 

"unto their offices pertains. And if any one of the 
said meters and hrokers shall do anything against 
his oath, and shall be attainted thereof, let him be 
" ousted, and another chosen by the said merchants, 
" and presented unto the Mayor in his place, and 
*' sworn in form aforesaid* 

" And that, if any one shall owe money unto the 
" merchants of Amy ens for their said wares, and the 
" same shall be witnessed before the Mayor by the 
*' said brokers, or any of them, and the debtor 
" be removing his goods, the Mayor shall send a ser- 
" jeant to place under an*est the goods of the debtor 
" to the amount of the debt, until the action shall 
have been settled according to the law of the City. 
And that for their wares bought for their own 
*' consumption, or for their use, together with that 
'' which they may think proper to give away, they shall 
" pay no custom. And that they shall be able peace- 
'' ably to dwell within the said city, an d to keep 
their hostels, in due manner, in time of peace. 
And that they may have their assemblies, and 
" treat as to their merchandize in a befitting man- 
'* ner, without hindrance thereof; And that they 
*^ shall be acquitted in the City of Murage and 
'* of Pavage, so long as they shall pay the ferm 
'* aforesaid, unless it be Pavage before their own hos- 
" tels : and that they shall be acquitted of Pontage 
« by water, uxdess it be in case of raising and 
" drawing the Bridge when their ships have to pass 
" with their merchandize. And that no merchant of 
*^ the three towns of Amyens, Corbie, and Nele, shall 
" from henceforth be admitted to the franchise of 
" London, unless he pay rateably his portion of the 
" ferm unto the said merchants of Amyens for the 
P. 231 fc. '' merchandize which he shall bring, in the com- 
" position comprised. And that no one of the City 
" of London shall be partner with any of the mer- 



it 



pxlll.] COMPOSITION WITH MERCHANTS OF AMIENS. 169 



" chants of the said three towns, or shaJl colour their 
" wares, whereby the King may lose his custom upon 
" the same wares, under pain of forfeiture of such wares ; 
'' nor [thereby] shall the merchants of Amyens be 
'' defrauded of their ferm. And that they may harbour 
*' com and wines, and sell within the City unto folks 
" of the City, and unto all other folks, for their 
*' use, without impediment; provided always that the 
*' wines be sold in gross. And that if any stranger 
'' shall buy the same for resale, the punishment for 
** the. same shall be [inflicted] upon the strangers, 
" and not upon the merchants of Amyens. And that 
*' they may deal with woad as being among the 
" things comprised in the composition. And that 
" their * vadlets may sell the wares of their masters, 
" and may buy, and make delivery, in the said city 
" and franchise of London, in the same manner as 
" their masters might do if they themselves were present. 
" And that every one who buys their woad shall have 
" his rightful measure of woad, without further demand. 
" And that, if it should so happen that the said 
** merchants make default in payment of their ferm, 
the Mayor shall not '^attach the goods of the mer- 
chants beyond what shall suffice for the amount 
" of the debt ; and as to the surplus of the wares, 
" they shall be allowed to make their profit thereon 
" at their will. And that, by reason of the ferm 
'^ aforesaid, no attachment of the goods of the said 
" merchants shall be made, except in the realm of 
" England only, and not elsewhere. And that wines, 
fruit, ^horn, silver, herrings, and horses, shall not 
be allowed to be seized, so long as sufiicient other 
" things may be found, to the amount of the arrears 
" of the ferm. 



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' Grooms or servants. 
^ Tlie word " achater *' is an error 
for " attacker ** or ** arrester " — pro- 



bably the former. 

' The word " cor " may possibly 
mean bark. 






]70 LIBEK ALBUS. [B. III. 

" And that merchants of Amyens, while passing 
through the City of London "without making stay, 
with their horses for riding, and while coming towards 
" it, shall in no manner be arrested by reason of the 
" ferm. And the said merchants of Amyens agree, 
" that if it should chance to be necessary to sue 
« for the ferm elsewhere than in the said city, the 
" said merchants shall be bound to pay rateably the 
" damages and expenses which they shall have caused 
" by reason of such suit. 

" The which franchises to have and to use in the 
" said city of London, the aforesaid proctors of the 
" merchants of Amyens, by virtue and power of their 
'* proxy aforesaid, have agreed, for themselves and for 
" their successors for ever, to pay in each year, and 
'* to render the aforesaid ferm of fifty marks unto the 
" Mayor of the City of London for the time being, or 
" unto the Commonalty of the city before-mentioned, 
" as follows ; that is to say, one half of the aforesaid 
" fifty marks at the Purification of Our Lady [2 Feb- 
" ruary], and the other half at the Nativity of Our 
" Lady [8 September] ; and that so far, the said 
" merchants and their successors [shall be] acquitted 
for ever of the fifty marks comprised in the ancient 
composition above-written. The which ferm of 
fifty marks, from year to year, well and lawfully to 
pay in the City of London, in form aforesaid, the 
" said merchants, attorneys and proctors of Amyens, 
" for themselves and for all their merchants of the 
" said town, do bind themselves, and each of them, 
" for the whole, and all their goods and wares, where- 
^' soever the same may be found in the said city 
" of London or elsewhere in the realm of England, 
" the same to be seized, distrained, and held, by all 
" officers whomsoever, within the firanchise and with- 
out, their property excepted in the manner aforesaid ; 
save always, if the said ferm of fifty marks, with all 



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PTIII.] PROCTOE OF THE MERCHANTS OF AMIENS. 171 



" damages, costs, and expenses, be fiilly paid, as is 
'^ before-mentioned/' 

" And all the matters aforesaid, as well on part of F.202. 
" the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the City 
^^ of London, as on part of the said merchants of 
'* Amyens, well and lawfully to do, hold, and fulfil, 
*' the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the said 
" City of London, unto the part of this indenture to 
" remain with the Mayor, Eschevins, and Commonalty 

[ '^ of the City of Amyens, have set their Common Seal. 

'^ And unto the part to remain with the Mayor, Alder- 

^ ^^ men, and Commonalty of the said city of London, 

** the Mayor, Eschevins, and Commonalty of the said 
" City of Amyens have set their Common Seal, together 
" with the seals of the proctors and attorneys afore- 
" said, by virtue of the proxy brought by the afore- 
" said proctors and attorneys unto the Mayor and 
" Commonalty of London, for the purpose of mak- 
*' ing the said treaties and agreement. Given in fiall 
*' Hustings of London, the Monday next before the 
" Feast of Saint Margaret [20 July], the 18th day 
" of the. month of July, in the year of Grace 



" MCCCXXXIIIl/' 



Indenture between the Merchants of ATYiyas, and F.232.a. 

Corby, and beetle. Page 424 

" To all those who these letters shall see or hear, 
" the Mayor and Eschevin of the City of Amyens, 
" greeting. Forasmuch as, at the request of the mer- 
" chants of our place frequenting the realms of England 
" of Scotland, and of Ireland, the King of France, our 
" Lord, has unto the said merchants, of his grace, granted 
" that the merchants aforesaid, by the greater and 
*' more sufficient part of them, may make, ordain, and 
" establish, a proctor, promoter, and pursuer, who by 
" himself or by deputies on his behalf, may enquire 



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172 UBER ALBUS. [B. HU 

" into, pursue, and expedite, the causes and business 
" of the same merchants, and of each of them, and 
" may prosecute the causes and business of the said 
" merchants, and as concerning their wares in the 
" realms aforesaid, and in each and every of them, 
" And the merchants before-named, or the greater, 
" more sound, and more sufficient part of them, have 
" come before us; and availing themselves of the 
grace of the King, our said Lord, unto them thereon 
shown, as before stated, have made, ordained, and 
established, Andrew, called "Andeluye," our burgess, 
one of the merchants aforesaid, to be their proctor, 
" attorney, promoter, and pursuer, in and as to all their 
" causes and business that they have or may have in 
" the realms aforesaid, in whatever way the same 
" may be. And in the first place, the persons so nomi- 
" nating as aforesaid are to have, to fulfil, and hold as 
" final and established, all that which by the said 
*' proctor, or by his deputies, shall be as to the busi- 
" ness aforesaid required, procured, done, credited, or 
" in. any other manner ordained, and that, by obliga- 
" tion [binding] upon all their goods. Be it known unto 
" all, that after these things so done as is aforesaid, 
" the said Andrew in his proper person has come be- 
" fore us, and has acknowledged that he, as well in 
" his own name as in name of all the merchants 
" aforesaid, has made, ordained, and established, [and] 
does make, ordain, and establish, by virtue of the 
power thereupon unto liim by the said merchants 
" availing themselves of the said grace given, John de 
" Cokerelle, Colart ^ Cambellenc, John de Saint Fustien 
" Fitz-Jadys, Robert de Saint Fustien, John de 
" Toumay, the elder, and John Fitz-Jadys John le 
" Monniei', and each of them, his proctors, attorneys, 
promoters, and pursuers, to enquire into, expedite. 



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Previously called ** ChamberlencJ* 



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PtIIL] PROCTOK of the merchants of AMIENS. 173 

" prosecute, and maintain, as well in his own name as in 
" name of all the merchants aforesaid, all suits, causes, 
and business, and to prosecute, enquire into, and 
bring the same to an end, either by way of treaty 
" of composition, or in such other way as shall seem 
" unto them most profitable to be done, so as to bind r.232.b 
" such merchants, their goods, each of them, and the 
" goods of each of them, in such manner as he, or 
any of them, shall see to conduce unto the most 
profitable result that can be brought about, to pay, 
" at such day and term as they shall think proper, 
*' the sum or sums which [shall be agreed upon] by 
" the treaties or compositions which thereupon shall be 
*' made, at the place and unto the persons unto whom 
" such payment ought to be made ; and generally to 
'' do as much in all the matters aforesaid, and in so 
" far as the same can or shall on him [or them] 
'* depend, as the person nominating might have 
" said and done, if he had been personally present. 
" And further, the person nominating as aforesaid 
" has given unto the said persons nominated, and unto 
" each of them, power and authority to sub-nominate 
" one or more persons, in the name of them and of 
" each of them, and to substitute the same ; which 
" person or persons are to have power to enquire 
**' into, prosecute, plead, and maintain, the said causes 
" and business, [but] without making treaty upon the 
" same, compounding, or entering into any other ob- 
" ligation thereupon. And the said nominator, by 
" name as above, doth, and will, hold as firm and 
" established all that which by the said nominees, or 
" by the substitutes or substitute, shall be upon the 
" matters aforesaid, and each of them, ^expedited, 
" prosecuted, agi*eed, accorded, compounded, and rati- 



^ This passage appears to be in an imperfect state, as given in the 
original. 



174 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

" fied, according as unto each of them, in manner 
" as is above set forth, he shall have given power 
" and authority to make requisition thereupon. And 
" he will pay the ^ every six months, ac- 

" cording to the obligation before-stated. In witness 
** of the matters aforesaid, we have sealed these letters 
" with our Seal for this purpose made, in the year of 
" Grace Mcccxxxiii., the Saturday next after the First 
" Sacrament" 






F. 232. 1). Indenture between the Mayor and Aldermen of Londo n 

and the Merchants of Amyas. Page 426. 

" Be it a matter known unto all by this letter in- 
" dented, that we, the Mayor and Aldermen of the 
City of London, have granted unto the merchants of 
Amyens, upon the treaty that has been made between 
" us, the aforesaid Mayor and Aldermen, and John de 
" Saint Fustien, proctor of all the merchants of Amyens 
" frequenting the realm of England, in this year of 
'^ Grace Mcccxxxiiii., the Monday next before [Saint] 
" Margaret [20 July], — ^that whereas many times we, 
" the Mayor of London, have written unto the mer- 
" chants of Amyens, Corbie, and Nele, that they should 
" come to take up their franchises which they were 
" wont to have in the City of London, and also to 
" make satisfaction unto those who had been Mayors 
" of the said city for the yearly ferm of fifty marks ; 
" to the which summonses no persons of Corbie, or of 
" Nele, have come or appeared, but only the merchants 
" of Amyens, who have sufficiently done their duty 
" therein. And forasmuch as they have made satisfac- 
" tion unto us who have heretofore been Mayors of the 
" same City, both for the arrears, to the amount of sixty 
'* marks, and for the great costs which they have 



* There is apparently an omission here. 



r 



PTIII.] AGREEMENT WITH MERCHANTS OF AMIENS. l7o 

" caused in the prosecution of this agreement; we 
have given unto them all that the right to take from 
the merchants of Corbie and of Nele the sixty marks 
of our arrears aforesaid, of which they were bound 
to make payment unto us, and to levy the same 
through the Mayor of London, for the time being, 
so soon as any of their property may be found in 
the said city of London, and to convert it to the 
profit of the merchants of Amyens. And therewith, p. 233. a. 
we have promised unto the said merchants, that at 
no time shall any of the aforesaid merchants of the 

" said two towns, that is to say, Corby and Nele, enjoy 
the said franchises until they shall have made satis- 
faction unto the said merchants of Amyens for all 
their share of the ferm, for every year that they 
shall have made default in payment since the year of 
Grace ^MCCCXXXIII. ; and that therewith, they shall 
be bound in good letters unto the merchants of 
Amyens to pay unto them for ever their share of the 
ferm, in the same manner that the merchants of 
Amyens have done unto us, the Mayor of London; 
and that done, that they shall fully enjoy their 
franchises in the same manner as the merchants of 
Amyens shall do ; and that by them it shall be tes- 
tified unto us, by their letters, that they have made 

" satisfaction therein. And this writing is enrolled in 
our great Court of Hustings* In witness of which 
matter, we have set our Seal of the Mayoralty unto 
these present letters, which were made in the year of 
Grace mcccxxxiiii., the Monday next before the 
Feast of Saint Margaret [20 July]. And John Co- 
querelle, proctor of the said merchants of Amyens, 
has unto the part of this in denture that remains 

" with us set his seal/' 



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17(5 LIBEE ALBUS. [b. III. 



p.gS'i.a. Proclamation as to the Places where the Sellers of 

Com shall stand. Page 432, 

" Let proclamation be made, that all those who bring 
com or malt unto the City of London for sale, bring 
the same wholly unto the markets in the same city 
" for the sale thereof, at the places from of old accus- 
*' tomed ; that is to say, that those from the Counties 
'•' of Caimtebrigge, Huntyndone, Bedeforde, and those 
" who come by Ware, bring all the corn and malt 
" which they shall bring unto the said city for sale, 
" unto the Market upon the Pavement at Graschirche, 
" and there stand for the purposes of sale, and no- 
" where else, without fraud or evil intent, and without 
" placing or selling any thereof in secret places ; and 
" that the same corn and malt be not mixed, in deceit 
" of the people, under pain of forfeiture of the same 
corn and malt in the said condition, as to which any 
person shall be attainted. 

" And that those who come from the parts towards 
" the West of the said city, as rom Bamet, and those 
who have to come by that way and by way of other 
places, bringing com or malt unto the said city for 
sale, bring the same wholly unto the Market upon the 
" Pavement before the Friars Minors, in Neugate, and 
" there stand for the purposes of sale, and nowhere 
else, without placing or selling any part thereof in 
secret; and that the same corn or malt be not 
mixed, in deceit of the people, under pain of for- 
feiture of the same com and malt in the said con- 
dition, as to which any person shall be attainted.'* 



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y.288.a. Of the Notices of Tenants. Page 448. 

Item, that every person who shall have hired any 
land or lands, tenement or tenements, from denizen 
or from foreignei', within the franchise of the City, 



Mf 



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v?ir 



PTIII.] LANDLORD AND TENANT. 17? 

without holding specialty thereon, for a term certain 
or for term of life, and who shall be wishful to be 
quit of the same, if the rent be less than forty 
shillings per annum, shall give notice unto the land- 
lord one quarter before, at least; and that if the 
amount of the rent extend beyond forty shillings j^er 
annum, then the landlord sliall receive notice one 
half year before. And if the tenant shall fail in 
such notices, then he shall be held liable unto the 
landlord for the rent of one quarter or half year, 
according to the amount of the yearly rent, as is 
aforesaid ; or otherwise he shall find for the landlord 
a sufficient tenant for those terms. 

And the landlord shall give the same notices unto 
the tenant, at all times that he shall think proper 
to take back the lands or tenements into his own 
hand, to do his will as to the same. And if the 
tenant have specialty by deed for term of life, or for 
a term certain, and the landlord shall within that 
term alienate the same lands or tenements in fee, in 
that case the alienation shall not prevent the tenant 
from enjoying his term. But if the tenant have no 
specialty by deed, then the purchaser shall be able to 
do his own will as to the same. And if the tenant 
claim a term by covenant made with the landlord, [but] 
only in presence and hearing of good folks, without 
deed, let him have his action of covenant against the 
landlord, and let the purchaser, as above stated, go 
free. 

And if the goods of the tenant be arrested by pro- 
cess at the suit of any person, and such tenant is 
indebted to the landlord of the house for rent thereof 
in arrear, in such case the landlord shall be awarded 
his rent before the former plaintiff; that is to say, to 
such amount as the landlord will make oath that the 
rent due to him is in arrear; provided always, that 
the claim of the landlord shall not extend to a greater 
sum than the amount of the same rent for two years. 

VOL. ITT. M 



I'ZS LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

And if he shall have allowed his tenant [to make 
default] in his payment beyond the term of two years, 
let the surplus be at his own proper risk, without pre- 
judice done to him who may make claim for another 
debt. But if the tenant be otherwise indebted to him, 
let him have his action at Common Law and according 
to the usages of the City. 

p. 289. a. Thit Dogs shall not wander about in the City. 

Page 453. 

Also, to avoid the noises, damage, and strifes, that 
were wont to arise therefrom, it is forbidden that any 
person shall keep a dog accustomed to go at large out 
of his own enclosure, without guard thereof, by day 
or night, within the franchise of the City, ^ genteel 
dogs excepted ; under pain of paying forty pence, to 
the use of the Chamber. And if any one shall make 
prayer for any person who shall do the contrary hereof, 
let him pay forty pence unto the Chamber for his 
prayer. 

p,239.b. Of driving Carts. Page 453. 

Item, that no carter within the franchise shall 
drive his cart more quickly when it is unloaded, than 
when it is loaded ; for the avoiding of divers perils 
and grievances, under pain of [paying] forty pence 
unto the Chamber, and of [having] his body committed 
to prison, at the will of the Mayor. 



( 



^ The -word " gentilx " may pcssibly roean " gentle," or pet, dogs of 
the then Icnown description. 



PT IV.] REGirLATIONS AS TO COURTESAKS AND OTHERS. J 79 



THIED BOOK 



PAET THE FOURTH. 

Of the Punishment of Courtesans and Bawds. F,239.b. 

Page 457. 

Whereas in divers Wardmotes holden before the 
Aldermen in their Wards, there are indicted by the 
good folks of the Ward some men as common whore- 
mongers, common adulterers, and common bawds; as 
also, women, as common courtesans, common adul- 
teresses, common bawds, and scolds; for the purpose 
of removing them out of the City, or for making 
them cease so to oflfend, to the pleasing of God, the 
salvation of their souls, and the cleanness and honesty 
of the said city ; of whom no correction has heretofore 
been made, because that no Ordinance thereupon has 
been made, but rather, they have been suffered and 
allowed, to the great displeasing of God and to the 
dishonour of the City : — It is ordained and agreed by 
the Mayor, and Aldermen, and Common Council, of 
the said City, that from henceforth each Alderman, 
forthwith after his Wardmote held, and the verdict 
unto him returned, shall, if any such of evil and 
wicked life be indicted before him, cause the same to 
be taken and carried to prison, there to remain until 
they shall be cleared by Inquisition, or confronted [?], 
or otherwise attainted, by their own acquaintance ; he 
making return unto the Mayor the day of the ver- 
dict given, or, within the next two days, of the names of 
the persons so indicted, and the cause. And well and 
lawfully to do the same, without tardiness therein, all 
the Aldermen are strictly bound by their oaths. 

M 2 



180 UBER ALBUS. [b. ITT. 



F.2S9.b. Of a man v)ho is found to he a Whoremon^ier or 

Bawd, and of his Punishment Page 458. 

In the first place, if any man shall be found to be 
a common whoremonger or bawd, and shall of the 
same be attainted ; first, let all the head and beard 
be shaved, except a fringe on the head, two inches 
in breadth ; and let him be taken unto the pillory, 
with minstrels, and set thereon for a certain time, at 
the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen. And if 
he shall be a second time attainted thereof, let him 
have the same punishment, and in the same manner, 
for a certain time, at the discretion of the Mayor and 
Aldermen ; and besides this, let him have ten days^ 
p. 240. a. imprisonment, without ransom. And the third time, 
let him have the same punishment, and in the same 
manner for a certain time, at the discretion of the 
Mayor and Aldermen ; and afterwards let hira be 
taken to a Gate of the City, and there let him 
forswear the City for ever. 

Item, if any woman shall be found to be a common 
receiver of courtesans or bawd, and of the same shall 
be attainted, first, let her be openly brought, with 
minstrels, from prison imto the thew, and set thereon 
for a certain time, at the discretion of the Mayor and 
Aldermen, and there let her hair be cut round about her 
head. And if she shall be a second time attainted 
thereof, let her have the same punishment, and in the 
same manner for a certain time, at the discretion of 
the Mayor and * Aldermen; and besides this, let her 
have ten days' imprisonment, without ransom. And 
the third time, let her have the same punishment, 
and in the same manner for a certain time, at the 
discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen ; and after this, 
let her be taken to a Gate of the said city, [and 
let her there forswear the City] for ever. 

Item, if any woman shall be found to be a com- 



Pi IV.] PUNISHMENT OF COURTESANS AND ADULTERERS. 181 

mon courtesan, and of the same shall be attainted, 
let her be taken from the prison unto ^Algate, with 
a hood of ^ ray, and a white wand in her hand ; and 
from thence brought with minstrels unto the thew, and 
there let the cause be proclaimed ; and from thence,' 
through Chepe and Newgate to Cokkeslane, there to 
take up her abode. And if she shall be a second time 
attainted thereof, let her be openly brought, with 
minstrels, from prison unto the thew, with a hood of 
ray, and set thereon for a certain time, at the dis- 
cretion of the Mayor and Aldermen. And the third 
time, let her have the same punishment, at the dis- 
cretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, and let her hair 
be cut round about her head while upon the thew, 
and, after that, let her be taken to a Gate of the City, 
and let her [there] forswear the City for ever. 

Item, if any man or woman shall be attainted of 
being a brawler or scold, let such person be taken 
unto the thew with a distaff [dressed] with flax (called 
' dystaf with totven') in his or her hand, with min- 
strels, and be set thereon for a certain time, at the 
discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen. 

Item, if any priest shall be found with any woman, 
let him be taken unto the Tun on Cornhulle, with 
minstrels. And if he shall be so found three times, 
let him forswear the City for ever. 

Item, if any person shall be impeached of adul- 
^ tery, and be thereof lawfully attainted, let him be 

taken unto Newgate, and from thence, with min- 
strelsy, through Chepe, to the Tun on CornhuUe, there 
to remain at the will of the Mayor and Aldermen. 

Item, if any adulteress shall be found with a priest 
or with a married man, let them both be taken unto 
the Compter of one of the Sheriifs, or unto Newgate, 
and from thence to tlie Guildhall, before the Mayor 

» Aldgate. | ' Striped cloth. 



I 



182 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

and Aldermen, and be arraigned ; and if they shall 
then be lawfully attainted thereof, let them be taken 
to Newgate; and there let the said adulterer and 
adulteress be shaved, like an ^ appealer ; and from 
thence, with minstrelsy, let them be brought through 
Chepe unto the same Tun, there to remain, at the 
will of the Mayor and Aldermen. 

Item, if a single woman shall be found in company 
with a priest, let them both be taken unto the Compter 
of one of the Sheriffs, and from thence unto the said 
Tun, there to remain at the will of the Mayor and 
Aldermen. 

F.24o.b. Of the sale of Corn and Malt Page 460. 

Item, that no man shaU buy any manner of corn, 
malt, salt, or any other victuals, to leave the same 
afterwards in the hands of the same vendors for resale, 
in gross or by retail; or make any other collusion 
or covin, whereby victuals shall be made dearer, under 
pain of forfeiture of the thing so bought. 

F. 240.1). Of Corndealers. . Page 460. 

Item, that no corndealer, or other person, shall buy 
corn, malt, or salt, for resale, which shall come to the 
City by water for sale, until the articles which so come 
by water shall have remained openly at Billynges- 
gate, or at Queen-Hythe, in full market, without fraud 
or evil intent, for three market-days, under pain of for- 
feiture of the same provisions unto the buyer. 

F.24o.b. Of not carrying Corn out of the City, Page 461. 

Item, that no person shall carry corn or malt out of 
the City, under pain of forfeiture of the same com and 
malt ; nor yet [take] any manner of wine from London 
out of the realm, without especial licence. 

* Or false informer. 



) . 



« 



PriV,] ALTERATION OF ELECTION OF COMMON COUNCIL. 183 

[Of the Mectio7i of the Common Council by the F.24o.b. 

Wards,} Page 462. 

'* By reason that complaint has been made by many 
good folks of the town unto the Mayor, that now 
IS, how that divers times in the Council wont [to 
" meet] within the Hall and Chambers of the Guildhall, 
" great tumult and peril have been perceived, both by 
** reason of the great assemblages there, and too often 
" by reason of the insufficient persons deputed unto 
" the said Councils, as oftentimes seen in the judg- 
" ments of the said Coimcils, [supported] more by cla- 
'^ mour than by reason ; to the great disturbance of 
*^ peace and quiet among the people in time past, and 
" still more likely in time to come, if some remedy 
*^ be not provided against the same. Upon which, the 
" Mayor, with his Aldermen and the good Commons, 
" did choose certain persons, with deliberation to ad- 
*' vise thereupon how such tumult and peril might best 
" be avoided and remedied ; the which persons, meet- 
" ing together upon divers days on the matter aforesaid, 
" have, by way of remedy for such perils, upon con- 
** sideration ordained the Articles after- written ; — f. 24i. a. 
" should it be pleasing unto the Mayor and to the other 
" good folks of the City for a time to make trial of 
" the same ; to the intent that if welfare and peace 
" be found in such counsels through the Ordinances 
" after- written, the same in the name of God may be 
" confirmed. And if the contrary, which may God 
" not will, that the same may in due itime be amended, 
" for the common good of all the City. 

" First, in order to continue the Common Council of 
" the City by persons sufficient, as well in means as in 
" understanding, be it ordained, that each year after the 
" Day of Saint Gregory [12 March], when the Aldermen 
" shall have been appointed, the Aldermen appointed 
" for the year ensmng be strictly charged, fifteen days 



i< 



(( 



(( 



]8i LIBER ALBUS. [B. HI. 

" after the said day, to go and assemble their Wards 
" for good deliberation, [and] charge them to elect four 
" of the most sufficient persons that are in their Ward, 
making omission for no office that they have held 
before, to be of the Common Council for the year 
ensuing, and to present the names of the said four 
^' unto the Mayor for the time being ; the which persons 
" shall be accepted by the Mayor, and ordered to take 
" their oath, as has been set forth by writing here- 
** tofore. 

'* Provided always, that the Mayor for the time being 
*' shall not receive throughout the whole town from any 
" trade, for the Common Council, beyond eight persons 
'' of such one trade, and no more ; even though it should 
" happen that more than eight persons of one trade 
have been presented and elected ; in which case, as 
to the Mayor, by the advice of six Aldermen, there 
shall be accepted eight persons of the most suffi- 
" cient, and the others returned to their Ward, that 
" other sufficient persons may be chosen in their place, 
" who are not of the like trade. 

" And by reason that in some Wards in the City 
" there may not always be found four persons, of suffi- 
" ciency to be of the Council aforesaid, be it ordained 
" that as to the Wards which are lar/s^e and of sufficient 
" inhabitants, in some six, and in some four [be chosen], 
" and in some two, according as the Wards can effi- 
" ciently bear the same ; that is to say, from the Ward 
" of Faryngdone, Crepulgate, Cordcwanerestrete, Chepe, 
" and Bridge, six sufficient persons ; from the Wards of 
<' Vinterye, of Douegate, of Walbroke, of Candelwike- 
strete, of Billyngesgate, of the Tower, of Cornhulle, 
of Quenehethe, of Langebourne, of Bisshopesgate, of 
Aldrichesgate, of Baynardescastel, of Bradestrete, 
and of Bredstrete, four sufficient persons ; and from 
the Wards of Bassyeshawe, of Colmanstrete, of Lyme- 
strete, of Portsokne, and Algate, two sufficient per- 
sons ; which amount in all to ninety- six persons ; 



(C 

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priV.] ELEOTiON OF COMMON COUNCIL BY WARDS. 185 

'* and this makes the number to be for each Ward, 
" one with another, four persons." 



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F. 241 b. 



Of the Oonfirmatimi of [the Ordvuance as to holding] i^S'ii.a. 
the Common Gouncil by Wards^ Page 464. 

" Be it remembered, that at the Common Council, 
holden on the Friday next before the Feast of the 
Purification of Our Lady [2 February], in the seventh 
year of the reign of our Lord the King, an Ordinance 
was made; that is to say, whereas of late it was 
ordained that the Common Council of the City should 
be holden by folks of the trades, — on the said Friday 
** it was ordained and agreed, that the said Common 
" Council should be appointed by the folks of the 
Wards, (as plainly appears by the said Ordinance 
written in ^this Book, folio 173,) to the intent that so 
welfare and peace might be found in such Councils 
so chosen by the Wards.^ 

" And at the Common Council now holden, on Wed- 
nesday the Feast of Saint Luke [18 October], in the 
ninth year of the reign of our Lord the King aforesaid, 
whereas the said Ordinance, so ordained for holding 
the said Common Council by folks of the Wards, 
is found and proved, upon trial, to be good, conve- 
nient, and profitable, and for the bettering of the said 
city, and the tranquillity thereof; the same Ordinance 
is by the "Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council, 
affirmed, to last for ever, without condition, [such 
election being made] by the folks of the Wards^, and 
not by the folks of the trades.'' 



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'That no one sliall be Mayor if he Imve not first 

been Sheriff, Page 464. 

" Also, it is ordained and agreed, that no person shall 
" from henceforth be Mayor in the said city, if he have 



* In reference to Letter r Book II, 



A., 



^rom which it is extracted. 



* The "words " serroit conferme '' 
here seem to be out of place. 



P.241.b. 



186 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

" not first been SlieriflF of the said city, to the end that 
" he may be tried as to his governance and bounty, 
" before he attains to such estate of the Mayoralty/^ ' 

*'.24i.b. Of Poulterers, Page 465. 

Item, that no denizen poulterer shall stand at the 
Carfeux of Ledenhalle within house or without, with 
rabbits, game, or other poultry, for sale ; but they are to 
stand and expose their victuals for sale beside the wall 
towards the West of the Church of Saint Michael on 
Cornhulle ; that so the foreign poulterers, with their 
poultry, may stand by themselves, and may sell their 
poultry at the corner of Ledenhalle, without any deni- 
zen poulterer coming or meddling in sale or in purchase 
with them, or among them, under pain of forfeiture of 
the poultry sold between them. 

Item, that the foreign poulterers who enter by New- 
gate and ^Aldrichesgate, shall sell their poultry upon 
the Pavement before the Friars Minors, near the foun- 
tain there. And denizen poulterers are to stand and 
sell their poultry before the church of Saint Nicholas 
^Flesshshameles ; that so they meddle not with the 
said foreigners in sale or in purchase, under the pain 
aforesaid. 

Item, that no denizen poulterers, themselves, or by 
their wives, or any one on their behalf, shall come to 
buy any manner of poultry of any foreign poulterer, 
either privily or openly, before nine struck by the 
clock ; to the end that the lords and good folks 
may buy their victuals as they need. And that no 
poulterer, or other person whatsoever, shall expose for 
sale any manner of poultry that is unsound or un- 
wholesome to mane's body, under pain of punishment by 
the pillory, and the article being burnt under him. 

Item, that no foreign [poulterer], who brings poultry 



1 






* Aldersgate. "^as the original of the present Nev- 

2 « Flesh Shambles." This market gate Market. 



prlV.] PRICES OF POULTRY, 187 

to the City for sale, shall lodge with, or carry his poultry 
unto the house of, any denizen poulterer, under pain of 

t forfeiture of the same poultry and of imprisonment of 

the body, as well to the buyer and receiver of the 
same poultry as to the vendor thereof. But they are 
to bring their poultry into full market, without selling 
any poultry out of the market, or in secret, under 
the penalty aforesaid. 

> Item, that no poulterer, foreigner or denizen, shall sell 

his poultry dearer than is hereafter specified, under 
pain of forfeiture of the same poultry. 

' And that if any person shall buy privily, in a secret 

place, or by covin, any poultry above the said price, 
he shall lose that which he has so bought, and further, 

^ shall be punished at the discretion of the Mayor and 

Aldermen. 

I The Price of Poultry, Page 466. p. 242. a. 

, The best cygnet is to be sold for four pence ; the best 

I purcel, for six pence ] the best goose, for six pence ; the 

best capon, for six pence ; the best hen, for six pence ; 

) the best pullet, for two pence ; the best rabbit, with the 

skin, for four pence ; and without the skin, for three 

pence ; — and no foreigner is to sell any rabbit without 

the skin :-the best ^ river mallard, for three pence ; the 

best ^ dunghill mallard, for two pence halfpenny ; the 

[ best teal, for two pence; the best snipe, for one penny ; 

^ four larks, for one penny ; the best woodcock, for three 

I pence ; the best partridge, for four pence ; the best 

I plover, for three pence ; the best pheasant, for twelve 

pence ; the best curlew, for six pence ; a dozen thrushes, 

for six pence ; a dozen finches, for one penny ; the best 

heron, for sixteen pence ; the best bittern, for eighteen 

pence ; the best brewe, for eighteen pence ; the best 

egret, for eighteen pence; twelve pigeons, for eight 

pence. 



The wild duck. | - The tame duck. 



188 LIBEU ALBUS. [B. HI. 

r.243.a. Of awarding Damages in Bower. Page 470, 

Whereas women have heretofore been long and tor- 
tiously delayed in gaining their dower of tenements and 
rents of which their husbands have died seised, by 
reason that no damages were awarded in such case ; — 
it is agreed, that from henceforth they shall recover 
their damages for dower, iu such manner from them 
withheld, regard being had to the value of the tene- 
ments and rents, [and] to the length of the suit which 
they shall have made. 

r.243.a. Of Damages in a Plea of Debt. Page 471. 

Item, that all folks shall recover their damages for 
debts from them withheld, if the debtors do not make 
acknowledgment, a* their first Court when they shall be 
summoned thereunto, without any delay ; that is to say, 
for twenty shillings withheld for one year four shillings, 
and for more more, and for less less, according to the 
amount and the time that the debt shall have been 
withheld. And let there be execution immediately after 
acknowledgment made, unless the demandant give a 
[fuither] day of his own free wiH. And as to the goods 
and chattels that shall be taken for debts so acknow- 
ledged, let them be appraised at the next Sheriff's Court, 
and the day after delivered unto the ^ debtor, if he who 
shall have made the acknowledgment is not willing to 
redeem them. And in case the appraisers shall have ] 

wrongly appraised them, and he to whom the debt is 
due is not willing to receive them at the price, let 
them be delivered unto the appraisers, and from their 
own goods and chattels let the price be levied. 

As to plaints now pending in the Sheriffs' Court, 
if the debtors make acknowledgment at the next 
Court after that at which this regulation is read and 



* An error, no doubt, for '* creditor." 



PTIV.] PROCEDURE FOR RECOVERY OF REXt. 189 

notified in the Court wliere such plaint is pending, let 
such debtors be absolved from damages ; and if not, 
let damages in such plaints be awarded, as is before 
mentioned. 



Bssoins of the King^s Service, Page 471. P.2Ra. 

Item, that no essoin of the King's Service shall be 
allowed in the Sheriffs' Court for the defendant, ex- 
cept in a case where he shall have pleaded to the 
country, either to make his law or to bring his suit 
to a hearing. And then, if he have not his warranty 
at the day which he shall have by essoin, let it be 
adjudged according as the law of the City demands. 



Of the same. Page 472. k 243.a. 

Item, in case of a person who shall have waged his 
law and afterwards makes default in making his lav/, 
let judgment be forthwith given upon the principal, and 
still, let him not be summoned to hear his judgment ; 
forasmuch as such summons would be against law and 
reason, in delaying the [other] party from his recovery 
without reasonable cause. 



Of Assizes as to Bent Page 472. F.si-^.b. 

Item, in a plea of seizure of distresses for rent service 
or rent-charge, after return irreplevisable awarded in 
the Hustings, if the tenant shall then appear to coun- 
terplead the rent and not to pay it, it shall be fuUy 
lawful for him who demands the rent, to prosecute his 
suit by plaint of Novel Disseisin. And in the same 
manner be it done, if any one shall make denial or rescue, 
so that entry cannot be had for distraint. And in such 
case, let the Assize be in the first place charged upon 
the same points. And if it be found that the tenant 



190 LIBEK ALBUS. [b. III. 

has duly made x'escue or hindrance unto the entry for 
distress, let the Assize be taken according to the plea 
which shall be pleaded between the parties. And if 
the contrary be found, let the plaintiff take nothing 
by Assize, but let them plead in the Hustings, as is 
before mentioned. 

And nevertheless, be it fully lawful for him who 
demands rent to plead in the Hustings for the rent, 
if he wiU. 

p.243.b. Of taking Inquisitions. Page 472. 

Item, for expediting the right of aU persons, so far 
as with law and reason may be done, and especially as 
to Inquisitions to be taken at the Hustings,— which are 
too much delayed through default of the jurors, — let 
them be entered in the Koll, and command given unto 
the Sheriffs to distrain them to be present at the next 
Hustings, as has oftentimes been done heretofore. And 
nevertheless, let the Aldermen, by their bedel, so far as 
they shall see fit to do, make return of their Wards 
at each Hustings. 

F.243.b. That the Officers shall make the oath yearly. Page 473. 

Item, that all officers of the City, clerks, Serjeants, 
bailiffs, the person who shall be appointed by the She- 
riffs to be their lieutenant in the County of Middlesex, 
clerks and bailiffs under him, ^fermors, warders of 
prisons, bedels of Wards, and grooms who are assigned 
for taking cartage or doing other duties, shall be sworn 
each year before the Mayor and Aldermen, after the 
Sheriffs shall have made oath, each according to that 
which pertains unto the position which he holds. 



' Persons holding contracts for receiving public taxes or customs, on 
payment of a rent or ferm. 



, 



PTIV.] OF THE RECORD AT ST. MARTIN's LE GRAND. 191 

Item, that the pleaders who are commonly residing 
in the City for pleading, shall be sworn that they will 
not plead^ or give counsel, against the usages and 
franchises of the City of London ; but that they will 
maintain the same to the best of their power, within 
the City and without. 

Item, that the attorneys shall be sworn in the same 
manner. And further, that they will not answer as 
attorney for any one, if they are not received and set 
forth on the Eoll; and that they will consult their 
remembrances and make suit unto the Common Clerk 
of the City, that their pleas in the Hustings, touch- 
ing their employers, may be well and properly entered 
without any manner of tardiness ; and that well and 
lawfully they will prosecute the business of their 
clients, without committing fraud or deception upon 
the Court or upon them. 

Of the Record at Saint Martins le Grand. p.243.b. 

Page 474. 

. Item, whereas many folks in the City have here- 
tofore oftentimes sued writs to have record and pro- 
cess brought before the Justiciars at Saint Martin's le 
Grand, who are persons of the Common Law and 
cannot have full cognizance of the franchises and 
usages of the City ; whereby the said franchises and 
usages have oftentimes been brought into great ques^ 
tion and great peril, and the Mayor, Aldermen, 
Sheriffs, and Commons, to great trouble and costs : — 
It is agreed, that no person shall sue such manner 
of writs, before he shall have shown bis grievances 
unto the Mayor and Aldermen, and the matters shall 
by them have been examined. 

And if there be any misprision therein, [let the same 
be] redressed by them, if they can do so ; and if they 
cannot, let [the party] lose the franchise for ever ; and F. tu, a. 



192 IJBER ALBITS. [R. in. 

nevertheless, let him pay unto the City ten pounds, 
for the labour and costs that the Mtayor, Aldermen, 
officers, and commons, have been put to by his suit; 
if so much as that can be found from his goods and 
chattels. 

T'-244.a. Of the same. Page 4*74. 

Item, in process of Pleas of Debts, Covenants, and 
other Pleas, in which the party ought to be brought 
[before the Court] by summons and by essoin, if he 
be willing, and after that by distress ; let it be done 
according to the usages of the City that have been 
followed from of old ; that is to say, after summons, 
one essoin. If the party makes default, let a distress be 
awarded of his goods and chattels in place of attach- 
ment ; or else, as to the two pledges found for his 
appearance at the next Court, let the mainpernors 
be amerced. And then let it be awarded, that he be 
distrained by all his goods and chattels, and by at- 
tachment of rents; and this from day to day, with- 
out him having any indulgence, or finding any main; 
prise. 

p. at't. a. Of lyrodiicmg Witnesses. Page 475. 

Item, that if auy one shall vouch two witnesses to 
bar a man of his law, or of Inquest, the same shall 
not be received unless they be folks of good re- 
port, and not common suitors or approvers before the 
Ordinaries at Saint Pauls or elsewhere, or persons 
suspected of evil. And if the [other] party shall wish 
to challenge the same, let him come before the Mayor 
and Aldermen ; and there let the persons be examined 
and their conditions be testified unto ; and after that, 
let there be done unto the parties that which reason 
demands. 



ft- 



PTIV.] OF HOSTELERS* 193 

Smythefelde. Page 475. p. 244. a. 

Item, that the statute of Smythfeld shall be ob- 
served, as well between denizens as between stran- 
gers. 

Of keeping the Peace. Page 475« p. 244. a. 

Item, the better to preserve the peace of our Lord 
the King, and that each may fear the more to break 
his peace, it is ordained, that if any person shall 
draw a sword, misericorde, or knife, or any arm, even 
though he do not strike, he shall pay unto the City 
half a mark, or remain in the prison of Newgate 
for fifteen days. And if he draw blood of any one, 
let him pay unto the [City] twenty shillings, or 
remain in the said prison foi-ty days. And if he 
strike any one with the fist, even though he have 
not drawn blood, let him pay unto the City two 
shillings, or be imprisoned eight days. And if he 
draw blood with the fist, let him pay unto the City 
forty pence, or be imprisoned for twelve days. And 
let such offenders find good surety before their release, 
and for their good behaviour ; and nevertheless, let 
him upon whom the ofience has been committed, have 
his recovery by process of law. 

And let such offences of bloodshed, against the peace 
of our Lord the King, be pleaded from day to day 
before the Sheriffs, without having any essoin or other 
delay, [in manner] most convenient, of whatever con- 
dition the party may be. 

Of Hostelers. Page 476. p. 2r a. 

Item, whereas heretofore it has been ordained, for 
the preservation of the peace, that no man should 
harbour another beyond a day and a night, if he should 
not wish to make answer for him, in case he should 

VOL. III. XT 



194 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

oflFend; as to which no penalty was ordained, and 
no punishment inflicted; and therefore this Ordinance 
was by no one at all regarded : — It is ordained, that 
no one shall harbour or maintain aiiy man or woman 
who is of bad repute, or notoriously suspected of bad 
conduct, or who shall have so behaved, under pain of 
paying forty shillings unto the community, if he be 
attauited thereof. 

F.244.a. Of the Watercourse of the Thames. Page 476. 

Item, whereas the watercourse of the Thames, which 
is whoUy pertaining unto the City, is greatly impeded 
by the purpresture of quays and other encroachments 
made in the said water, to the great damage and peril 
of all the City ; and also, for the avoiding of greater 
perils and damages in time to come: — It is ordained 
by the Mayor and Aldermen, with the assent of the 
Commons, that from henceforth no purpresture shall 
F.244.b. be made by the erection of quays, or in any other 
manner, upon the water of Thames, without view of 
the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons; and by them 
be it adjudged, whether no peril or damage will 
from such purpresture unto the City ensue. 



That no Hoard shall stand in the high Streets. 

Page 477. 

Item, that no hoard, or palings, or other enclosure, 
shall be made before any tenement in the high streets 
or lanes in the City, or in the suburbs, before that 
the same shall have been viewed by the Mayor and 
Aldermen. And if they shall see that such works are 
prejudicial, the same are to be in no manner allowed. 

And in the like manner let it be done as to steps 
which persons shall wish to make to cellars, the en- 
trances to which extend from out of the high streets and 



PT IV.] DtJTIES OF THE CITY OFFICERS. 196 

lanes ; and let those which are made, be forthwith 
viewed and rectified 



That Masons and Carpenters shall he sworn. F.244.b. 

Page 477. 

Item, that all master carpenters and masons of the 
City shall be sworn that they will make no purpres- 
tures upon the streets or lanes within the City, or the 
suburbs, nor yet to the prejudice of the neighbours 
where they shall make the buildings, contrary to the 
Statutes of the City from ancient time ordained. 



That the Mayor shall w/xke enquvry as to the Officers. F,2u,h. 

Page 477. 

Item, that the Mayor of the City for the time being, 
by advice of the Aldermen, shall make enquiry each 
year, when he shall see that necessity is, as to the 
behaviour of the officers, bailiffs, fermors, gaoler, Ser- 
jeants of Wards, and others, who hold office in the 
City; that so it may be, that no other persons may 
intermeddle therewith, upon default of the Mayor, to 
the prejudice of the franchise of the City. 

Of the duty of the Officers. Page 478. p.244.b. 

Item, if any person shaU have made a recognizance, 
and be condemned in a sum of money to pay the 
same, and execution be awarded to levy the same money 
from his goods and chattels, [and he then] shut the 
doors of the houses where such goods and chattels are, 
and wiU not open the same ; and if perchance he shall 
absent himself ' with iU intent, when the officer ought 



* This is probably the meaning of **par male" 

N 2 



15)6 LIBER ALBUS. [S- ^IT. 

to make execution ; let the officer take with him good 
folks, and in their presence make opening and execu- 
tion, as it pertains [unto him to do]. 

p.2J9.a. Of ike Penalty for rebelling against tlie Masters of tlie 

Mysteries. Page 494. 

Item, it is ordained that all the mysteries of the City 
of London shall be lawfully regulated and governed, 
each according to its nature, in due manner ; that so no 
knavery, or false workmanship, or deceit, shall be found 
in any maimer in the said mysteries ; for the honom^ 
of the good folks of the said mysteries, and for the 
common profit of the people. And in each mystery 
let there be chosen and sworn four, or six, or more 
or less, according as the mystery shall need ; which 
persons, so chosen and sworn, shall have full power 
from the Mayor well and lawfulty to do and perform 
the same. 

And if any person of the said mysteries shall be 
rebellious, contradictory, or fractious, that so such per- 
sons may not duly perform their duties, and shall 
be attainted thereof, he shall remain in prison, the first 
time, ten days, and shall pay unto the Commonalty 
ten shillings for the contempt ; and the second time, 
he shall remain in. prison twenty days, and shall pay 
twenty shillings unto the Commonalty. And the third 
time, he shall remain in prison thirty days, and shall 
pay thirty shillings unto the Commonalty. And the 
fourth time, he shall remain in prison forty days, and 
shall pay forty shillings unto the Commonalty. 



F.249.b. Of Tenants for term of Life or in Tail. Page 495. 

Whereas heretofore it has oftentimes happened that 
where many good folks of the City of London have 
devised their lands, rents, and tenements, \mto their 



PriV.] KEMOVAIi OF WEARS, STANKS, A^^D DAMS. 197 

wives for term of life, or to others for temn of life or 
in fee tail, and, after their decease, the remainder of the 
said lands, rents, and tenements, to their children, or to 
others, for term of life, or in fee tail, or in fee simple. 
And in cases where the reversion was reserved after the 
death of the tenant for term of life, or after the estate 
tail determined, the [said i^emainder-men] were to have 
the said estates : others who had only for term of life or 
in fee tail, the lands, and rents, and tenements, so devised 
to them, have alienated the same in fee unto strange 
persons and others, with clause of waiTanty, to the 
disherison of the children and others unto whom the 
remainder was belonging, contrary to the will of the 
testator. — It is therefore ordained, by common assent 
of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons, thereunto sum- 
moned, that no person from henceforth, who shall 
demand any lands, or tenements, or rents, in the City 
of London, or in the suburbs thereof, by force of any 
right reserved unto him or unto his ancestors, after the 
death of any tenant for term of life, or after any estate 
tail determined, or by force of any estate entaUed upon 
him or upon his ancestoi-s, after the death of any tenant 
for term of life, or after any estate tail determined, 
shall, in the case aforesaid, be barred by any deed con- 
taining warranty of any such who have no estate 
[therein] except for term of life or in fee tail, even 
though such person be heir unto any one of them; 
unless he hold by descent in fee simple, so as to be 
barred to the value of that which has descended to 
him in fee simple. 

The Statutes of King Edward tlw Third, in the jive- r.252,a. 
and-tiventieth and the six-and-fortieih years [of 
his reign]. Of Gorces, Mills, Stanks, Stakes, and 
Kidels, Page 505. 

At a Parliament summoned at Westminster, the Mon- 
day in the first week of Lent, in the five-and-fortieth 



198 



LIBER ALBXJS. 



[B. III. 



year of the reign of King Edward, the Third [of that 
name] since the Conquest, it was, among other things, 
ordained and established, that the Great Charter and 
the Charter of the Forest should in all points be holden 
and observed. 

Item, whereas in the Statute made at Westminster 
in the ^ j5ve-and-twentieth year, among other things, it 
was ordained and accorded, that because the common 
passage of ships and boats in the great rivers of England 
was oftentimes impeded by the raising of ^gorces, mills, 
® stanks, * stakes, and kidels, to the great damage of the 
people : — It was accorded and established, that all such 
gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, as were raised 
and set up in the time of the King, the grandsire [of 
the then reigniHg King], and since, in such rivers, 
whereby the ships and boats were impeded, that so they 
could not pass as they were wont, should be removed 
and clean abated, without being reinstated. And 
thereupon, Writs should be sent unto the Sheriffs of 
places where it might be necessary, to survey and en- 
quire, and to make execution thereon; and also. Jus- 
tices were thereupon to be assigned at aU times when 
need should be. 

And now, at the grievous complaint of the great men 
and the commons, made in this present Parliament, 
making plaint by their petition, that the said Statute 
was not duly executed or observed according to the 
effect thereof ; ^ [it was accorded and established, that 
the said Statute in this point should be holden and 
observed, according to the effect thereof] ; adding there- 
to, that if any such nuisance should be abated by due 
process contained in the said Statute, such person as 



» Of Edward III. 
^ A name given to certain kinds 
of wears. 
' Bams of water. 
* Driven into the beds of rivers 



for the purpose of intercepting the 
passage of the fish. 

^ This passage has been omitted, 
through inadvertence, in the original. 
See page 202. 



> 



, 



PTIV.] PRESERVATION OF FISH IN CERTAIN RIVERS. 199 

should cause the said nuisance to be reinstated, and 
should thereof be duly attainted, should incur the 
penalty of one hundred marks as towards the King, 
[to be levied] by estreat in the Exchequer ; and the like 
law should hold as to nuisance made by the heightening 
of such gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, as to 
the new raising thereof. 



The Statute of King Eichard the Second, in the thir- i?.252.a. 
teenth year [of his reign']. Of Nets. Page 507. 

In the Statute made at Westminster, the Monday 
next after the Feast of Saint Hilary [13 January], in 
the thirteenth year of the reign of King Kichard, the 
Second [of that name] since the Conquest, the Statute 
of Westminster, the Second, above-written, was con- 
firmed, adding thereto, that salmon-fry was not to be 
taken throughout the said time at the stanks of mills, 
or elsewhere, under the same penalty: and that no 
fisherman or garthman, or other person, of whatever 
estate or condition he might be, should place from thence- 
forth in the waters of Thames, Humber, Ouse, Trent, or 
in any other water of the realm, throughout the said 
time, or at any other time in the year, any nets called 
" stalkers,'^ or other nets or engines whatsoever, where- 
by the fry or brood of salmon, lampreys, or any other 
fish whatsoever, might in any manner be taken or 
destroyed, under the pain aforesaid. 

And also, whereas it is contained in the same Statute, r.252.b. 
that aU the waters in which salmon are taken through- 
out the kingdom shall be placed in fence as to the 
taking of salmon, from the Day of the Nativity of Oui' 
Lady [8 September], until the Day of Saint Martin 
[11 November] ; it is ordained and agreed, that the 
waters of *Lowe, Wyre, Merse, Ribbil, and aU other 

" ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■■ ■■^.. ■■>■■■■ ■ ■ ■ I d M ■ ■■ ■■■■■■ ^^^^M*— ^I^M^^^^^^^^M^M^^^^^^^^Pl^^lll^^,,^,^^.^^,^,,^^^^ 

* Probably the Lone or Lune, in Lancasbire. 



200 LIBER ALBUS. [B. III. 

waters in the Couuty of Lancaster, shall be placed 
in fence, as to the taking of salmon, from the Day 
of Saint Michael until the Day of the Purification of 
Our Lady, and at no other time of the year ; by reason 
that salmon are not seasonable in the said waters during 
the time aforesaid ; and in the parts where such rivers 
are, there shall be assigned and sworn good and suffi- 
cient Conservators of the said Statute of Westminster, 
that they may [punish] offenders according to the pe- 
nalty in the same Statute contained, without shewing 
any favour therein. 



F. 252. b. The Statute of King Richard the Secondy in the seven-- 

teenth year [of his reign]. Of the Conservators of 
the water of T harries. Page 508. 

At the Parliament holden at Westminster, the quin- 
zaine after Saint Hilary [13 January], in the seventeenth 
year of the reign of King Richard the Second, foras- 
much as neither the Statute of Westminster, the Second, 
above-written, nor the Statute of the said King Richard, 
made in the thirteenth year of his reign, above specified, 
was duly executed, for default of good Conservators, 
as the said King Richard had understood by plaint 
unto him in the said Parliament, in his seventeenth 
year, made : in such Parliament it was accorded and 
agreed, that the Justices of the peace in all the Counties 
of England should be Conservators of the said Statutes 
in the Counties in which they should be Justices. 
And that they, and every of them, at all times when 
they could attend thereto, should examine the mispri- 
sions and the defaults attempted contrary to the Statutes 
aforesaid, and also should survey and search all gorces 
in such rivers, that the same were not too narrow, to 
the destruction of such fry and brood, but of reasonable 
opening according to the ancient Assize. 



a 



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(( 



u 



Pxivj CONSERVATOBS OF THE WATER OP THAMES. 201 

'^ And that the same Justices, or such of them as shall 
'^ find default or misprision against the Statutes afore- 
said, shall inflict due punishment upon the trespassers, 
according to the contents of the same Statutes. And 
" that the same Justices shall appoint good and suffi- 
" cient sub-conservators of the same Statutes, under 
" them ; who shall be sworn, upon view, to make like 
" search and punishment, without shewing any favour 
" therein. And that in addition thereto, the same Jus- 
'' tices, at their Sessions, shall make inquisition, as well 
by virtue of their own office as upon the information 
of the sub-conservators aforesaid, as to all trespasses, 
misprisions, and defaults, committed against any of 
the points aforesaid, and shall make to appear before 
" them those who are indicted ; and if they be con- 
" victed thereof, they shall have imprisonment, and 
" make fine, at the discretion of the same Justices. 

'^ And if it be at the information of any one of the 
" sub-conservators aforesaid, the same sub-conservator 
" is to have one half of the same fine. 

" And whereas it has been granted unto the citizens *'♦ 253. a. 
" of London by the progenitors of our Lord the 
*' King, that they may remove and take all kidels in 
'^ the waters of Thames and Medeway, and that they 
" may have the punishments therefor unto the King 
" pertaining : — our Lord the King, in this present Par- 
" liament, with the assent aforesaid, hath granted that 
" the Mayor or Warden of London, for the time being, 
shall have the Conservancy of the Statutes afore- 
said, and shall make due execution thereof, and like 
punishment as is before ordained as to Justices of 
the peace, in the said water of Thames from Stanes 
Bridge unto London, and from thence throughout in 
the same water, and in the said water of Medeway, 
so far as pertains unto the said citizens, as is before 
mentioned/' 



u 

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202 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

F.253.a. The Statute of King Richard [II.], m the one-and- 

twentieth year \of his reign], — Penalty of one 
hundred marks, — Of Gorces, Mills, Blanks, Stakes, 
and Kidels, Page 509. 

At the Parliament holden at Westminster, in the one- 
and-twentieth year [of the reign] of King Richard the 
Second, it was ordained that : — 

" Whereas by the Lord Edward, late King of England, 
" grandsire of our Lord now reigning, in the five-and- 
** twentieth year of his reign, because that the common 
passage of ships and boats in the great rivers of 
England was oftentimes impeded by the raising of 
gorces, mills, stanks, and kidels, to the great damage 
of the people ; it was accorded and established, that 
" all such gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, as 
were raised and set up in the time of King Edward, 
** son of King Henry, and since, in such rivers, whereby 
the ships and boats were impeded, that so they 
" could not pass as they were wont, should be removed 
" and clean abated, without being reinstated ; and 
that writs should thereupon be sent unto the Sheriffs 
of places where it might be necessary, to survey and 
" enquire, and to make execution thereon ; and also, 
'^ Justices were thereupon to be assigned at all times 
" when need should be. 

And afterwards, at the grievous complaint of the 

great men and the commons, made in the Parliament 

" of the said King Edward, the grandsire, in the five- 

" and-fortieth year of his reign, making plaint by their 

" petition, that the said Statute was not duly executed 

or observed, according to the effect thereof; it was 

accorded and established, that the said Statute in 

this point should be holden and observed, according 

" to the effect thereof; adding thereto, that if any 

" such nuisance should be abated by due process con- 

" tained in the said Statute, such person as should 

** cause the said nuisance to be reinstated, and thereof 



<c 
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tc 



PTIV.] CONSEBVANOY OF THE GBEAT BIVERS. 203 

'^ should be duly attainted, should incur the penalty of 
*-' one hundred marks as towards the King, to be 
** levied by estreat in the Exchequer ; and the like law 
" should hold as to nuisance made by the heightening 
'^ of such gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, as to 
*^ the new raising thereof, — as in the said Statutes more 
*' fully appears. And now, at the request of the said 
" Commons, shewing by their petition that the com- 
'^ mon passage for ships and boats in the great rivers 
'^ of England, and also, meadows and pastures, and 
" sown lands, adjoining unto the said rivers, are greatly 
^' molested, beset, wasted, and destroyed, by the out- 
*^ rageous heightening and straightening of gorces, 
*^ mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, in ancient times 
" made and raised, before the time of the said King 
*' Edward, son of King Henry ; whereby great damages 
" and losses have oftentimes befallen the people of the 
'^ realm, and will befall them from day to day, if some F.253.b. 
" remedy be not applied thereto : — It is accorded and 
" established, with the assent aforesaid, that the said 
" Statutes shall in all their articles be holden and 
" strictly observed, and duly executed, together with 
" the penalties, and according to the effect, thereof; 
" added whereunto, that commissions shall be made in 
" due form unto sufficient persons to be Justices in 
" each County of England, where need shall be, for 
" surveying and guarding the waters and great rivers 
" there, and for correcting and amending defaults, and 
*^ making due execution of the said Statutes, accord- 
" ing to the effect thereof; as well by their survey, 
*' advice, and discretion, as by Inquests to be taken 
" thereon, within the franchise and without, [if] and 
when need shall be ; and to hear and determine the 
matters aforesaid ; and, in addition thereto, to survey 
the gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, in ancient 
times made and raised, before the time of the said 
King Edward, son of King Henry ; and those which 
they shall find too high or narrow, to correct, 



« 
« 

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\aielMi 



204 LIBEE ALBUS. [B. III. 



(( 



a 



a 



abate, and amend, in manner and form aforesaid ; 
*" saving always the reasonable subsistence of tlie 
'^ gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels aforesaid, so 
" in ancient times made and raised. And if any such 
*^ nuisances of gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, 
" of passages and straights, anciently made and raised, 
*' shall be adjudged or awarded by the said Justices to 
" be abated and amended, he who shall have the free- 
" hold thereof, shall do execution thereupon, at his 
own charges, within half a year after notification 
unto him to do the same, under pain of paying one 
*' hundred marks unto the King, by estreats in the 
" Exchequer ; and he who shall cause the same to be 
" reinstated, or heightened, or straightened, contrary to 
" the said judgment, and shall thereof be duly con- 
'^ victed, shall incur a penalty of one hundred mai'ks, 
*' to be paid unto the King by estreats in the 
" Exchequer aforesaid. And in case any person 
" shall feel himself aggrieved by execution or in any 
" other way in that behalf, contrary to right and 
" reason, let him sue and have his right and remedy/' 



F.253.b. The Statute of King Henry , since the Conquest the 
Fourth [0/ that name], in the first year [0/ his 
reign]. Of Kidels and of Nets. Page 512. 

At the Parliament holden at Westminster on the 
Feast of Saint Faith the Virgin [6 October], in the 
first year of the reign of King Henry, the Fourth 
[of that name] since the Conquest, among other Articles, 
this Article ensuing is ordained: — 

" Item, whereas Edward, late King of England, in 
" the five-and-twentieth year of his reign, because that 
" the common passage of ships and boats, e^c," as 
^ above. " And now, at the request of the said Com- 

* See page 202 ante. 



PrIV.] CONSERVANCY OF THE GREA.T EIVKKS. 205 

" mens, shewing by their petition that the common 
" passage for ships and boats in the great rivers of 
'* England, and also, meadows and pastures, and sown 
'^ lands, adjoining nnto the said rivers, are greatly 
*' molested, beset, wasted, and destroyed, by the out- 
" rageons heightening and straightening of gorces, mills, 
*' stanks, stakes, and kidels, in ancient times made 
" and raised, before the time of King Edward, son of 
" King Henry; whereby great damages and losses 
'^ have oftentimes befallen the people of the realm, 
*' and will befall them from day to day, if some remedy 
^' be not applied thereto: — It is accorded and esta- 
'' Wished, with the assent aforesaid, that the said 
'* Statutes shall in all their articles be bolden and 
" strictly observed, and duly executed, together with 
'' the penalties, and according to the effect thereof; 
" added whereunto, that commissions shall be made in 
'^ due form unto sufficient persons to be Justices in 
*^ each County of England, where need shall be, for 
" surveying and guarding the waters and great rivers 
'' there, and for correcting and amending defaults, and f. 254. a. 
" making due execution of the said Statutes, accord- 
'* ing to the effect thereof; as well by their survey, 
" advice, and discretion, as by Inquests to be taken 
'' thereon, within the franchise and without, if and 
" when need shall be; and to hear and determine the 
*' matters aforesaid ; and in addition thereto, to survey 
" the gorces, miDs, stanks, stakes, and kidels, in ancient 
'* times made and raised, before the said time of King 
" Edward, son of King Henry ; and those which they 
" shall find too high or narrow, to correct, abate, 
" and amend, in manner and form aforesaid ; saving 
always the reasonable subsistence of the gorces, 
mills, stanks, stakes, [and] kidels aforesaid, so in 
ancient times made and raised. And if any such 
nuisances of gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, 
of passages [and] straights, anciently made and 



a 



MH^': 



206 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

" raised, shall be adjudged or awarded by the said 
" Justices to be abated and amended, he "who shall 
" have the freehold thereof, shall do execution there- 
" upon, at his own charges, within half a year after 
" notification unto him to do the same, under pain of 
" paying one hundred marks unto the King, by estreats 
" in the Exchequer; and he who shall cause the 
" same to be reinstated, heightened, or straightened, 
" contrary to the said judgment, and shall thereof be 
" dtdy convicted, shall incur a penalty of one hundred 
" marks, to be paid unto the King by estreats in the 
" Exchequer aforesaid. And in case any person shall 
" feel himself aggrieved by execution or in any other 
" way in that behalf, contrary to right and reason, let 
" him sue and have his right and remedy/' 



« 



p. 254. a. The Statute of King Henry ^ since the Conquest the 

Fourth [of that na'}ne]y in the fourth year [of his 
reignl. Of levying Fines by Estreats. Page 513. 

" Item, whereas by gorces, stakes, and kidels, stand- 
" ing in the water of Thames and in other great 
" rivers of the realm, the common passage of ships 
" and boats is impeded, and many people perish ; 
" and also, the young fish destroyed, and against 
reason wasted, and given unto swine to eat, against 
the pleasing of God and to the great damage of the 
" King and of his people; our said Lord the King, 
" wishiug to apply due remedy unto the mischiefs 
'^ aforesaid, with the advice and assent of the Lords 
above-mentioned, and at the prayer of the said Com- 
mons, doth wiD. and grant, that the Statutes thereon 
made shaU be holden and observed, and duly put 
'^ in execution as to aU the same ; that commissions 
" shall be made unto certain Justices, and unto others 
" in each County of the realm where need shall be 
" to enquire as to aU that is contained in the said 



« 






PT IV.] PROCESS AS TO NETS TAKEN IN THE THAMES. 207 

" Statutes, and to punish those who contravene the 
" same Statutes, by fine, at their discretion; — saving 
" and reserving unto the King, our Lord, the penalties 
'* in the said Statutes in especial comprised. And that 
" the estreats of such fines shall be delivered by the 
" said Justices unto the Sheriifs in each County by 
" indenture ; and that the said Sheriffs shall pay fi'om 
« the issues and profits arising from the said esti-eats 
" unto each of the said Justices, for each day that he 
" shall be employed in carrying out the said commis- 
" sion, four shillings. And that the Sheriffs shall have 
" due allowance from time to time in the Exchequer 
" therefor/' 



Record of Process^ and Judgment as to Nets taken p. 234.b. 
in the ThaTms, before the Council of ov/r Lord 
the King, at Westndnster, in the Seventh Tear of 
the reign of King Henry the Fourth, — Of Kidels, 
Trinksj and Nets, Judgment as to sixteen Nets, 
Page 514. 

Be it remembered, that on the nineteenth day of 
February, in the seventh year of the reign of our 
Lord King Henry, since the Conquest the Fourth [of 
that name], the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty 
of the City of London appeared here, before the Council 
of our said Lord the King, at Westminster, and here 
delivered unto view their Petition, shewing thereby 
how that they, and their predecessors, from time as to 
which memory does not run, have had and enjoyed, i\254..b. 
by reason of divers liberties, franchises, and customs, 
and also by Charters of the progenitors of our said 
Lord the King unto them granted, and by the same our 
Lord the King confirmed, and by divers Statutes made, 
the conservancy and correction of all kidels, trinks, 
nets, and other engines whatsoever, in the waters of 
Thames and Medeway laid, whereby the fish in the 
said waters spawned, when not seasonable, might be 



208 LIBER ALBUS. [B. Ill 

taken and destroyed, n gainst the Statutes thereon made ; 
and also, to place under them sub-conservators in the 
said waters of the Statutes and franchises aforesaid. 

And that whereas one Alexander Boner, sub-conser- 
vator of the said Statutes in the said waters, by the 
aforesaid Mayor, Alderinen, and Commonalty, deputed 
and sworn, on the ninth day of the said month of 
February, while performing his duties in the waters 
aforesaid, did find sixteen nets, which he took; and 
would have carried them to London, there to be ex- 
amined and adjudged upon before the said Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Commonalty, as to whether the same 
were of reasonable mesh or not ; there came thither, on 
that same day, John Sampsone, Benet Lorkyn, William 
Serle, Thomas Rokesle, Benet Kent, John Caude, John 
Hook, William Segood, Thomas Coole, William Bur- 
deux, John Merdene, John Scot, John Littelman, John 
Man, Nicholas Haji^one, — of Erehithe ; John Trymcok, 
Thomas Pesog, — of Prattysferye ; Henry PrakyUe, 
William Olyve, Thomas Squyrelle, John Prakille, — of 
Berkyng ; Ralph Trymcok, John Man, John Rabelle, 
John Mart^rn, Stephen Hogge, John Rydelle, and Ralph 
1'ot, — of Wulwiche, and many others of the Counties 
of Essexe and of Kent, to the number of two thou- 
sand persons, horribly, by sound raised of the bells of 
the churches upon the shores of the said waters stand- 
ing, and in guise of insurrection, as persons who would 
not be ruled according to the law of our said Lord 
the King, against his crown and dignity arrayed to 
make war, with bows, arrows, and swords, bucklers, 
clubs, [and] doors and windows in place of shields ; 
and upon the said Alexander did make assault, and 
a great number of arrows at him on the said water 
of Thames discharge, [and] did in divers boats filled 
with men in arms him to the town of Berkyng 
pursue. 

At the which town the said Alexander landed, and 
there delivered unto the constables of the said town of 



I 



PTIV.] RIOTOUS ASSEMBLAGE OF FISHERMEN. 209 

Berkjnig, in presence of Thomas Shepey and Stephen 
Ingelfelde, the sixteen nets aforesaid, until the Mayor 
should cause the said nets to be sent for, to examine 
them and adjudge thereon, as before is stated. 

Upon which daj?-, came the said folks of Erehithe, 
Prattisferie, Berkyng, and Wolewiche, before-named, 

> xmto the said town of Berkyng, and did take the said 

nets from the custody of the said constables, wrongfully 
and against the Statutes, in contempt of our said 
Lord the King, and against the liberties and franchises 
of the said city ; wherefore the aforesaid Mayor, and 
Aldermen, and Commonalty did pray the said Council 
to provide due remedy therefor. Whereupon, by 
the same Council command was given unto Simon p. 255, a. 
Blakborne, one of the Serjeants-at-arms of our said 
Lord the King, to cause to be arrested the said 
John Sampsone and his accomplices before-named, and 
to bring them before the said Council, to make answer 
unto the matters above stated. 

I By force of which command, the Serjeant-at-arms 

aforesaid arrested as many of the said persons as he 
could find, and brought them before the said Council 
at Westminster, on the one-and-twentieth day of the 
said month of February; that is to say, John Samp- 
sone, Benet Lorkyn, John Caude, William Segood, 
Thomas Cole, John Merden, Nicholas Haytone, [of 
Erehithe] ; John Trymcok, Thomas Pesog, of Prat- 
tisferie ; Henry Prakylle, William Oly ve, Thomas 
Squyrelle, and John Martyn, above-written. 

Which day being now arrived, because that all the 
Lords of the said Council, by reason of certain very 
weighty business that demanded their attention, greatly 
touching the estate of our said Lord the King and 
of ^his realm, could not find time or attend unto the 
examination of the matter aforesaid ; such examination 
was committed, by authority of the said Council, unto 
Messires the Duke of York, and the Lords de Roos 

VOL. III. O 



210 LIBER ALBUS. [b. III. 

and de Burnelle ; the -which, by virtue of such 
authority, did duly examine the said matter. Upon 
wliich examination, the said John Sampsone, Benet 
Lorkyn, and the others, their accomplices, so arrested 
and brought before the said Council, were found guilty 
in this behalf, as well towards our said Lord the 
KiQg, as towards the Mayor, Aldermen, [and] Com- 
monalty aforesaid. And upon such report being made 
thereon unto Messires the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the Bishops of Winchester, of Durham, and of Bath, and 
to the other Lords of the said Council, by the Duke and 
Lords aforesaid, the above-named John Sampsone and 
his said companions did submit themselves unto the 
mercy and grace of our said Lord the King, for 
that they had in this case offended against him ; 
humbly entreating the said Mayor, Aldennen, and 
Commonalty, to pardon them their trespasses and 
offences, so against them in this behalf done and per- 
petrated; [and] promising lawfully and in good faith 
to abstain from thenceforth from naming or attempting 
any such things, or the like. 

The which Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty, from 
reverence for the said Archbishop of Canterbury and 
the said other Lords, benignly hearkening unto the 
said supplication, did pardon the said transgressors 
their trespasses and offences aforesaid ; and further, by 
mediation of the said Lords, did grant and give 
licence unto the possessors of the sixteen nets afore- 
said, to fish with those nets until the Feast of Easter 
then next ensuing. 

Whereupon, by the said Lords of Council it was 
awarded, that the said sixteen nets should be brought 
and dehvered unto the said Mayor of London the 
Sunday then next ensuing, to the intent that the same 
Mayor, by his own hands, might restore or deliver 
them unto the possessors thereof, to take fish therewith, 
at their pleasure, until the said Feast of Easter, in 



m:^ 



PTiv.] STATUTE AS TO GORGES, MILLS, STANKS, ETC. 2il 

manner as above stated.-— Provided always, that be- 
tween then and the same Feast, they should cause new 
nets to be made, according to the standard of London ; 
and that at such Feast of Easter, they should cause to 
be brought unto the said Mayor, as well the said 
old nets, to be burnt in case they should be found 
defective, as the said new nets, to be by the same T'.255.b. 
Mayor proved, examined, and sealed, as pertains there- 
unto. And provided also, that they should not put in 
use such new nets, or any other new nets, from thence- 
forth, until the same should have been first presented 
unto the Mayor of London for the time being, and 
by Mm proved, examined, and sealed, according to the 
form and effect of the Statutes aforesaid 



The Statute of the first year of Hen'}^ the Fifth. F.255.b, 

Page 518. 

In the ^ Parliament holden at Westminster, in the 
first year of the reign of King Henry, since the Con- 
quest the Fifth [of that name], among others the 
Article ensuing is contained; — 

*^ Item, whereas great complaint has been made unto 
" our said Lord the Eling, in the said Parliament, 
" because that the Statutes made in the time of his 
'^ noble progenitors, as to the heightening and straight- 
" ening of gorces, mills, stanks, stakes, and kidels, are 
"not kept and observed according to the form and 
" effect of the same Statutes, to the great damage of 
" the people and of the realm ; the same our Lord the 
" King, with the advice and assent aforesaid, at the 
" request of the said Commons, doth will and grant, 
" that the said Statutes shall be strictly kept and 
" observed, and put in due execution.'^ 



* Given as * Statute ' in the original. 

o 2 



212 LIBER ALBUS. [B III. 

[Divers Ordinances as to the Serjeants of the 

SheHffs.l Page 619. 

p. 257. a. " In the first place, that no one of the Sheriffs shall 
" have more than three clerks for his office of Sheriff; 
" that is to say, the TJnder-Sheriff, the Secondary, 
" and the Third [Clerk], who shall keep the paper ; 
" which [officers] shall be free of the city. Item, that 
"^ no one of the said clerks shall be attorney unto any 
" person in the Court of the said Sheriffs, or of 
" counsel to any party in any cause to be prosecuted 
" before the said Sheriffs ; — under pain of being ousted 
" from their office, and further, of being punislied 
'* at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen. 

"Item, whereas Assizes of Freshforce have hereto- 
" fore been commenced by bill in the Hustings, or 
*^ before the Mayor and Aldermen, in their Congre- 
" gation, on the Monday, and the parties summoned 
" or attached on the Wednesday next, and on the 
'' Saturday then next ensuing the Session and the 
" Assize taken thereon ; forasmuch as it seems unto 
'' the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons, of the said 
'* city, that such process is too hasty, to the dis- 
'* herison of many persons who at such time are 
" absent : — It is ordained by the same Mayor, Alder- 
" men, and Commons, that all such Assizes shall be 
" served and executed in all points as aforetime they 
" were wont ; save only, that such Assizes shall not 
" be taken within fifteen days after the first attach- 
" ment so made upon the tenants at tlie tenements de- 
" manded. And that the panels of such Assizes shall 
" be made and arrayed for three days, or two days, 
** at the least, before the day that the Assize shall be 
'' taken; that so the parties may have the copy and 
'* knowledge of the names which shall pass upon the 
'' same Assize. Saving always unto the Mayor and 
" Aldermen, for the time being, correction and redress 
^' of entry made by force, if any such there be. 






<i 



(( 



]?TIV.] ORDINANCES AS TO SHERIFFS' SERJEANTS. 213 

*' Item, that the Sherijfts' seijeants shall take for 
" doing and executing their oflSce, in manner as fol- 
" lows ; that is to say, for making summons for 
" debt, trespass, or any action whatsoever; and also, 
" for summoning the Inquest as between parties : — 
" if the trial be terminated upon the first summons 
of the defendant, or the first appearance of the In- 
quest, he shall take four pence, or six pence, from 
'* the plaintiff, in all, without more, according to the 
" amount of his labour, and this upon survey of the 
'^ Court. And if it behoves liim to summon the 
'' Inquest several times, he shall do so unto the end, 
" and also execution thereupon, taking from the plain- 
" tiff twelve pence for his trouble, and no more, with- 
out award of the Mayor and Aldermen. Provided 
always, that when a serjeant shall have [once] 
" commenced summoning the party defendant, or the 
" Inquest, and shall have taken from the party for 
" his trouble, as is before stated, he shall do and 
*' execute the same until it shall be ended and deter- 
" mined; and if he cannot, for other reasonable oc- 
" cupations, so do, he shall ordain another of his 
*' companions to perform the same, without taking 
" or demanding more of the party plaintiff, except by 
'' the said award, as is before stated. 

" Item, when a serjeant makes execution by Statute, 
" be it by extent of tenements, or by appraising of 
" goods, or by foreign attachments, he shall take from 
** the plaintiff twelve pence, and more, according to 
*' the amount of his trouble, and that by award of 
" the Mayor and Aldermen. 

*' Item, when a serjeant has arrested any person, 
" and such person afterwards finds pledges for his 
appearance at the next Court, and makes default, 
he shall take from the party plaintiff, for making 
'• plenary execution, whether of the body or of the 
" goods, six pence, or twelve pence, or more, according F.257.b. 






214 LIBER ALBUS [B.ni. 

" to the amount of his trouble, and that by the 
" award aforesaid. 

" Item, when a man is an*ested for trespass or other 
'' personal action, and found in default, and Inquest 
^' is taken for taxation of damages, or where audi- 
" tors shall be assigned in action of account, the 
'* Serjeant shall take from the party plaintiff, for 
" making plenary execution, six pence, or twelve pence, 
" according to the amount of his trouble, under 
'' the supervision aforesaid. Provided always, that in 
" each personal case in which the plaintiff shall 
" recover damages, before such damages are adjudged 
" unto him, the plaintiff shall make oath before the 
" Judge, to set forth the particulars of his costs 
" incurred about the suit aforesaid, if he be required 
^^ so to do. 

" Item, it is ordained and assented, that if any per- 
'* son comes into Court, and makes demand of a cer- 
" tain debt, or other contract, and the party defendant 
*^ says that his demand, or his suit, is not a true 
" one, and thereupon puts himself upon the oath of 
*' the plaintiff forthwith, with his ^ single hand; — 
" in case the plaintiff will not make oath that his 
" demand is a true one, then let the party defendant 
" be adjudged to go acquitted, and the plaintiff to 
'^ be amerced. And the same law is the piarty de- 
" fendant to have in such case, if the party plaintiff 
'' is willing to assent thereto. 

"Item, that no pleader or attorney shaE be heard 
*' to plead for his client within the Bar in the Sheriffs' 
" Court ; but let them stand without the Bar, with- 
" out making outcry or noise; that so the people of 
" the law, and the good folks of the City, may be 
" heard in due manner as to their business which 
" they have to transact in the said Courts ;— always 

* Himself only making oath, as lus ayrti compurgator. 



Pt IV.] ORDINANCES AS TO PLEADERS, ATTORNEYS, ETC. 215 



f< 
<( 
a 



I 

a 



excepting the persons who wish to sue for the King 
or the City. 

Item, that no pleader, or attorney, when instructed, 
shall enforce any man to sue another falsely, by a 
false action, and one fabricated for aggrievance. And 
if any one shall do so, and shall be thereof attainted, 
'* upon examination of the said pleader or attorney 
" before the Mayor and Aldermen, let him be made 
" to forswear the Court for one year. 

" And in the same manner be it done, if they allege 
any false foreign matter, to oust the Court of its 
" jurisdiction. 

Item, let enquiry be made each quarter of the 
year, as to abettors, maintainors of suits, embracers and 
" procurers of Inquests, confedei'ators, conspirators, and 
" champertors, as well in the Courts of the Mayor 
^' and Sheriffs as within tbe City and the suburbs 
" thereof ; in manner as was done in the time of John 
'^ Philipot, late ^ Mayor, as appears in Book H, folio 
" 102. 

",Item, that the Compters from henceforth be not 
" let to ferm by any Sheriff, or by any other person 
" in their name, unto the porters of the Compters^ or 
" unto any other officer of the Sheriffs ; but that the 
Sheriffs shall be bound to bear the charge of the rent, 
candles, and other such costs as the porters of the 
Compters have borne in time past, by reason of 
" their ^ferm. 

" Item, that prisoners who are staying in the 
" Compters shall pay nothing for their customary fees 
" unto the porters, or unto the Sheriffs, for one night, 
" by reason of their staying in the said Compter, save 
" only for a bed, one penny the first night. i\258.ai 

*^And if such person shall wish in preference to 
** stay in the Compter rather than go to Neugate or 

* A.D. 1378. I Coniptersi 

^ Or rent pstid foir fejpming siich 






&^r^ 



^•258. a. Neugate and Ludgate, Page 524 

" Item, whereas great outcry has been made hereto- 
" fore as to many wrongs and misprisions done by the 
" gaolers of Neugate and Ludgate, and their officers 
" and servants, to the very grievous impoverishment 
" of the poor lieges of our Lord the King : — It is 
" ordained and assented to, by the Mayor, Aldermen, 
" and Commons, of the said city, that from henceforth 
"no prisoner, committed to Neugate or Ludgate 
*' for any cause whatsoever, shall pay any money for 
" the lamps within the same gaols, or for any bed 



} 



2l6 LIBER ALBUS. [b. lit 

" to Ludgate, whether for debt, trespass, or any other 

" cause, felony and treason excepted, in such case it 

" shall be fully lawful for the said Sheriffs to leave 

'^ such prisoners in the Compter, for their comfort, 

** they paying to the use of the said Sheriffs four 

*^ pence, six pence, eight pence, or twelve pence, per 

" week, each person, towards the rent of the said house, I 

" without more ; and this, by assessment of the clerks 

'^ of the Compter, taking into consideration their 

'* arrest and also their estate. 

*^ Item, that if a prisoner shall make such agi'eement 
** with the Sheriff, or his clerks, to wait in the Comp- 
" ter, as is before stated, it shall be fully lawful for 
" such prisoner to have his own bed there, if he has 
" one ; and if he has not, then it shall be fully lawful 
" for the porter to find him a bed, taking each night 
" one penny for the same, as the manner is in all 
^' lodging-houses. 

"^ Item, that neither the porter nor any other officer 
" of the said Compter shall sell unto the prisoners 
^' bread, ale, charcoal, firewood, or any other provisions 
" whatsoever, under pain of imprisonment and of 
" making fine, at the discretion of the Mayor and 
'^ Aldermen, — ^^except by [due] measure and at a rea- 
" sonable price. '^ 



(C 



it 



I>TIV.] ATTORNEYS AND COMMON PLEADERS. 217 

" therein; but that all prisoners, committed to the 
" same, shall pay unto the said gaolei-s, at tlieir release, 
*^ four pence, without more, for the gaoler's fee in all 
" cases, treason and felony excepted. Provided always, 
that no person, sent to the said gaolers by command 
of the Mayor, Aldermen, or Sheriffs, for them to 
*' chastise and punish, shall pay anything unto the said 
'' gaolers, or unto their officers or servants, for lamp, 
" bed, or fee, aforesaid. And if any one of the said 
" gaolers, officers, or servants, shall take from any 
" prisoner, contrary to this Ordinance, and be attainted 
" thereof, let him lose his office, without restitution; 
*' and further, let him pay ten times as mucli as has 
" been so tortiously taken ; the one half to the Chamber, 
" to the use of the Commonalty, and the other half to 
" him at whose suit he shall be attainted. 

'' But let it be fully lawful for the said gaolers to 
" take surety reasonably. from the prisoners who are in 
" their custody, for a sum of one hundred shillings, 
" and above, for taking off their irons ; as in other gaols 
" of our Lord the King has heretofore been reasonably 
" practised.'' 

Hoiv Attov^ieys and other Oommcyii Pleaders shall r.258.a« 
perform their duty. Page 325. 

" Item, it is ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen 
" of the City of London, that all the attorneys of the 
" said City who perform the duties of attorney in the 
" Guildhall, and other common pleaders [who] are 
" resident within the same city, shall each year be F.238.b. 
" strictly charged and sworn before the Mayor and 
'* Aldermen, for the time being, well and lawfully to 
*^ do their duty, each in his own degree, and well 
" and lawfullv to examine their clients and their com- 
" plaints, without champerty and without procuring 
^^ any jurors, or ^ embracing any Inquests ; and that 

^ Or *' packing," as it would be called at the present day. 



218 HBEll ALBUS. [B. 111. 

" they will wrest no suit from its nature. And 
*' especially, that they will not plead or allege, nor 
" suffer to be pleaded or alleged, hy their assent, any 
" foreign release, acquittance, payment, arbitration, 
'• account settled, or other matter whatsoever, out of 
" the franchise of the City, to oust the Court of its 
" jurisdiction ; but only such matter as they shall he 
^' able to find rightful and true upon due informa- 
^^ tion of their clients, and upon oath of the said 
" clients upon the Holy Evangelists. 

'^ Item, that no bedel shall from henceforth be porter 
'• of a Compter ; and if he shall wish to be porter of 
^' a Compter, let him be removed fi:om his office of 
" bedelry. 

" Item, that no officer of the Sheriffs shall take of 
^' any one, for recovery, for judgment given, or for 
" nonsuit, more than four pence only, as froml of old 
" hath been the usage ; under pain of paying ten times 
'* the excess taken, to the use of the Chamber/' 



]f, 258. b. The Ordinance as to Jioio much is to he taken for the 

loading, cartage, and unloading, of a Tun of 
Wine, and of a Pipe of Wine, Page 526. 

" Whereas great outcry has been made unto the 
'^ Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London as to 
the tortious and excessive prices of the Winedrawers 
of the said city, for their labour in the cartage of 
tuns and pipes of wine, that is to say, for loading 
" them fi:om cellars in the carts, and stowing them 
" in cellars, within the liberties of the City ; against 
" the ancient Ordinances made thereon, to the very 
" great damage of the Commons. — Therefore, John 
*' ^ Fresshe, Mayor, and the Aldermen of the said city, 
*' with the consent of all the winedrawers of the said 






Mayor A.D. 1394, 



i 



«>■■**•*•■ * 



u 



u 



pnV.] INFRINGEMENT OP THE ABOVE ORDINANCES. 219 

" city, thereunto summoned, have ordained that no 
" winedrawer of the said city, from henceforth, shall 
" take of any man of the said city, or of any other 
" person, for the loading, cartage, and unloading, of 
" one tun of wine in manner aforesaid, in any part 
within the walls of the said city, more than ten 
pence; nor for the loading, cartage, and unloading, 
of one pipe of wine, in manner aforesaid, in any 
" part within the walls aforesaid, more than eight 
" pence. And that no winedrawer of the said city 
" shall take of any man of the said city, or of any 
*' other person, for the loading, cartage, and unloading, 
" of one tun of wine, in manner aforesaid, without 
" the walls, [but] within the liberties of the said city, 
" more than sixteen pence ; nor for the loading, 
" cartage, and unloading of one pipe of wine without 
*' the said walls, [but] within the said liberties, more 
" than twelve pence ; under pain of imprisonment, and 
" of paying unto the Chamber of the said city ten 
'' times as much as he shall have taken beyond the 
" said Ordinance, without redemption. 

" Item, it is forbidden that any oflScer, seijeant, i\25o.a, 
'' bedel, vadlet of the Serjeants or officer of Neugate or 
" Ludgate, or porter of the Compters, shall from hence- 
" forth brew, themselves or by others, for sale, or keep 
" oven, or trade in any other thing, to which a low 
" estimate is attached ; and that of any manner of 
" victuals they shall be regrators or hucksters : and he 
" who shall not be willing to make oath thereto, or 
" shall contravene this Ordinance, let him be ousted 
" from his office.^' 

[Enquiry to be nflade as to Infringement of the above 1^259. a. 

Ordinances.] Page 527. 

" Item, let enquiry be made, each quarter of the 
" year, before the Mayor, by sufficient persons, if any 
" one has acted contrary to the Ordinances aforesaid, in 



220 LIBER ALBtJS. [B. III. 

'' any point ; and if he be duly attainted thereof, 
" let him have the penalty aforesaid [inflicted], accord- 
" ing to the award of the Mayor and Aldermen for 
" the time being/' 



P. 259. a. Oath of the Masters and Wardens of the Mysteries. 

Page 527. 

" You shall swear, that well and lawfully you shall 
" oversee the art or mystery of N. of which you are 
" Masters, or Wardens, for the year elected. And the 
" good rules and ordinances of the same mystery, 
approved here by the Court, you shall keep and shall 
cause to be kept. And all the defaults that you 
*' shall find therein, done contrary thereto, you shall 
'' present unto the Chamberlain of this City, from 
time to time, sparing no one for favour, and 
aggrieving no one for hate. Extortion or wrong 
" unto no one, by colour of your office, you shall do ; 
" nor unto anything that shall be against the estate 
" and peace of the King, or of the City, you shall 
" consent. But for the time that you shall be in 
" office, in all things pertaining unto the said mystery, 
according to the good laws and franchises of the 
said City, well and lawfully you shall behave your- 
" self. — So God you help, and the Saints.'* 












^^' 



B. IV.] DUTIES OF CITY OFFICERS. 221 



FOURTH BOOK. 



Page 549. 

That all persons shall he quit at Saint Botolph's F.272,a. 
Wharf of Wharfage for a male, fardel, pannier, and 
wallet: and all freemen of the City [shall be] quit 
on payment of the fees for one man . 1. G.f. 207 

Page 560. 

That the Mayor shall receive Bills, and the Sheriffs p.275.b. 
and their Clerks shall be ready to enter the Pleas, and 
to take the Amercements ; and as to the amount of 
Amercements . . . . . . . G 165 

That no Mayor, Alderman, etc.j shall be a brewer 

• G 260 

That in place of the Mayor, a Warden shall be 
made by the King ; [and as to] the Sheriffs, Aldermen, 
Treasurer, and Barons -^ G 217 

That the Warden shall have a Roll, and the Alder- 
men another, of all Pleas before them pleaded . 

Custum.^ 221 

That neither Warden, Sheriff, nor Alderman, shall take 
anything for making execution of right . Custum. 221 

That the Warden shall hold a Court for Foreigners 
daily Custum. 221 

Page 562, F.276.a. 

That every Alderman in his Wardmote [shall ap- 
point] four men residing in the Ward, to keep, lower, 
and raise the pavements, to remove nuisances caused by 
filth, and to take distresses, or else four pence, of those 
who may have put them there ; and that [the person] 

» The reference here is properly j « See Liber Custumarum, fol. 217, 
to the Liber Custumarum, I 



ii 



222 LIBER ALBUS. [B. IV. 

fihall remove the same at his own costs : and that, in 
default of their so doing, the Alderman shall distrain 
for the said four [pence] ; and in default of the Al- 
derman [so doing,] after warning given, the Sheriffs 
shall distrain the Alderman . . . . 1. A f. 88 
That no Alderman shall he a brewer . . G 260 
That no Alderman shall be put upon an Inquest 

..... Custimi. 220 

p. 277, a. I'sige 5G4. 

That the Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen, their 
Clerks, Serjeants, or Bedels, shall not keep a brewery, 
oven, or tavern H 15 

¥.277. a. Psige 565. 

Item, that the officers of the Sheriffs shall not take 
more cartage than is needed, and that, from those 
who let carts, and not from others . . F 182 

p. 277. a. Page 566. 

That the Compters of the Sheriffs shall be in a 
certain place, and that they shall have but one Chief 
Clerk and a Secondary, and what they shall take ; — 
and two Serjeants and two Vadlets, and what they 
shall take ; — and that they shall hold Court from day 
to day, and that if they shall make default in right, 
the Mayor shall redress the same; and that aU shall 
be sworn, and that they shall take no amercement 

beyond twelve pence G 54 

F.277.b. Item, that they shall hold Assizes, of Novel Dis- 
seisin every height days, and of Mort d' Ancestor 
every ^ fifteen days ; * and that at the end of their 
year, they shall carry their Kolls unto the Guildhall, 
to be put in the Treasury . . . . G 54 



* Meaning, weekly. | ^ Meaning, fortnightly. 



Sif»!: 



B. IV.] ATTOBNEYS, ESSOINEKS, AND COTJNTORS. 223 

Item, that the Sheriffs shall not let the Gaol of 
Neugate or the County of Middlesex to ferm ; nor shall 
the Gaoler take any extortionate change, but only 
four pence from each prisoner released • . i G f, 54 

Page 567. 

Item, that each quarter of the year, proclamation f.277.1j. 
shall be made if any one may wish to make com- 
plaint of the Sheriffs or their officers • . G 54 

Item, that the officers of the Sheriffs who take 
cartage shall not take more than is necessary . G 108 

Item, that the Mayor »shall make enquiry concern- 
ing the Bailiffs who hold their offices at ^ ferm under 
the Sheriffs, as to their extortions . . . G 207 

Item, that the Clerks of the Sheriffs shall be sworn 
unto the Mayor G 207 

That neither the Sherifis, nor their Clerks [and] 
Serjeants, nor their Vadlets, nor yet the Officers of 
Newgate, shall be brewers . , . . G 260 

Item, that the Sheriffs shall hold their Court for 
Foreigners every day .... Custum. 221 

That the Serjeants of the Mayor, and their Vad- 
lets, shall be sworn to maintain the oath of the 
Mayor to the best of their power . . . G 207 

rage 5/0. F.27s.Tb. 

That no Countor shall plead, if he be not admitted 
by the Mayor, and be [not], an intelligent person ; 
and that he shall not be either Attorney or Es- 
soiner ; and that no Attorney shall be a Countor or 
Essoiner, and no Essoiner a Countor or Attorney 
A 108, 109 



* For a yearly payment. 



»^Kk- 



224 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. IV. 



That no Countor sliall undertake a Plea" 
to be partner therein ; nor shall he take 
pay of both parties ..... 

That no Conntor, or other person, shall 
gainsay the judgments of the Hustings, or 
procure to defeat the usages and acts of 
the City ....... 

That whoever shall sit near unto the 
Judge without being called, — whoever shall 
counterplead the Eecords or judgments, — 
whoever shall slander another, if it be in 
the Sheriffs' Court, — let him be suspended 
for eight days, or pay half a mark ; and 
if it be in the Hustings, let him be sus- 
pended for three Hustings, and more 

Whoever shall take from both parties, 
or whoever shall take [a fee], and leave 
his client and league himself with the 



other party, let him be suspended forthree f f 1 
years. And whoever shall receive [money] 
and shall fail unto his client, let him return 
double, and not be heard against him in 
such Plea 

Whoever shall procure to defeat the 
usages or the judgments of the Commu- j 
nity, and shall be attainted thereof, let him 
be suspended for ever, and held as perjured . 

Whoever shall undertake a plea to be 
partner in the demand, and shall be at- 
tainted, let him be suspended for ever 

The same penalty let Attorneys have, if 
they act contrary to this Ordinance . 



p.278.b. Page 571. 

And if Attorneys, by default or negli- 
gence, lose the suits of their employers, 



1. A 
08 



109 






B. ly.] ATTOENEYS, ESSOINEES, AND COraTOES. 225 



LA 

£108, 
109 

, 1 156 
. ^ 156 



} F 105 



let them be imprisoned, according to the"^ 
Statute of the King I 

And that no Essoiner shall be attorney, j 
nor the converse »J 

The office of Attorney and Essoiner . 

The office of Countor . • . . 

That no Essoin of i]\6 King's Service^ 
shall be allowed in the Sheriffs' Court 

That Pleaders residing in the City shall 
be sworn 

Item, that Attorneys shall be sworn, and 
shall sue unto the Common Clerk to see 
that the business of their Clients is pro- 
perly entered 

That the Mayor shall make enquiry each 
year as to the Officers of the City • 

That if any person shall be condemned 
to pay a sum of money, and shall shut 
his doors and absent himself, the officer, by 
view of the neighbours, may open the 
doors and make execution . 

Item, that no Attorney, Countor, or Essoiner, shall 
stand within the Bar . . . . . G 54 

That no Attorney shall be seated in the Hustings 
among the Clerks, nor shall meddle with the Rolls 
touching the Hustings . . . . . G. 54 

That no person shall be Countor, if he be not ad- 
mitted by the Mayor, and sworn ; and that no Coun- 
tor shall be Attorney, nor the converse Custum. 205-6 



1 



Page 572. 

Item, of the office of Countor . • i p f 
Item, that no one shall counterplead the Y 205-6 
Judgments . \ . . . . .1 



F. 278. b. 



* The title of the Book is omitted in these instances. 
VOL. III. p 



226 



LIBBB AIBUS. 



[B, IV. 



Item, that no Countor shall undertake a plea to be 
partner therein ; nor shall he take [pay] of both par- 
ties Custum. f. 205,-6. 

K279.a. Item, that Attorneys shall not take more of their 
clients than forty pence at most . . . G 64 

Item, that no Pleader or Attorney shall force his 
Client into a false suit G 54 

Proclamation if any one may wish to make com- 
plaint against the Sheriffs or other officers . H 202 

That no one shall go into Suthwerk, to buy anything 
there 203 



F. 279. to. Page 574. 

Mandate from the Exchequer that no one should 
refuse the money then current . . . C 24 

That no Exchange of money, or of anything that 
pertains unto thjo Exchange, shall be made except at 
the Tower . . » . , . . C 25 

That no bad money shall be brought" 
within the realm 

That in each Port where arrival is, thei*e 
shall be searchers 

That money counterfeited after the ^ ster- 
ling, if it be not good according to the old 
standard, shall be forfeited . . . • I p «>s> 

That no one shall sell wools, hides, skins, ' 
lead, or tin, except for [money] sterling, or 
bullion of silver 

That no money of the coinage of Eng- 
land, and no silver in bullion, or in any 
other form, shall be taken out of the 
realm .J 



* A * sterling ' was, literally, one penny of the current coin of the realm. 



B. IV.] 



CONSERVANCY OF THE THAMES. 



227 



That Groats of Scotland shall pass current in pay- 
ment for three pence . . . . L G f. 312 



Page 677, 



That the great nets which take smelts 
towards the East of London Bridge, shall 
begin at the Purification [2 February], 
and shall fish until Lent, with a besom ; 
and after that, until the Feast of Saint 
John [24 June] they shall lay aside this 
besom ........ 

Also, another net, called ^Codnet/ shall 
go on from the Purification, until Our Lady 
in Lent [25 March], and no longer. . 

Also, another net, of the width [in the 
meshes] of two inches, and no more, towards 
the West of the said Bridge, shall go on 
all the year 

Also, another net, called * Petrisnet,' [the 
meshes of which are] two inches, and not 
less, shall go on all the year, except when 
they take smelts . » ... 
' Also, another net, called *Pridnet,' and 
[which] begins [to be used] eight days be- 
fore Saint Michael, and shall continue until 
the Feast of Saint Martin [11 November] 

Also, another, called 'Tryinkes,^ of the 
width [in the meshes] of one inch and a 
half, and not less 

And that lampems shall not be taken 
after Easter, until towards the Eeast of 
Saint Michael, when the season shall come 

Shotnet, Shofnet, and Kidels, are for- 
bidden . , ♦ . . , J 



P.280.b. 



> A 



{ 



90 
91 



P 2 



228 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. IV, 



F. 281. a. Page 578. 

Item, that all Boats sliall lie on this side of the 
water, under pain of forfeiture . . 1. B f. 34 

That Ships and Boats wliich come by Thames with 
victuals, shall lie one day in peace without selling 
aught ........ D 155 

That Boats on the Thames shall be moored at night 
on this side of the water, and not on the other D 159 



F.28i.a. Page 579. 

That no one shall throw dung, rubbish, gravel, or 
other refuse, into the Thames, Flete, or Fosses of the 
City G 72 

Ordinance that all Boats which go to Graveshende 
shall be laden at the Wharf of Seynt Botulf . G 207 

That no dung or filth shall be placed upon the said 



Quay 

Ordinance that no one shall throw into"j 
the Thames rushes, straw, rubbish, or filth 

Item, that every Boat laden with rushes, 
hay, or straw, shall take due care as to 
such refuse at its departure 

Item, that every Alderman shall enquire 
at his Wardmote whether any person does 
the contrary hereof . , . 

Item, that twelve carts, each with two 
horses, shall be provided to carry away the 
filth ........ 

Item, if any person shall be held in sus- 
picion of having acted against. this Ordi- 
nance, and shall not be willing to acquit 
himself by his oath, let him incur the 
penalty ,.,.... 



G 207 



^ Ina 

certain 

Schedule, 

inserted 

> between 

folios 227 

and 228 

of 
Book 6, 



^ This ipsertioft is no longer to be fgund. 



B. IV.] CLEANSING OF STBEETS AND PAVEMENTS. 229 

Page 580. F.28i.a, 

„ 

Proclamation that no one shall throw dung, or any 
filth, into the Thames, .or into the Fosses of the City 
of London 1. G £ 295 

That no Boatman shall take between London and 
Westminster more than two pence, or three pence at 
most, for [the hire of] the whole of his boat . H 15 

That n.0 Boatman, after sunset, shall have his Boat 

on the other side of the water, but on this side 

. . ... . . Custum. 206 

That no Purpresture or Nuisance, by Quays or by F.28i.b. 
Buildings, shall be made upon the water of Thames 

* . • • • * •• . .J? Lv/d 

Page 581. ^•^^•^* 

Item, that no one shall put into the Thames, or into 
the Fosses of the City, rubbish or any other refuse ; 
nor shall throw water, or other thing, from the win- 
dows, but shall carry the samfe into the streets . H 98 

That all the Lanes, leading unto the Thames, be- 
tween Castle Baynard and the Tower, shall be cleansed 
of all dung and rubbish ; and the Punishment of those 
who place the same there . • . Custum. 204 



Page 582. p.282.d. 

That the Course of Walbrok shall be cleansed . D 154 
That the Course of Walbrok and the King's High- 
ways shall be cleansed . • . * Custum. 203 



Paffe 584. F.282.bi 



"to 



That each person shall make clean of filth the front 
of his house, under penalty of half a mark . B 33 



230 LIBER ALBUa [B. IV. 

That chips found in the street shall be at the disposal 
of the Alderman 1. B £ 33 

That Penthouses which are too low shall be re- 
moved B 33 

That dung, chips, and other nuisances shall be re- 
moved from the Streets D 155 

That Penthouses, Gutters, and Jettees shall be so 
high that folks can ride beneath them, and at least 
nine feet in height D 157 

That no stall shall be beyond two feet and a half 
in breadth . . . . . . . I) 167 

That all Streets leading toward the Thames shall 
be cleansed D 155 

That no purpresture shall be made upon the Thames 
without view of the Mayor and Aldermen . F 105 

Page 585. 

• 

Jp.282.b. That no Hoard, Palings, [or] Steps to cellars, shall 
be made in the Streets, without view of the Mayor and 
Aldermen F 105 

That aU who have dung, chips, or other refuse, before 
their doors, shall remove the same . . . G 29 

That no officer shall Hake a cart that serves for 
carrying such filth . . . . . . G 72 

That all filth and chips shall be removed . G 103 

That the Scavagers shall have power to survey the 
Pavements, and that all filth in the Streets shall be 
removed G 165 

That all Lanes and Streets shall be cleansed of dung 
and chips G 176 

Item, that the Pavements shall be mended, and all 
refuse removed G 179 

Item, that aU Streets and Lanes shall be cleansed 
of dung and chips. . . • • . . G 196 

* For the public purposes of the City. 



i 



B, IV.] REGULATIONS RESPECTINO BROKERS, ETC. 231 

That all Streets and Lanes shall be cleansed of all 
filth and obstacles . • . . . 1. G £ 259 

Item, that Penthouses and Jettees shall be so high 
that persons may ride beneath, and at least nine feet 
in height Custum. 203 

Item, that Stalls shall not be more than two feet 
and a half in breadth, and moveable . Custum. 203 

That all Lanes, leading towards the Thames, from 
Castle Baynard to the Tower, shall be cleansed 
Custum. 203 

That the Streets shall be kept clean without annoy-* 
ance and chips, and other nuisances . Custum. 220 



Page 586, 

Item, that no one shall have his Pavement made i*.282.bi 
higher than his neighbours . . . . H. 15 

That the Streets and Lanes shall be cleansed, and 
that no one shall place dung before the doors of another 

That no one shall be Broker, but those who are P. 283. a. 
admitted and sworn before the Mayor . . G 16 

That [any Foreigner] who shall be Herbergeour, 
Broker, or Hosteler, at the end of one month after 
this Proclamation, shall not be admissible unto the 
freedom of the City for ever, and shall be adjudged to 
prison . . . . . . . . C 16 

That no one shall be Broker, if he be not admitted 
and. sworn before the Mayor . . . » D 157 

Divers measures of the Inch, as also, Ordinance as 
to Nets .*..... Horn, 221 

Page 587. F.283.bt 

That no 6M shall be a Corrector within the City^ 
until he shall have been admitted before the Mayor, 
and sworn • .; .. . • i * 6 295 



232 LIBER ALBUS. [B. IV. 

Ordinance that no Corrector shall make exchange or 
contract in the way of usury, or. make any bargain, 
before he has brought the Buyer and Vendor together ; 
and that he shall not take for his Brokerage other than 
is ordained . • . . » . L G £ 308, 15 

Item, that no Stranger shall be admitted as a Cor- 
rector, before he shall have made fine unto the Chamber 
of forty shillings each year • . . G 308, 15 

Item, that no denizen or other person shall be ad- 
mitted to be Corrector, before he shall have been 
admitted by the Mayor ; and he shall pay yearly ac- 
cording as the Mayor, Chamberlain, and he, may agree 
upon; and shall be sworn . . . G 308, 15 

Item, how much shall be paid for the sealing of each 
Measure D 157 

Item, that no one shall be Broker, if he be not 
received and sworn, and if any Broker shall forestal 
anything, let him be imprisoned forty days 

, . , . . Custum. 203 

Itena, that no one shall have a Balance other than 
a good one Custum, 206 

That no one shall be a Broker, save only those who 
are received before the Mayor and sworn • Custum. 218 

Item, that no Broker shall be Hosteler unto any 
Merchant who trades in the merchandize as to which 
he is Broker Custum. 218 

That Strangers from beyond sea shall not be Hos- 
telers or Brokers, unless they be Freemen and reside 
in the heart of the City . . . Custum. 218 

l?.283.a. ' ' Page ^588. 

Item, that all merchandize that is sold by weight 

of 25 pounds, shall be weighed by the King^s weight 

thereunto assigned • . . . . Custum. 218 

f.283.b. That no one shall have a Measure or Balance, except 

it be good and lawful .. .. . .. D 168, 97 



I 












B. IV.] LEPERS, SWINE, ETC, 233 

That no ^ Avoir-du-poys shall be sold, except by 
Balance of the Standard . . . 1. G f, 298 

Item, that no one* shall sell grocery or spicery, 
^powders, drugs, confections, or other tilings, except 
by the pound of fifteen ounces . . . G 295 

Page 589. F. 283. b. 

That no Foreigner shall sell unto any Denizen linen 
cloth, or canvas, before the same is measured . G 298 

Item, that no Corrector shall intermeddle with Cor- 
rectorship, until he shall have been admitted before the 
Mayor and sworn • • . . \ H 16, 29 

That no Corrector shall intermeddle with Corrector- 
ship before he shall have been admitted and 
sworn H 98 



Page 690. F.284,b, 

That no Swine sliall be found going about in the 
City, or in the Fosses thereof . . . , 'D^ 153 

That no Leper shall be going, coming, or sojourning, 
in the City D*154 

That no Swine shall be going about in the City, or 
in the Suburbs thereof . . . , . G 29 

That no Leper shall be wandering about, or begging, 
within the City G 192 

That no Swine shall be going about in 'the City,' 
or in the Fosses thereof . • . . Custum. 203 

That no Leper shall sojoui-n, or go about, in the 
City Custum. 204? 



* Fine goods, or ** goods hy the | ^ Perhaps for seasoning victuals. 



"pound,** measured by the Small 
Beam, and not by the Large Beam 
or Tron. 



3 See D, foL 157. 
* See D, fol. 158. 



234 LIBER ALBUS. [b. IV. 

That such Pigsties as are in the Streets shall be 
removed; and if any Swine shall be found in the 
Streets, let them be forfeited . , • L A f. 33 

P.28j.,b. Page 591. 

Item, that no one who can gain his sustenance by 
* labour, shall go about begging . . . H 15 

Item, that no one who can gain his sustenance, 
shall go about begging; and that no Lazars shall go 
about in the City H 98 

That all Mendicants who can work shall leave the 
City G 192 

That no one who can work shall go about begging 
within the City ♦ G 295 

That all those who go about begging, and who can 
labour, shall leave the City . . , . G 78 

That all Mendicants who can work shall be 

arrested G 169 

p. 285. a. That there shall be no Brothel or Courtesan within 
the walls of the City • . • . * D 155 

:F.285.a. Page 592. 

That Men and Women of ill fame shall bfe retnoved 
by the Alderman F 182 

That Women of ill fame shall be removed G 107 

That there shall be no Brothel within the City 
Custum. 203 

That no Woman of evil life shall sojourn within 
the City Custum. 218 

That Common Women shall not be arrayed in 
clothing furred with Budge or Wool . . F 208 

That Women of evil life shall not use hoods that 
are furred, except [with the wool] of lambs or [the fur 
of] rabbits, etc G 267 

The penalty against Whoremongers, Bawds, [un- 
chaste] Priests, and Adulterers . . , H 146 



?:■:: 



K IV.] CONSERVANCY OF THE PEACE, ETC, 235 

Page 594 T.m,h. 

That all Freemen shall make contribution nnto Taxes 
and Tallages in the City , . Custnm. f. 203 

When Tallage shall be assessed, let it be assessed 
as well upon the Landholders, who do not trade, as 
upon the Traders Custum. ^229 

Page 598. p. 287. a. 

Assessment of five thousand marks . . H 279 

Page 601. F.2S9.a. 

Judgment of Imprisonment [upon a person] for a 
year and a day, and of Pillory each quarter for three 
hours, with a whetstone tied round his neck, for lies 
that were disproved G 138 

Page 639. rsoi. 

That no person shall be wandering about after Cur- 
few rung at Saint Martin's • . . . B 83 

That no one shall go about with any arms after 
Curfew rung at Saint Martin's, except [he be] a 
Lord or man of good repute, or the servants of those 
who will answer for them, and then with a light 
. . . . . C 15 

That no one shall keep a school for Fencing C 15 

That Malefactors and Common Brawlers shall not 
be released by the Sheriffs, or others, without consent 
of the Mayor . C 15 

That every Alderman shall make enquiry in his 
Wardmote as to such Misdoers . . . C 15 

That no Officer shall be impeached for Imprisonment 



See Ziher Custumarum, fol. 219. 



236 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. IV. 



or other thing done unto such Misdoers, unless it shall 
pe found that the officer did the same clearly from 
malice . . . . . . . ,LCfl6 

That the peace shall be kept . . . C 38 



p. 301. a. Page 640. 

That no one shall keep a School for Fencing with 
the buckler within the City . . , . D 158 

That no one shall be found wandering about after 
Curfew rung at Saint Martin's . . . D 158 

That every Alderman shall make enquiry, at his 
Wardmote, as to Misdoers . . , , D 158 

That no one shall be armed or shall^ 
carry arms, except Officers who have to 
keep the peace 

Whosoever shall draw any arm, let him 
be arrested without bail . . . . J> El 

That no Officer shall seek vengeance upon 
another ....... 

That no person shall be wandering about 
after Curfew 3:ung at Saint Martinis 

That the peace shall be kept . 
p.30i.b. That no one shall go armed, or shall carry 
arms ••••••.. 

That no one shall go wandering about 
after Curfew rung 

That no one shall make Covin or Con- 
gregation ....... 

That no one shall go out of the City as )> £194 
a maintainer of quarrels . . . , 

That no one shall slander a Lord, or 
any other person 

That if any one shall not be willing to 
be amenable to justice for preservation of 
the peace, let all persons be ready to ar- 
rest him ..,,«.. 



% rV.] CONSERVAKCY OF THE PEACE, ETC. 237 

Page 641. F.soi.b. 

That no dne shall ^o wandering about after Curfew 

rung at Saint Martin's » . . .1. Ff. 51 

That no one shall go armed, or shall carry arms 

F 70 

That every one shall have power to arrest Misdoers 

F 70 

Item, that no one shall carry arms . . F 208 

That no one shall go wandering about after Curfew 
rung at Saint Martin s le Grand . . . G 2 

That no Alien shall carry arms 

That every one shall be assistant unto 
the Officers in arresting Misdoers 

That no one shall be assistant unto any 
person of evil covin . . . ' . )• G 10 

That no one shall make Assembly or 
Covin within the City .... 

That no one shall go wandering about 
after Curfew rung at Saint Martin's 

That no one shall go wandering about after Curfew 
rung at Saint Martin's . . . . . G 29 

That no one shall go armed, or shall carry arms 

.• •'• • • ♦ • • • V-< M\f 

That every one, in absence of the Officers, shall have 
power to arrest Misdoers and Felons . . G 29 

That no one shall make alliance with Foreigners 
who are accused of Felony . . . . G 29 

Proclamation that no one shall go wandering about 
after Curfew rung at Saint Martin's . . G 71 



Page 642. p.30i.b. 

That no Zealander, Fleming, or Hainaulter, shall 
carry any arm G 71 

Item, that no Fleming, Brabanter, or Zealander, 
shall go armed, or shall carry any arms • G 108 



238 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. IV. 



That no one shall go wandering ahont- 
after Curfew rung at Bowe 

Item, that no one shall be armed or 
shall carry arms ...... 

Item, that every good man shall have 
power to arrest Felons and Misdoers, in 
absence of the Officers .... 

Item, that whosoever shall draw knife, 
sword, or other arm, even though he shall 



)^l.Gf 111 



not strike, let him pay half a mark, and be 
F.soa.a. imprisoned fifteen days; and if he strike, 
let him pay twenty shillings, and be im- 
prisoned forty days ; and if he strike with 
the fist, without drawing blood, let him 
pay three shillings, and be imprisoned eight 
days ; and if he draw blood, let him pay 
forty pence, and be imprisoned twelve days 

Item, that no one shall be a Maintainer 
of quarrels . . . 

That the Constables of every Ward shall have power 
to arrest all those who make strife or affray 6 164 

That no one shall go wandering about after Curfew 
rung at Bowe G 176 

That no one shall make Congregations or Assem- 
blies, and that no Gamesters shall be there . G 176 

That every man of good repute shall have power, 
in absence of the Officers, to arrest Malefactors G 176 

Ordinance that whosoever strikes with his hand shall 
pay half a mark ; whosoever draws a knife, half a 
mark ; and whosoever draws blood, twenty pence 

That no one shall go wandering about after Curfew 
rung • . . G 196 

That no one shall make Congregations or Assem- 
blies . . . . . » • . H 14 

That every man of good repute may arrest Male- 
factors, in absence of the Officers . • . H 14 



B. IV.] 



CONSERVANCY OF THE PEACE, ETC, 



239 



Page 643. p. 802. a. 

That the peace shall be kept . Custum. f.201 

That no one shall go wandering about after Curfew 
rung . Custum. 204 

That every Alderman shall make enquiry, at his 
Wardmote, as to Misdoers . . . Custum. 204 

That no one attached for a great offence shall be 
delivered without the Mayor . . Custum. 205 

That every one shall be ready to arrest* 
Misdoers and Offenders ; and if Felons fly 
unto the Church, let the neighbours watch 
tjuem •••»••.* 

That those who are attainted of Trespass, 
Battery, [or] Bloodshed, where Mayhem 
lieth not, shall be punished by Eansom and 
Imprisoment . . . . 

If a Felon escapes from a Church, let 
the Ward pay one hundred shillings for 
the escape, and this as to Churches within 
the City 

That no one shall be wandering about 
after Curfew rung 

That no one keep a school for Fencing, 
or for Buckler, within the City . 

That every Alderman shall make enquiry, 
at his Wardmote, as to Misdoers . .J 

Whosoever shall draw a knife, let him pay half a 
mark, or be imprisoned fifteen days ; and if he draw 
blood, let him pay twenty shillings, or be imprisoned 
forty days ; and if he strike with the palm, and does 
not draw blood, two shillings, or imprisonment for 
eight days ; and if he draw blood with the fist, forty p, 202. b. 
pence, or imprisonment for twelve days . F 105 



> 



Custum. 
217 



Page 644. 

That no one keep a School for Fencing 

• « . Custum. 204 



P.soa.b. 



240 LIBER AIBirS^ [B.IV. 

That no one shall carry a sword, or pointed knife, 
or misericorde, or club, or staff, or other arm LC f.93 

Item, that Strangers shall be [duly] honoured C 91 

That no one shall strike another, under pain of 
losing the hand ; and if any one shall draw any arm, to 
strike therewith, let him be pierced through the hand 
• • •'• • • • « » • \^ £70 

That no one shall go armed, or shall carry arms, or 
shall be wandering about after Curfew rung . H 33 

That no one shall go with a visor or false face H 54 

F.302.b. I*a,ge 645. 

Proclamation that no one shall go wandering about 
after Curfew rung H 86 

And that no one shall make Congregation or Covin 
H 86 

And that no Taverner or Brewer shall keep his door 
open after the appointed hour . . . H 86 

That no one shall go wandering about after Curfew 
rung; nor Taverner or Brewer keep hi^ door open 
after that. That no one shall make Congregation or 
Covin . . . . . . . . H 98 

That every man of standing shall have power to 
arrest Misdoers H 98 

Item, that no one shall go with a visor by night, or 
without a light H 98 



v,m.i>. Page 646. 

That the Mayor and Aldermen shall cause to be 
put in writing all the names of the Mysteries of the 
City which are of ability to be armed, and which not ; 
and that their arms shall be viewed • . B 34 



F.sos.b. Page 647. 

< 
That the Gates shall be well kept . . B 34 



B. IV.] ORDINANCES AND USAGES OF THE CITY, 241 

That Bars and Chains shall be made in all the Streets, 
and more especially towards the water, at the ^ Friars 

Preachers LB f. S4t 

That defects in the walls shall be repaired B 34 

That the Gates shall be kept [by the Wards] nearest 

thereto, and the water of Thames by the nearest Wards 

That no one shall go at Christmas with a false 

That good Watches shall bo kept in each Ward G 111 
That Ward shall be kept every night . Custum. 218 



J. D 156 



Page 657, 

That no Merchant shall go to meet mer-- 
chandize coming unto the City, by land or 
by water 

That no one shall go upon the Thames 
for the same, nor go on board ship to 
buy, before that [such merchandize] shall 
have come to land ..... 

That no Freeman shaU avow the mer- 
chandize of a Stranger, and no Freeman 
shall have partnership with a Stranger . 

That no one shall do injury unto, slander, 
or molest the Officers of the City, in making 
execution . . . . . . .J 

Item, that no Monger or Regrator shall go out of 
town to meet victuals coming unto the City . D 157 

Item, that no one shall receive an Apprentice for less 
than seven years, and that the Master shall be a 
Freeman D 158 

Item, that those who sell victuals shall stand mid- 
way between the kennels • • . . D^ 157 



F. 307. a. 



* Or Blackfriars. 
VOL. HI. 



I 2g^eD, fol. 155. 



Q 



242 



LTBER ALBUS. 



[U IV. 



?.308.a. Page 660. 

That no outlaw of a strange country shall be re- 
ceived in London , . . ♦ • IF f.70 



F.so8.b. Page 663. 

That Women shall recover damages in-^ 
"Writ of Dower, from the tenements of which 
their Husbands died seised . . ' . 

That damages in Pleas of Debt shall 
be awarded, if the Defendant does not ap- 
pear on the first day ; that is to say, for 
twenty shillings withheld for one year four 
shillings, and for more more, and for less less 

That Essoin of the King's Service shall 
not be allowed in the Sheriffs* Court before 
Plea pleaded ...... 

If any person shall wage his law, and 
afterwards make default, let judgment be }• 
given forthwith upon the principal, and, 
nevertheless, let him not be summoned to 
hear his judgment 

If in plea of seizure of Distresses for rent, 
after return irreplevisable awarded, the 
tenant shall counterplead against the rent 
and not to pay it, or shall make denial, or 
make rescue thereupon, where entry may 
not be had, it shall be fully lawful for the 
Demandant to make complaint by Assize 
of Novel Disseisin 



F105 



P,308.b. 



Page 664. 

That in Inquests to .be taken in the 
Hustings, in the first place shall be entered 
the names, and distraint against the next 
clay [shall be made upon the Jurors] ; and 



^ F 105 



W¥' 



B. IV.] ORDIlsrANCES AND USAGES OF THE C1TY» 243 

nevertheless, the Aldermen, by their Bedels," 
shall make return of their Wards 

That all the Officers of the City shall be 
sworn each year, after the Sheriflfe have been 
gworn 

That Pleaders who are commonly resident 
in the City for pleading, shall be sworn 
that they wUl not plead, or give counsel, 
against the usages and franchises of the 
City, but shall maintain the same 

That Attorneys shall be sworn in the same 
manner ; and that they shall not answer for 
any person, if they are not admitted and 
entered on the Roll; and that they shall 
have their remembrances, and shall sue unto 
the Clerk that their Pleas in the Hustings 
may be duly entered . . . J^l. Ff. 105 

Item, that no one shaU sue his Writ of 
Error before he has shown his grievances 
unto the Mayor and Aldermen; and such 
shall by them have been examined and re- 
dressed, if they can so do ; tinder pain of 
losing his freedom, and of paying ten pounds 

Process in Plea of Debt and of Covenant 

That no one shall vouch Witnesses to bar 
a man of his law, if they be not persons of 
good repute 

That the Statute of Smythefelde shall be 
observed, as well between Denizens as be- 
tween Strangers 

The penalty upon those who draw knives 
or make affrays . . . 



T". 309 a. 



Page 665. 



p. 309. a. 



That no one shall go by land or by water to meet 
victuals, to make bargain as to the same . G 29 

Q 2 



244 



LIBEB ALBUS, 



[B.IV. 



>!. Gf. 54. 



That * Counts shall be counted in English ."^ 
In Plea of Debt, damages shall be awarded 
in the proportion of four shillings in the 
pound fer annuTYi ..... 
That the Plaintiff shall not be con^pelled 
to pay anything for his plea, and that he 
shall not have Essoin ; but that the Defen- 
dant shall have one Essoin .... 
If the Plaintiff is convicted, let damages 
be adjudged unto the Defendant, at tlie 
discretion of the Court .... 
After the Defendant has been attached 
by his body, that the Sheriff must be 
answerable for him or for the debt 

If a Denizen, after summons witnessed, 
withdraws himself, let his goods be taken 
and delivered unto the Defendant 

If the Plaintiff will not support his action 
by his oath, let him take nothing 

If approvers vary [in their testimony], i 
let them have judgment of the Pillory, 
and let the party lose his demand ; and 
let damages be awarded unto the De- 
fendant 

That no one shall be admitted to prove his own 

action G 92 

That no one shall go to forestal victuals coming unto 

the City . . . . . ^ . . G 107 

That no person shall keep another in any Trade, if 

he will not be answerable for him , . G 111 



I 



*^ 



T.sGD.a. " Page 666* 

That tbe Rulers of each Mystery should be at the 
Guildhall, when any Apprentice [therein] should re- 
ceive the freedom . : • . . . G 143 



> Or '?leas pleaded,' 



:v"'V'-. 



B. IV.] ORDINANCES AND USAGES OF THE CITY. 245 

That a Freeman might buy and sell air 
merchandize in gross, so he keep shop of one 
trade only 

That in every month there should be a *. , Of 14^ li'.soD.b 
Guild-day for despatch of common business • ^ ' 

That every one who shall be received 
unto the freedom, shall ^pay sixty shillings 
at least J 

Ordinance that a Tenant for term of life, or in tail, 
shall not be barred by deed of his Ancestor, if he 
take not by descent in fee from the same ancestor 

Item, that no one shall go to meet victuals or mer- 
chandize coming towards the City, before they shall 
have come unto the places thereunto appointed. H 16 



Page 667. F.809.b. 

Item, that the Fines which are made for striking 
and bloodshed, shall belong to the Commonalty. G 207 

Item, that those who sell bread, cheese, poultry, fruit, 
hides, skins, onions,' garlic, and other small wares, in 
the Streets of Chepe and Cornhul, stall stand midway 
between the kennels ; and that no Market shall be 
held upon Fair-days, for pots, pans, and other utensils, 
except at Cornhulle . . • . Custum. 201 

Item, that no one shall expose his goods for sale that 
owe custom, before the custom shall have been taken 
thereon ■ , Custum. 201 

Item, that no Denizen shall avow the merchandize 
of a stranger ... . - Custum. 201 

Item, that no one shall cause hindrance to any officer 
in doing his duty . . . ♦ Custum. 202 

Item, that no stranger shall etijoy the freedom before 
he shall have been received thereunto, or shall sell by 
retail, or be Herbergeour or Hosteler . Custum. 203 



K.: 



246 



LTBEB ALBUS. 



[b. IV. 



Item, that no one shall receive an Apprentice, if he 
is not a Freeman himself, and without causing their 
Covenants to be enrolled ; and that the Apprentice, 
after his term finished, shall not follow his Mystery 
before he shall have been sworn of the freedom ; and 
that no Apprentice shall be admitted for a less term 
than for seven years , . .1. Custum. f 204 

Item, that no one shall shoot w ith a Stonebow 
Custum, 206 

Item, if a Servant or Apprentice of any one of the 
City shall buy merchandize of a stranger, or other 
person, and shall bring it into the house of his Master, 
the said Master shall be answerable therefor 

Custum. 219 

p.sio. a. Item, that the Bailiffs of the City shall not impede 
Merchants in unloading their merchandize that comes by 
water, or in harbouring the same wherever they may 
please Custum. 221 



T.sio.a. Page 668 

Item, that a Merchant-Stranger, good,"^ 
lawful, and sufficient, who shall wish to 
enjoy the franchise, shall have the same 

Item, that no one shall receive the Tenant 
of another, if he shall not have lawfully 
parted from his Landlord . 

Item, that no Freeman shall avow the 
merchandize of a Stranger .... 

Item, that no Freeman shall have part- 
nership in, or act as Broker of, strange 
merchandize, whereby the King may lose 
bis custom ....... 

Item, that all persons shall be obedient 
unto the Officers in all places . ♦ 

The order in Pleas of Land and of the 
Hustings ; and of the Loquendce which em- 
brace the space of Two Hustings . ,-j 



Custum. 
220,-L 



Wi 



B. IV.] OKDINANCES AND USAGES OF THE CITY. 24j7 



If any one shall feel himself aggrieved by'] 
a bad judgment, let him cause the Record 
to be brought before the Justiciars of the 
King .,..»... 

Item, that of the Pleas the Wai'den shall 
have one Roll, and the Aldermen another 

Item, Inquest joined between Denizen 
and Foreigner shall be made by twelve [per- 
sons], of whom one half shall be Denizens, 
and the other Foreigners dwelling in the 
City, in Trespass and in Debt . 

Item, if any one shall sell his tenements, 
and shall bind himself to warranty, and 
have nothing left with which to make good 



1. Oust. 



such warranty, but shall have chattels ; }■ £ 2i0, 
and if the Tenant shall vouch him to ^^^ 

warranty, and the Vouchee shall not appear 
at the first summons, let the tenement as 
to which he is such vouchee be extended ; 
and of the goods of the Vouchee, let there 
be taken to the value thereof, by way of 
Cape; and if he shall appear at the day 
[named] by the Gape, let isisue be taken as 
though the same had been land: and this 
Statute holds good as to residents within 
the City, and as to goods which they shall 
have therein, and not otherwise ; and against 
the Vendor, and not against his heirs 



Page 669, ' 

If Termors shall be ousted within their -^ 
term, let them have recovery within forty 
days by Plaint, and after that by Writ 

No one shall be charged in Plea of Debt ^ 
or Contract, by Record of any one, except 
of the Warden, Aldermen, or Sheriffs, and 
that in the Hustings ♦ • 



r.sio.d* 



Cusfcum. 
220,-1 



U8 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[b. IV. 



J 



If a Tally shall be proflfered in proof m"^ 
action of Debt, and be denied, the Plaintiff 
shall have his proof by good and lawful folks 

In Debt, where neither Writing nor- Tally 
is shown, the Defendant may defend himself 
by his law ; but in Trespass, as in cases of 
bloodshed and battery, it is to be settled by 
Inquest 

Item, if any one shall wage his law, he 
shall be at liberty to make it, himself the 
seventh •. -. - 

Item, if any one shaU wage his law where 
Inquest lies, nevertheless, he shall not be 
condemned 

Item, that every one may say the truth 
in his suit, without being challenged as to 
the words . . 

Item, that Warden, Alderman, Sheriff, or 
any other officer, shall take nothing for doing 
aught that unto their office pertains, nor 
yet for execution of judgment, except fines 
and amercements y 

Item, that no Denizen or Foreigner shall 

f.sio.b. be amerced, except according to the extent 

of the offence 

Item, that Freemen of the City, indicted 
for homicide, shall be batled until the ar- 
rival of the Justiciars Itinerant, or other 
Justiciars assigned 



1. Oust. 
y £ 220, 

221 



Custum* 
221,-2 



^.3io.b. Page 670. 

A Tenant who quits, must pay his rent on the 
morrow of the Feast on which it is payable ; and if he 
fails to do so, the Landlord may distrain from day to 
day, and after eigh^ days let the distress be sold ; 



\ 



Wi 



B. IV.] ORDIKANCES AND USAGES OF THE CITY. 249 

and no one shall be received as the Tenant of any 
one, before he has been sworn that he will not quit 
without leave of the Landlord . • . l.Af.l3Q, 



Page 672. F.su.a. 

That no Woman, Ladies except who use furred 
hoods, shall use a hood furred, [except] with budge 

Proclamation that no one shall insult or injure the 
Messengers from Fjrance, whether right or wrong 

That neither Mayor, Sheriffs, nor Aldermen, nor yet 
their Clerks, Serjeants, nor Bedels^ shall keep a brewery, 
oven, or tavern D 158 

That every Workman and Labourer shall do his 
work as they used to do before the ^ Pestilence G 29 



JPage- 673., , r. 8ii. ** 

That Labourers and Workmen who will not work, 
shall be arrested and imprisoned . . . G 107 

Item, that Servants, of gQod folks shall npt take more 
than they were wont G 107 

That no one shall go with visor or false face P.aiijb. 

• • •• • • . > • .v^ ^K>M 

That no Kegrator of com, poultry, fish, or other 
victuals, shall buy for re -sale before the hour of 
Prime .,.,,,.. G^203 

That no one, shall enter a bo£^t with oysters^ 
mussels, cockles, [or] scallops, to buy the same, but 
let them stand for sale in common . . G 204* 



> Of A.D. 1348-1352. | ^ g^g G, fol. 197 



iM^^ 



250 



LIBER ALBITS. 



[B. IV. 



That the Bailiffs shall not impede Merchants in 
unloading their merchandize that comes by water 
LGf. 220 

That a Merchant-Stranger, good, lawful, and suffi- 
cient, who wishes to enjoy the franchise, shall have 
the same G 220 



F.3i2.a. Page 675. 

That all victuals sold in Chepe shall be sold midway 
between the kennels . , . . Horn, 237 

That no Market for pots, or for pans, shall be held 
on Fair-days Horn, 237 

That no Freeman ought to plead, save" 
before the King or his Chief Justice; and 
that he shall make no oath 

That a Freeman ought to be put upon 
twelve pledges, and not more ; of whom 
each may pay one hundred shillings, if he 
be attainted ..««.. 

When Pleas of the Crown are holden at 
the Tower, that neither the Sheriff nor 
any other Freeman shall recite the Pleas of 
the Crown 

If a man shall be slain in London, the 
Sheriff shall attach him who is accused, 
and shall put him upon twelve pledges . 

If a person prosecutes for homicide, and 
does not give surety and pledge to pro- 
secute, the other one shall not be arrested 
thereon ••«..... 



Horn, 
255 



I'.aiia. ' ' Page 676, 

Item, that cloths of ray, made in suchy 
parts [of Brabant or Flanders], shall be re- f F. f 
ceived without Aulnage or other thing »J ^ 



35 
36 



^^ 



B. IVJ ORDINANCES AND USAGES OF THE CITY. 251 



1. F. 

I 35, 
36 



Item, that the Merchants of Flanders^ 
may buy their merchandize and fiave 
passage, paying the customs ... 

Item, that they may buy and sell with 

all manner of people, and all manner of 
merchandize ; and many other Articles 

That no one may go to forestal victuals coming to 
the City , . • F 182 

If any Labourer shall absent himself and^ 
will not serve, let him be imprisoned for a 
quarter, and forfeit his goods 

Item, that Servants in the hostels of 
good folks shall not take more than they 
were wont . . . . . . . . 

Item, in every Ward let there be 
sworn four persons to keep the Ordinances 
ordained ..»,... 

Item, if any person shall act in contra- 
vention of any one of the Ordinances, let 
him pay forty shillings . . . , 

Item, that no one shall go to forestal victuals F.3i2.b. 
F 81 

That no one shall go with a false face or with his 
face covered . G 2 

One Freeman charged another Freeman with homi- 
cide, and waged battle, and the other would not fight ; 
but it was adjudged that he should make his law, 
himself the eighteenth .... Horn, 256 



F 181 



Page 677. 



t'.sia.li. 



A freeman of the City was charged with 
felony aiid put upon twelve sureties, and 
the Plaintiff died before the sitting of the 
itusticiars; and the other person was a(5- 
quitted .».;... 



y 



Horn^ 
256 



SiSfA 



262 LIBER ALBUS. [b. IV. 

If the King prosecutes without a Plaintiff, in a Plea 
of the Crown, [the defendant] shall defend himself 
by the seventh hand ... 1. Horn, £256 



F.3is.a. Page 680. 

That no one shall go out of the City, by land or by 

water, to forestal victuals coming thither . H 98 

l'.3i3,b. That Officers shall not be Brewers [or] Bakers, nor 

shall keep Carts for hire, nor be Eegrators . H 98 

That no Eegrator of victuals of flesh and fish, shall 
go to meet victuals coming [towards the City] ; nor 
shall buy the same for re-sale, before ten by the 
clock ♦ . . . . . . .11 114 

Item, that Pastelers shall bake pies for one half- 
penny . H 114 

Item, that butter shall be sold by measure H 114 



^*3i3.b. Page. 681, 

That no person indicted or charged with being of 
evil life, in one Ward, shall be received into an- 
other . I 194 

Ordinance that Hocking shall be forbidden I 49 

*^*^^«'^- Page 685. 

That no hoards, palings, steps, or other things, shall 
be made in the high streets of the City . . F 105 



P-^17'^ Page 686* 

That two Hallmotes shall be holden each yeai*, 
the one against the Feast of Saint Martin [11 No- 
vember], and the other against Lent, one at the Bridge, 
and the other at Oldefisshestrete ; unto which all shall 



B. IV.] 



ORDINANCES OF THE FISHMONGERS. 



253 



come, upon one day's notice, when the Sheriff can 
attend there ; .and he who shall make default, let 
him pay 21 pence . .. . . , 1. A f. 89 



Page 687. 

And that no person of the City shall buy" 
fresh fish for re-sale, before sunrise, or salt 
before Prime, if a Foreigner has any share 
therein; and if a Foreigner has a share 
therein, it may be sold after Prime . 

And that no one shall send to buy any 
manner of fish, far or near, to forestal the 
6^>m6 «•••>«.• 

And that no one shall buy fish in any 
vessel, until the rope shall have been brought 
ashore ; and not then, except in form afore- 
BaiQ, •••••••• 

And that no one shall avow or receive 
the fish of a stranger, if one half of the fish 
is not his own 

And that as to oysters, mussels, [and] )- A 89, 90 
whelks, no one shall sell them or avow 
them, but those who fish them; and that 
they shall not lie for sale more than two 
ebbs and a flood, and shall not be sold by 
the boat-load in gross; save that, if a 
Stranger shall not have sold all by Noon, 
the Re-sellers thereof may buj^ and put them 
in their shops 

And that fish that comes in baskets shall 
be as good beneath as above 

And that sturgeon, that comes in barrels, 
shall be of one taking and of one salting . 

And that no manner of fish that comes 
by night, belonging to any one, shall be 
removed from the boat before sunrise, un-. 



F, 317. a. 



254 



LIBER ALBUS. 



less rainy weather shall happen ; and then/ 
it shall be upon the Quay, in charge of a 
Serjeant of the Street . . 

And that no fish that comes in baskets 
shall be harboured in shop or in house, but 
shall remain in view without; save that, 
those of the trade may harbour their own 
fish by view of the Serjeant, so that the 
next day it be fully brought to market . 



[B.IV. 



LA 

f. 89, 90 



p. 317. a. Page 688. 

And that no one shall conceal or harbour■^ 
lampreys of Nauntes [brought] by a Stranger, 
but by the Wall of Saint Margaret's such 
Strangers shall sell the same ; nor shall any 
one buy them for re-sale before the fourth, 
day after their arrival ; nor shall a Stranger 
sell them afterwards by retail, but by dozen 
or half [dozen] 

And that no one shall take an Apprentice 
for less than seven years 

And that no Apprentice shall trade or 
commit extortion ; nor shall any man of the 
trade, through spite, make fish more dear . 

And that those who are now Apprentices, 
shall not work [in the business] until they 
are enrolled 

And that the buyers for the Abbot of 
Saint Alban's shall not buy more than they 
need for the House 

And that herrings, mackerel, and other 
fish that comes by cart, shall not be bought 
before the hour of Noon, for re-sale . 

Sprats shall be sold by tandel and half 
[tandel], and not in gross . 
p.sir.b. That no one shall 
rung 



y A 89, 90 






regrate fish before 



Prime 
D 167 



B. IV,] BEGULATIOKS FOK FISHMONGERS. 255 

That no Vendors of fish shall throw their water 
into the high -street ■. \ . * l.D£]58 



Page 689, F.3i7.b, 

That no one shall enter a boat with oysters, mussels, 
and whelks, before that the same shall have been 
brought to shore ; but that the person who has brought 
the same shall sell -them . . . . D 158 

That no fish, fresh or salted, shall be put upon stalls 
for sale elsewhere than in Briggestrete, Wolchirche, and 
Oldefisshstrete F 208 

Item, that fresh-water fish shall be brought to Brigge- 
strete and Oldfisshestrete, and there sold, and not 
elsewhere . . . . . . . G 87 

Item, that Birlsters, who carry fish in the streets, 
shall not stand in Chepe or elsewhere . . G 87 

That no one shall regrate fresh- water fish for re-sale ; 
that is to say, roach, barbel, dace, flounders, stikelings, 
smelts, lampems, or any other fish ; but that the Fisher- 
men shall sell the same under the wall of Saint Marga- 
ret's, Oldefisshstrete, and under the wall of Saint Mary 
Magdeleyn ; and that no Birlster shall sell fish in any 
fixed place; and that no Eegrator shall buy fresh- 
water fish before the hour of Prime . . G 100 

Item, that Birlsters shall not stand at any place 
within the City G 197 

Page 690. r.siib. 

Item, that no one shall regrate fish for re-sale ; but 
that those who take them shall sell them . C 197 

Item, that no Fishmonger or Eegrator shall buy fresh- 
water fish before ,the hour of Prime ^ • . . C 197 

Item, that Fishmongers shall not throw their water 
in the streets, but shall have the same carried unto 
the Thames * ^ * . . . Custum. 204 



m> 



256 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[b* IV* 



P. 318. a. That no one shall go to forestal fresh fish, taken in 
the Thames, upon the bq,nks thereof . 1. F f. 119 

That no Fishmonger shall buy fish coming unto the 
City, before that the good folks shall have bought what 
they need . , . . . .• Custum. 203 

That no Huckster shall stand in a fixed place, but 
that they shall go throughout the City . H 107 

That no one shall regrate fresh fish, but that the 
Takers shall sell it themselves . . . H 107 



Page 691. 

F.3i8.a.' Item, what [shall be] the price of smelts, lamperns, 
and roach, and other fish . . . . H 107 

r.3ma. Page 692. 

Item, that no one shall sell corn by sample or in 
secret, but in the Markets in Newgate and at Gras- 
chirche; and this, after Prime rung, and not before D 155 

Item, that corn brought unto the City,"^ 
by land or by water, shall be exposed for 
sale in Market only 

Item, that corn which comes to Queen- I E 44 
Hythe, or elsewhere, by a Stranger, shall 
not be exposed for sale before Prime rung 
at Saint Paul's 



F. 319. a. 



* Page 693. ' 

Item, that a Stranger shall not expose" 
corn for sale, or buy by sample ; nor shall 
a Foreigner sell unto a Foreigner 

Item, that no one of the City shall buy 
corn in the City coming into the City, 
for re-sak • 

Item, that no Denizen shall avow the 
com of a Stranger 

Item, that no Penii^en B^grator shall 



E 44 



IP' 



B. IV.] REGULATIONS FOR CORNDEALERS AND PORTERS. 257 

stand on the * Pavements among Strangers, but by 
themselves ; nor shall [any Denizen] entrust his corn 
unto a Stranger for resale . . . . L E, f. 44 

Item, that no one shall entrust his money unto 
Comdealers frequenting the Markets of ^Upeland, to 
make a gain upon each quarter . . . E 44 

Item, that corn and malt shall be wholly brought into 
market, and sold by him who brings the same . F 181 

Item, that the Quarter of malt shall be sold by the 
nine bushels . . . . - . . G 29 

Item, that no Comdealer or Regrator shall buy 
corn, or malt, or salt, in the City, for re-sale G 29 

Item, that no Merchant shall buy corn, malt, or salt, 
at Billyngesgate, or at Queen-Hythe, before that they 
shall have been exposed for sale for three days after 
their arrival G 36 



Page 694. 

Item, that no corn shall be sold' at Bil-"" 
lyngesgate, or at Queen-Hythe, before that 
it shall Jbave been exposed for sale ,for 
three days after its arrival 

Item, that no one shall buy corn, malt, 
or salt, and leave the same in the hands of 
the Vendor for re-sale .... 

Item, that no one shall put com or other y 
victuals in the hands either of a Stranger 
or a Denizen, for the purpose of buying it 
back again .,.«.'». 

Item, that no Corndealer, or other person, 
shall buy corn, malt, or salt, coming by 
water, until the same shall have been on 
sale for three market-days .... 



p. 319. b. 



G 72 



* At Graschirche, and before the 
Friars Minors at Newgate, where 
corn was exposed for sale. 

^ Under the name of * Upland,' 

VOL. III. 



all country-places, as distinguished 
from London, seem to have been 
known. 



R 



\Si£:i 



258 LIBER ALBUS. [B. IV. 

Item, that no one shall bring corn or malt for sale, 
except upon market-days . . . . LG £86 

Item, that com and malt shall be wholly brought 
to market G 107 

Item, that no Hosteler shall make any bread, but 
shall buy it of the Bakers . . . . G !j^35 

Item, that corn and malt shall be sold only in full 
market. G 197 

Item, that no one shall place his own corn, or other 
victuals, in the hands of Foreigners, or others, to buy 
back the same G 197 

Item, that' all com that comes from the East in 
tioats, as in quantities of one bushel, two, or three, 
shall Hhere be sold . . . . Q 206 

Item, that no wheat shall be sold, to make malt 
thereof . E 62 

Item, that Brokers and others who buy com shall, 
not delay in making payment unto the Country-folks 
therefor • ♦ * D 156 

Item, that Brokers and others who buy com, etc. 

• m . • <» • • • t «Jt2i XO t 



F.3i9.b. Page 695. 

That com shall be wholly brought to market, and 
there sold F 81 

That Comdealers shall buy no corn in the City, but 
only in Upelande , . . . . . F 81 

Ordinance as to what the Meters of salt, wholesale 
and retail, shall take for meting the same, and for 
cartage .•..*... F 164 

Item, that no one shall carry corn or malt out of 
the City, under pain of forfeiture , . G 244 



* At Billingsgate. 



iPf: 



B. IV.] REGULATIONS FOR CORNDEALERS AND PORTERS. 259 

Item, that no one shall sell com or malt,^ 
except in full market 

Item, that no one shall place com, or 
other victuals, by sample, in the hands of 
another, to buy back the same . 

Item, that no one shall sell com before 
the bells rung, thereunto ordained . . }-LGf. 260 

Item, that no one shall buy com, malt, 
or salt, or other victuals, to leave the same 
afterwards in the hands of the Vendors .for 
re-sale ........ 

Item, that no one shall carry corn or malt 
out of the City ... . . 

Item, that no Hosteler shall make any bread in his 
house G 265 

Item, that Porters shall take as they were wont, 
and not more . . . . . . F 181 

Item, that those who bring corn or malt unto the 
City shall bring the same to the Markets ; that is to 
say, from the Counties of Cantebrigge, Huntyngdone, 
[and] Bedforde, and from Ware, unto Graschirche ; and 
those who come from Barnet and from the West, unto 
Newgate ..•.*., G 324 

Item, that no Denizen shall put his com into the i'.32o.a. 
hands of a Foreigner, for sale ; and that no one who 
shall have bought corn in the market shall leave it in 
the hands of another for sale . . . G 324 



Page 696. 

Item, that as to Comdealers who bring corn unto 
the City for sale — no one shall sell it by shew or by 
sample ; and that they shall come unto the Markets ; 
and that no [com] shall be sold after Prime 
Custum. 201 

Item, that every vessel and boat that brings com, 
shall stand one day for sale unto the conmions , 

Custum. 201 

r2 



p. 320. a. 



Mk: 



260 



LIBER ALBtJS. 



[b. IV. 



Item, that every one shall pay for the corn that he 
buys of Foreigners ; and if he does not, that the Vendor 
shall have his recovery by the Statute of Smythfelde 
1. Custum. £ 201, 219 

Item, that no Regrator of corn, poultry, or fish, 
shall buy for re-sale before the hour of Prime . 
. . . . , . . . , Custum. 203 

Item, that no Monger of com or of other victuals 
shall go out of the City to buy any victuals coming 
thereunto . . . . . . Custum. 203 

Item, that no Monger or Regrator shall buy victuals 
coming unto the City before that the good folks shall 
have bought thereof . ... Custum. 203 

Ifcem, that no Corn-porter shall sell or mete com, or 
shall value com, before that he shall be required [so 
to do] . Custum. 204 

There ought to be no Monger of corn except at 
Queen-Hythe Horn, 256 

Item, whosoever shall bring com unto->| 
the City, by land or by water, shall sell 
it at the places appointed . . . 

Item, that com which comes unto Queen- 
Hythe by Strangers, shall be exposed for 
sale at the hour of Prime, upon view of 
four reputable men, chosen thereunto . 

Item, that no Strangers shall expose corn 
for sale, or shall buy by sample ; and that no 
Foreigner shall sell unto another Foreigner 



^ 



Item, that no Regrator of Corn shall 
buy corn for re-sale , . . , 



F.S20.IU Page 697. 

Item, that no one shall avow the com of 
a Foreigner 

Item, that no Denizen Gorndealer shall 
stand with a Foreigner, nor shall any In- 



Horn, 
333,-4 



B. IV.] REGCJLATIONS FOR CORNBEALERS AND PORTERS, 261 



L Horn, 



habitant place his' corn in charge of a' 
Foreigner 

Item, that no one shall let his house 
unto a Baker to share in the gain . 

Item, that no one shall let Bakers have 
corn on credit 

Item, that no one shall entrust his money 
unto a Comdealer frequenting the markets 
in the country, to have a share in the gain^ 

Item, that Porters shall take only one farthing for r.sao.b. 
a horse-load of flour G 121 

Item, that no one shall sell com or malt 
except in full market, and not by sample . 

Item, that no one shall place his own 
corn, or any other victuals, by sample, in 
the hands of another, for re-puxchase thereof 

Item, that com or malt shall not be sold 
before the bells rung, nor yet by sample, 
except in fuU market . . • . 

Item, that no one shall buy com, malt, 
or salt, or any other victuals, to leave the 
same afterwards in the hands of the same y H 15 
Vendor, for re-sale in gross or by retail, 1 
or other collusion 



Page 698. 

Item, that no one shall buy com, malt, 
or salt, for re-sale, which has come by 
water for sale, before that the same shall 
have remained openly in full market for 
three m^ket-days . . • * , ' .^ 

Item, that no one shall carry com or 
malt out of the City, e:&cept in full market ^ 

Item, that no one shall place corn, malt, )> H 98 
or other victuals, by sample, in the hands | 
of another for sale . . . . • 



F.320.b. 



tak' 



262 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. IV. 



Item, that no com shall be sold at Byl-" 
lyngesgate, Queen-Hythe, or Grascherche, 
before that the bells shall have rung out 
which are thereunto ordained . 

Item, that no one shall sell corn before- 
hand by sample 

Item, that no one shall buy com, or 
other victuals, to leave the same in the 
hands of the Vendor for re-sale 

Item, that no Corndealer, or other, shall 
buy com, malt, or salt, for re-sale, which 
comes by water for sale, until the same 
shall have remained in full market for 
three market-days 

Item, that no one shall carry com, malt, 
or wine, out of the City, without leave 



^ H 98 



I'.S21.b. 



Page 699. 



Item, that no Brewer shall keep his door open 
after Curfew rung, under penalty of half a mark 

Item, that no Brewer shall keep his door open 
after Curfew rung at Saint Martin's, under pain of 
paying, the first time forty pence, the second time 
half a mark, the third time twenty shillings ; the 
fourth time, let him forswear the trade , . C 14 

Item, that the gallon of ale shall be sold for one 
hal^enny larthing, and one penny, and no more 

Item, that Brewers shall sell by sealed measure 

That no Brewer shall keep his door open after Cur- 
few rung F 70 



B. IV.] KEGULATIONS FOR BREWERS AND ALESELLERS. 263 

Page 700. F.3ai.b. 

Item, that every Brewer shall sell by sealed mea- 
sure . L F f. 214 

Item, that no Brewer shall keep his door open 
after, etc . • F 214 

Item, that they shall sell by sealed measure G 2, 29 

Item, . that no Tavemer shall keep his door open 
after, etc. G 10 

Item, that Brewers shall sell the gallon at a certain 
price G 29 

Item, that a Brewer may sell ale to Regrators 

..*.....,. G 87 

Item, that they shall sell by sealed measure G 87 

How the gallon of ale shall be sold . . G 107 

That a Brewer shall not keep his door open after 

Curfew rung at ^ Bo we G 176 

• Item, that no one shall sell ale e"xcept by sealed 
measure . G 176 

Item, that the gallon of ale shall be sold at a cer- 
tain price G 176 

Item, that no Brewer shall keep his door open after 
Curfew rung • . . . . - G 196 

Item, that no one shall sell ale except by sealed 
measure G 196 

Item, that no Regrator shall buy ale for re-sale 
. G 207 

Item, if Brewers shall be attainted of being perjured, I'.aaa.a. 
or of [using] false measures, let them be, etc, . G 207 

Item, that the gallon of ale shall be sold at a cer- 
tain price • ... . . G 244 

Item, that no Brewer shall keep his door open 
after Curfew rung H 14 



* The Church of St. Mary le Bov, in Cheapside. 



»<• < 



264 LIBER ALBUS. [B. IV. 

Item, that ale shall, be sold at a certain price 
l.Gf.259 

F.322.a. Page 701. 

Item, that no Huckster shall buy ale for re-sale 

Item, that no Hosteler shall sell ale except unto his 
Guests . . . . . . . . G 259 

Item, that no Huckster shall sell ale . . G 255 

That no Sheriff shall take fine of a Brewster 
. . . . . . . . Custum. 202 

Item, that Brewers shall sell by sealed measure, 
and that the tun shall contain 150 gallons- and that 
they shall carry their measures unto the house of 
the Alderman four times in the year ; and shall give 
for [marking] the gallon two pence, the pottle one 
penny, the quart one halfpenny, and for the bushel 
one penny . , . , . , Custum. 202 

Item, that no Brewer shall keep his door open after 
Curfew rung . . . . . . Custum» 205 

Item, that no Brewer shall keep his door open, etc, 

. • . . . . Custum. 217 

Item, that the Assize of Ale shall be observed 

Custum. 219 

Penalty ordained for Brewers who sell against the 
Assize . . . . . i . . G 165 

Item,' that no Kegrator or Kegratress shall sell 
ale, or keep door open after the proper time G 29 

That the gallon of best ale shall be sold for one 
penny halfpenny, and the other for one penny, the 
gallon . H 14 



p. 322. a. 



Page 702. 

That no Huckster shall buy ale for re-sale, under 
forfeiture of all the ale . . . . H 15 



B. IV.] 



REGULATIONS FOR BAKEKS* 



265 



Ordinance as to Brewers and Hacksters 1. H f. 164 

That Hostelers and Brewers shall sell ale by full 

measure, and not by hanaps . . . H 156 

Ordinance as to Brewers and Hucksters . H 164 



F.322.b. 



Page 



703. 



f.SSl.a. 



Item, that Bakers shall not sell their bread before 
the oven, or in the house, but in market . . D 166 

Item, that the Sheriffs shall take no fine from Bakers, 
or from Brewsters ; but let them have corporal punish- 
ment . . . . . . . . D 156 

Item, that the bread of a Foreign Baker ; shall be 
forfeited . . . . . . , . B 53 

Item, that no one shall let his house unto a Baker, 
to have a sliare in the profits of the oven ; and that 
no one shall let a bakehouse unto a Baker for letting 
him have corn upon credit, in order to have a certain 
profit upon such corn when it is baked . . E 44 



Page 704. 

Item, that no Baker shall sell bread be- 
fore his oven, but in market 

Item, that each Baker shall have his 
mark; and no Baker of white shall make 
tourte bread, or the converse . * . 

Item, that no Baker shall buy corn for 
re^saie • ' • • . • • • 

Item, that no Baker who makes tourte 

bread shall sell his flour to a Cook, or to 

other persons . . . . . 

Item, that their bread shall be taken 
once every month ... 



r.331. a. 



> 



Custum. 
202 



F.esi.b. 



266 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. IV, 



L Oust, 
f. 202. 



Item, that no Sheriff shall take fine from 
a Baker or Brewster ..... 

Item, if default shall be fonnd in hread, 
the first time, let the Baker be drawn, 
and the loaf about his neck ; the second 
time, let him be drawn and set upon the 
Pillory; and the third time, let him be 
drawn, and his oven pulled down, and let 
him forswear the trade within the City . r 

Item, that unto a Kegratress there shall 
be allowed thirteen loaves for twelve ; and 
that the Baker shall not receive back the 
bread firom them when cold 

Item, if default shall be found in Foreign 
Bakers, let all their bread be forfeited unto 
the use of the Sheriffs ; and they are not 
to put their bread in shops or in selds 

That wastel and French bread shall be 

Item, that the Assize of bread shaU be kept; and 
the punishment of a Baker of false bread . Custum. 219 



of like 
G 207 



r.ssi.b. 



Page 706. 

That wastel and French bread shall be of like 
price . . G 207 

The Articles which ought to be repeated unto the 
Bakers , Horn, 226 

Item, that a quarter of bran shall be sold according 
to the price of a bushel of wheat . . . F 182 

Item, how bran shall be sold . . G 107 

That Bakers shall instruct their servants 
twice a year how to bolt and how to knead 
their dough ...... 

That no one shall follow such trade if 
he be not knowing in the same 



V H 96 



. ■ 

ii 



B. IV.] 



REGULATIONS FOR BAKERS. 



267 



Item, that they shall make loaves at four 
for one penny, of flour of the best bolting . 

Item, that they shall not make their 
dough with spring water . . . 

Item, that they shall not buy bad com, 
for mixing with good corn , . . 

Item, that they shall sell unto the Huck- 
sters only thirteen loaves as twelve, without }^ 1. H f. 96. 
gift or other cuitesy . . . . 

Item, that a Tourte-baker shall not have 
a bolter, nor make white bread 

Item, that bread of the worst leaven 
shall be made of sieved flour 

Item, that horse-bread shall be made only 
of beans and peas, without other mixture 

Item, that Bakers shall make such bread as is or- 
dained by the Mayor and Aldermen, and shall be 
obedient unto the Surveyor thereunto deputed H 97 F.332.a. 



'J 



Page 706. 

Item, that no one shall mix bad corn with good i'.332.a. 
corn . . . . . . . , H 97 

Item, that no Baker shall prevent the Servants of 
the good folks from being present at the kneading of 
their dough . . • H 97 

Item, that no Taverner shall keep his door open r.332.b. 
after Curfew rung, under a penalty of half a mark 

Item, that Taverners shall sell by sealed measure 
D 157 



Page 707. p.832.b. 

Item, that Taverners shall not keep doors open after 
Curfew rung . . ... ..El 

Item, that Taverners shall sell by sealed measure 
, D 157 



268 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[b. IV. 



That no Tavemer shall keep his door open after 
Curfew rung ]. F £ 70 

That no Tavemer shall mix corrupt wine with good 
wine F 70 

That every one may see where his wine is drawn, 
and from what vessel F 181 

Item, that they shall sell by sealed measure F 181 

Item, that Tavemers shall sell by sealed measure 
. . F 181 

Item, that no Tavemer shall have a cloth hanging 
before his door of his cellar . . . . F 214 

Item, that measures shall be standing in Taverns, 
ready sealed . F 214 

Item, that no Taverner shall keep his door" 
open after Curfew rung .... 

Item, how the gallon of wine shall be 
sold ...... 

Item, that those who have sweet wine 
shall have no other wine in the same tavern y G 2 

Item, that no one shall sell except by 
sealed measure 

Item, that no Tavemer shall refuse to 
let any one see his wine drawn, or have 
cloths before his door 

¥ 

Item, that no Tavemer shall keep dcor open after 
Curfew rung . . . . , G 10 



R332.b. Page 708. 

Item, that Taverners shall have nothing before the 

doors of their cellars G 29 

p. 333. a. Item, that they shall not sell sweet wine by false 
measure . . G 29 

Item, that no one shall sell wine except by sealed 
measure G 29 

Item, that no one shall sell one wine for another 



^v 



B. IV.] REGULATIONS FOR VINTNERS, ETC. 269 

Item, that no one shall go unto la ^ Pole, or else- 
where, to meet . wines for bujdng them , . 1. G f. 72 

Item, that Tavemers shall sell by sealed measure, 
and not by the cruskyn G 87 

Item, that no Tavemer shall put Ehenish wine and 
White wine in a cellar together . . . G 87 

Item, that three Vintners shall be sworn each year, 
to set a price upon wine . . . • G 147 

Item, that no Taverner shall keep his door open after 
Curfew rung . .. . . . . , G 176 

Item, that no one shall sell wine except by sealed 
measure G 176 

Item, that Tavemers shall not keep their doors open 
after Curfew rung G 196 

Item, that no one shall sell wine except by sealed 
measure, and not by cruses . . . . G 196 

Item, that corrupt wine shall be condemned G 196 

Item, that new wines shall not be put in cellars with 
old wines G 260 

Item, that White wine of Gascoigne, of la Rochele, 
of Spain, or other place, shall not be put in cellars 
with Ehenish wines G 260 



Page 709. p. 333. a. 

Item, that no one shall sell any manner of wine for 
more than two pence [the quart] . . . G 295 

Proclamation as to the Sale of Wine . . G 306 

Item, that no one shall go unto ^ la Pole, or else- 
where in the Thames^ to buy wines or other mer- 
chandize ....... Custum. 201 

Item, that no Tavemer shall keep his door open 
after Curfew rung . . . . . Custum. 205 



» The Pool, of the Thames. 



270 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[b. IV. 



F.333.b. 



Item, that the Assize of Wine shall be kept . 

1. Custum. £ 219 

Ordinance as to the price of Wine, and that persons 
may see their wine drawn, under pavn of half a Tiiark 
. . . . G 103 

That no wines shall be sold upon the water, [or] 
before that they shall have been put on land [and] 
into the cellar G 223 

Proclamation that corrupt wines shall be 
forfeited 

Item, after the arrival of new wine, none 
shall be sold before that the old has been 
disposed of . . . . . . • 

Item, that no White wine of Gascoigne, y G 244 
of la Eochele, or Spain, or of any other 
country, shall be stowed in cellars with 
Rhenish wines 

Item, that Rhenish wine, and all other 
wine, shall be sold by sealed measure -j 

Item, that the doors of taverns shall be open, that 
so each may see his wine drawn, under a penalty of 
forty pence H ^1 



Page 710. 



F.33S.1). Item, that no one shall carry wines Eastward, if he 
does not find sufficient surety that he wiU carry them 
unto a Port within the realm . .Hi 

Item, that no one shall go unto la Pole, or elsewhere, 
to forestal wines G 259 

That White wine shall not be sold for Rhenish 
wine G 207 

Item, the price of wine proclaimed , . G 107 



^ This folio is wanting. 



ji 



B.IV.] REGULATIONS FOR BUTCHERS. 271 

Page 711. 

That Rhenish wines shall not be sold dearer than F.333.b. 
eight pence [per gallon] ; and Bed wine at six pence ; 
Vernage at two shillings ; Malvezie at sixteen pence ; 
Crete and Provence at twelve pence ; and that by- 
sealed measure, under the penalty enacted L H £ 97 

Item, that corrupt wine shall be condemned H 98 

Item, that White wine of Gascoigne, Rochele, of 
Spain, or of any other country, shall not be in 
cellars where Rhenish wine is for sale . . H 98 

Item, that no one shall go unto la Pole, or else- I'.sa^.a. 
where, to meet wines coming unto the City, to make 
bargain for the same, until they shall have arrived at 
the Quays, [and] after being first discharged or 
put on land . . . . . . . H 98 

Page 712. F, 334.1,. 

Item, that Strange Butchers shaU bring theix hides 
and pelts of each beast, under pain of losing the value 
of the hide or pelt ; that is to say, for the hide of 
an ox, two shillings and six pence ; of a cow, two 
shillings; the pelt of a mutton, without wool, one penny 
halfpenny ; [the hide] of a calf, one penny halfpenny ; 
and then let him sell until Noon by retail, and after 
Noon in gross, until Vespers [rung] at Saint Paul's ; so 
that by then he shall have sold all, without carrying 
anything away, salting, or storing it, under pain of 
forfeiture . . . • . . A 130 

That the carcase of the best ox shrill he sold for 
a mark ; of the best cow, for ten shillings ; the car- 
case of the best pig, four shillings ; of the best mutton, 
two shillings ; the best capon, four pence ; the best 
hen, three pence ; the best rabbit, with the skin, five 
pence, and without the skin, four pence ; one hundred 
eggs, at 120 [to the hundred], eight pence ; a partridge, 
three pence ; a plover, two pence ; eight larks, one 



272 LIBER ALBUS. [B. IV'- 

penny ; one thousand red herrings, six shillings ; the 
best stockfish, one penny halfpenny ; a cod sixpence : 
and if any person shall sell contrary hereto, let him 
be committed to prison . . . . 1. C f. 38 

Item, if any person shall withdraw himself by reason 
of this Ordinance, let him lose his freedom, and for- 
swear his trade C 38 

That Butchers shall not withhold their payment from 
the Country-folks, for the beasts which they buy D 156 

That Strange Butchers shall bring their hides with 
their flesh D 155 

Page 713, 

F.3R4.I1. Item, that Butchers shall sell their pelts and hides 
in market D 158 

That no Foreigner shall sell by retail' 

That no one shall take the Servant of 
another 

That those who have the freedom shall . -p 910 
dwell in the City, and the Suburbs thereof / 

That whosoever shall act to the con- 
trary of any of the points aforesaid, let 
him pay unto the Chamber forty shillings^ 
p. 335. a. Item, that Strange Butchers shall bring their hides 
with the flesh, and shall then sell by retail, etc. . . 
Custum. 204 

Item, that no Butcher shall sell woolfels, so long 
as the animals are alive . . . Custum. 206 

Item, that no Butcher shall sell tallow or lard, to 
be carried beyond sea .... Custum. 206 

i'-335.a. Page 714. 

Item, that Butchers who buy beasts of Foreigners, 
shall pay for them, or else let the Creditors have 
their recovery by the Statute of Smethefelde 
Custum. 201 



B. IV J POULTERERS, COOKS, AND VICTUALLERS. 273 

That no one shall seU a lamb at a higher price 
than SIX pence ; and that no one shall go out of the 
City to buy lambs 1. H f. 97 

Item, that Butchers shall close their shops before 
candle-light, and shall nofc sell meat by candle light 

H 97 

That the Barbers shall not place blood in their F.ss5,b. 
windows , ... . . . . D 157 

Also, another Ordinance thereon, — in a certain 
Chapter beginning ' That no swine/ etc. Custum. 203 



Page 715. 

That Strange Poulterers shall sell at 
Ledenhalle ....... 

Item, that no Denizen Poulterer shall 
come there to buy or to sell 

Item, that no Cook or Kegrator shall buy ' 
any Poultry before Prime rung at Saint 
X aUx s.'. • • . • • « 



F.3»8.a. 



J^F 102 



Item, that no Poulterer or Regrator shall forestal mer- 
chandize coming unto the City . . . G 29 

Item, that no Denizen Poulterer shall*' 
stand at Ledenhalle among Foreign Poul- 
terers, but [they shall stand] in their own 
houses, close to the Church of Saint Michael 
on Comhulle ... ... 



Page 716. i 

Item, that no Denizen Poulterers, them- ( ^ 
selves or by their Servants, shall buy poultry 
of stranffers before the hour of Prime 

Item, that no Foreign Poulterer shall 
hring poultry into the house of a Denizen 
Poulterer 

Item, that no one shall go to meet poultry, 
to forestal the same J 

VOL. III. 



72 



F.3S6.a. 



S 



u>-, 



274 



LIBER ALBTTS. 



[3, IV. 



1. G £ 108 



K386.a, 



Item, how geese, capons, game, and beef 
and mutton, shall be sold .... 

Item, that no Victualler shall conceal his 
victuals 

Item, that no Victualler shall keep his 
victuals until they are spoiled . . 

Item, that victuals shall be sold at a reasonable 
price . . G 176 

Item, that no one shall go to forestal victuals coming 
unto the City G 196 

Item, that no Denizen Poulterer shall" 

stand at Ledenhalle ..... 

Item, that Foreign Poulterers who enter 
by Newgate and Aldrichesgate, shall sell 
upon the Pavement before the Friars Minors 

Item, that Denizen Poulterers shall stand 
before the Church of Saint Nicholas at the 
Flesh-Shambles 

Item, that no Denizen Poulterer shall 
buy of a Foreign [Poulterer] before Prime 
rung • . . . ♦ . 

Item, that no one shall expose corrupt 
poultry for sale 

Item, that no Foreign Poulterer shall 
bring or harbour his poultry in the house 
of a Denizen ... 

Item, that no one shall go to forestal 
poultry coming unto the City . 

Item, that Boats which bring lambs unto Saint 
Botulveswharf shall discharge there . . G 207 

Item, that Boats which bring petty victuals for sale, 
coming from the East, shall discharge there . G 207 

Page 717. 

Item, that no Denizen Poulterer shaU^ 
stand at Ledenhal, within a house or with- 
out . . . , . . . . ^ 

Item, that Denizen Poulterers shall be 
before the Church of Saint Nicholas » 



' G 196,-7. 



J 



G260 



IV.] 



FBIPPERERS. 



275 



Item, that no Denizen Poulterer shall buy 
of a Foreign Poulterer before Prime . 

Item, that no Foreign Poulterer shall I 
harbour his poultry at the house of a Deni- ! ^ p i» o/»q 

zen Poulterer / "• • 

Item, that no Poulterer shall sell any 
poultry beyond the price by the Mayor 

thereon ordained ^ 

That no Regrator shall buy victuals before the hour 
of Prime: also, the price of Poultry and other 

things C 38 

That no Regrator of fish or of Poultry shall buy 

before Prime rung, ete. D ^154} 

Item, that no Foreign Poulterer shall seU poultry 
otherwise than openly, and in the places thereunto 

assigned H 16 

Item, that no Cook shall take more than one penny 

for putting a capon in a crust . . • F 182 

Item, that a Cook shall not take more than one 

penny for putting a capon or a rabbit in a crust 

...•.•.... (jT lUo 

Page 718, 

That there shall be no Market in Chepe, or on 
Cornhul, after Curfew rung at Saint Paul's . D^152 

That there shall be no Market upon London Bridge 

. DnsS 

Item, that Fripperers who buy old clothes* 
with budge or fur, shaU re-sell the same as 
they buy them • 

Item, that no one shall have such clothes 
dubbed or fulled, and sell them for new . )-(} 135 

Item, that he who sells and buys such 
clothes, shall not meddle with new 

Item, that no one shall be rebellious 
against the Wardens of his Mystery . 



F.336. 



P. 837. a. 



1 See D, foL 157. 
^ See D, foL 155, 



See D, foL 157. 



S 2 



276 LIBEK ALBUS. [f. IV. 

That no Market shall be upon London Bridge, or 
elsewhere, but in the places assigned L Oustum. f. 203 

F.337.b. Page 719. 

That no market for pots, pans, and other utensils, 
shall be held except at CornhuUe . . 1. D f. 152 

Item, that Pelterers shall not make up sets of Furs 
of less than sixty skins ; so that the same be of six 
tiers in length, of one workmanship, and not inter- 
mingled, new with old A 130 

That no one shall cause his Furs to be scoured in 
the high streets in the day-time . . . D 108 

That Pelterers shall make their Furs of assize, as 
their Charter purports F 181 

Item, that Pelterers sliall make their Furs of assize, 
according to the ancient custom . . . G 107 

Item, that Pelterers shall make up no set of Furs 
of less than fifty skins, and that of six tiers in length, 
and each by itself ; and shall not intermingle old with 
new ....... Custum. 206 

Item, that no Peltercr shall make up sets of Furs 
of peltry of less than .sixty skins ; so that the same 
be of six tiers in length ; and that he shall not inter- 
mingle old with new . . . . D 156 

F.8S7,b, Page 720. 

Ordinance as to what *Tawyers shall take from 

Pelterers for their labour . . . . G 164 

p. 338. a. That no Stranger shall keep Hostel or Herbergerie 

F.338,a. Page 721. 

Item, that every Hosteler shall warn his Guests 
that they carry no arms . . . . E 194 

Item, that no one shall be received if he be not 
of good repute E 194 

Item, that Hostelers shall be good and sufficient 
persons F 182 

' Or Curriers. I - See D, fol. 1 57. 






B. IV.] HOSTELERS AND THEIR GUESTS. 277 

Item, that no one shall go armed, or carry arms ; 
and that Hostelers shall warn their Guests thereof 

, . . • . . • . 1. Gr £ 1 0, 1 1 

Item, that every Hosteler shall take the arms of 
bis Guest, and shall keep them , . G 10, 11 

Item, that every Hosteler and Herbergeour shall 
warn his Guests that they go not wandering about 
after Curfew rung, or carry arms . . . G 29 

Item, that no one shall harbour any one beyond a 
day and a night, if he be not willing to make answer 
for him G 72 

Item, that no Hosteler shall make' bread, but shall 
buy it of the Bakers . . . G 135 

Item, that they shall sell oats and hay at a rea- 
sonable price . . . . . . • G 135 

Item, that they shall not harbour any one, if they 
be not willing to make answer for him . G 135 

Item, that the Constables and Bedel shall have 
power to search Herbergeours and Hostelers, [to see] 
that they sell no victuals in their hostels; and that 
Brewsters shall not seU against the Assize . G 165 

Item, that Hostelers shall warn their Guests that 
they come in time unto their hostels . . C 96 

Item, that no person shall harbour any one beyond 
a night, if he be not willing to make answer for him 
G 196 



Page 722. 

Item, if Hostelers shall be attainted of being per- I'-sss.b. 
jured, or of [having] false measures, let them have 
the punishment thereon ordained . . • G 207 

Item, that no Hosteler shall take, for hay for one 
horse, a night and a day, more than two pence half- 
penny ; and for a' bushel of oats eight pence ; and 
that no Hosteler shall sell ale except unto his Guests 



278 LIBER ALBUS. [B, IV. 

Item, that no person shall harbour another beyond 
a day and a night, if he will not make answer for 
him; and that no one shall remain in any Ward 
beyond a day and a night, if he be not in frank- 
pledge . . . , . . 1. Custum. £202 

Item, that Strangers from beyond sea shall not be 
Hostelers or Brokers, if they be not Freemen ; and 
then, they shall dwell in the heart of the City 

Custum. 218 

Item, that no Broker shall be the Hosteler of a 
Merchant who trades in the merchandize of which lie 
is broker Custum. 218 

That persons from beyond sea shall not be resident 
as Hostelers or Herbergeours witliin the City, if tliey 
be not free C 16 

That no one shall be Herbergeour, Broker, or Hos- 
teler, if he be not sworn before the Mayor ; and if 
any such shall be found at the end of one month 
after this Proclamation, let him for ever be not ad- 
missible to the freedom, and nevertheless be. adjudged 
to be imprisoned . . . . • . C 16 

That no Hosteler shall harbour any person who is 
of ill fame beyond a night and a day, under a penalty 
of forty shillings F 105 

That no Alien who is admitted to the freedom 
shall keep Hostelry upon the water-side, but in the 
middle of the City .... Custum. 203 

Item, that no Stranger shall keep hostelry or [re- 
ceive] persons to table, except his own household 

Item, that no Hosteler shall make horse-bread in his 
house H 16 ) 



Page 723. 

F.s^s.a. Item, that six good folks of the said trade shall be 
charged to oversee it ; and if any one shall do the 
contrary [of such enactment], he shall pay, the first 



■ 






B> IV.] 



WEAVERS, DYERS, FULLERS, ETC. 



279 



time, ten shillings, the second time, twenty shillings, 
[and] the third time, twenty shillings, and shall for- 
swear the trade . . . . . . 1.0 £37 

Item, that no Dyer who shall dye bine bumets, or 
other colours, shall dye in blecche or tawny; and he 
who shall do so, let him pay half a mark . C 37 

Item, that no one shall receive the Apprentice or 
Servant of another, against the wish of his Master C 37 

Item, if any Journeyman shall borrow money or 
goods of his Master, or of another person, and shall 
agree by covenant to serve him for the same, no other 
person shall receive him until he shall be quit as 
towards his master . . . . . C 37 

Item, that no one shall cause cloths to be woven for 
sale, except in the City and Porfcsokene, or within the 
liberties, and not in Suthwerk . . • D 158 

Item, that no cloth shall be dyed black except in 
woad D 158 



Page 724. 

Item, that woad shall only be measured by those who F.345.a. 
are thereunto assigned D 158 

Ordinance that no Dyer or Weaver shalF 
make any cloth 

Item, that no Dyer who dyes wool with 
woad shall dye hats [or] caps . 

Item, that they shall dye ten pounds for 
eight [pence] ... 

Item, that no Dyer shall demand his 
money before that the wool is dry ; and 
after that, let them have their action by 
the Statute of Smythefelde . . .j 

Item, that Shearmen shall take for [shearing] a short 
cloth twelve pence, a long cloth two shillings, and a 
cloth of ^ ray two shillings ... . F 181 



^ G 101 



* Le. a rayed, or striped cloth. 



280 LIBER ALBUS. [b. IV. 

Item, Ordinance as to what Shearmen shall take 
for a cloth LG£107 

Item, that no one shall expose unwetted cloths 

for sale 6 135 

F.345.b. Item, that if a Shearman shall be found in default, 
the cloths not being wetted, he shall forfeit his shears 

Page 725. 

i'.345.b. Petition of the Fullers, that if a person buys cloth, 
he may buy the same at his own peril ; that so they 
may not be summoned to view the default therein, 
after the purchase G 240 

In the Statute of tite King, — That cloths of ray 
shall be 28 eUs in length, measured by the list, and 
five quarters in width; coloured cloths, 25 ells in 
length [measured] at the back, and six quarters in 
width G312 

Item, that no one shall cause cloths to be woven 
elsewhere than within the franchise . Custum. 204 

Item, that no one, as being a Foreigner, shall sell 
linen cloth, or canvas, unto a Denizen, before that the 
same shall have been measured by the officer of the 
City deputed thereunto H 16 

Item, that no long cloth shall be dyed black except 

in woad Custum. 204 

Item, that woad shall only be measured by those 

who are thereunto assigned . . . Custum. 204 

r 

Page 726. 

p.345.b. That Drapers shall not untruss their packages of 
cloth that come from beyond sea, until the Aulnager 
shall have done his duty . . . . E 57 

F.346.a. That no cloth shall be taken out of the realm before 

it shall have been fuUed , . . . H 60 

That no Subsidy or Aulnage shall be taken for 






B. IV.] MASONSj CARPENTERS, AND PLASTERERS. 281 

cloths of Irlande, uuless they be of Assize, — in the 
Statute of the King . . . . 1. H f. 60 
That no Foreigner shall sell unto any Denizen linen 
cloth, or canvas, before that it shall have been 
measured H 98 

Page 727. 

That Tailors shall take for a dress garnished with P.346.b. 
silk, eighteen pence ; for a dress garnished with thread 
* [and buckram], fourteen pence. Item, for a coat and 
hood, ten pence. Item, for a long dress for a woman, 
garnished with silk and cendale, 2a. 6c?. Item, for 
a pair of sleeves ^ [for changing], four pence . F 181 

How much a Tailor shall take for making up cloths 



Page 728. 

That Carpenters, Masons, Plasterers, Daubers, and 
Tilers, shall take, between the Feasts of Saint Michael 
and Saint Martin [11 November], four pence per day 
for everything, or else one penny halfpenny and their 
table, at the will of the employer ; and between the 
Feasts of Saint ^ Martin and of the Purification 
[2 Febnia,ry] three pence for everything, or else one 
penny and their table ; and between the Feasts of the 
Purification and Easter, four pence for everything, or 
else ^ one penny halfpenny [and their table] ; and 
between Easter and Saint Michael, five pence for 
everything, or else twopence, etc. And on a Saturday 
and on a Vigil they shall take as for a whole day, 
and shall work until evening ; and upon Sundays and 
Feast-days they shall take nothing. And that their 



F.347,a. 



* These passages are supplied 
from the original. 

* Erroneously given as * Saint 



'Mark: 

® Erroneously given as * three 
* pence.' 



282 



LIBER ALBUS. 



[B. IV. 



servants, and the makers of earthen walls, shall take 
between Saint Michael and Easter two pence for 
everything, and between Easter and Saint Michael 
three pence for everything . , . L A £ 88 

And that Paviours shall take for the toise, con- 
taining seven feet and a half in length, and the foot 
of Saint Paul [in breadth], two pence. And that carts 
which carry argil, sand, and gravel, shall take one 
penny ; and the cart shall contain one quarter, full [and] 
hieaped up A 88 

And if any person shall give unto any Labourer 
more than above mentioned, let him pay unto the City 
forty shillings, without any pardon therefor : and he 
who takes more, shall be imprisoned forty days A 88 



Page 729. 

That no cart laden with fire-wood, timber, or char- 
coal, shall stand anywhere but at Cornhulle . D 158 
Ordinance as to Paviours, and as to lime . D 159 
Item, that Masons and Carpenters shall be sworn 
not to make any purpresture in the Streets . F 105 

Item, that Masons, Carpenters, Plasterers, 
and Sawyers, shall take, between Easter 
and Saint Michael, six pence per day ; and 
from Saint Michael to Easter, five pence; 
and they shall take upon the Saturday, if 
the week is a whole one, as for a whole day, 
as also on Eeast-days : and for the repair 
of their implements they shall take nothing . y 

Item, a Tiler shall take, from Easter to 
Saint Michael, five pence halfpenny, and 
from Saint Michael to Easter, four pence 
halfpenny ....... 

Item, that their Men, the first half year, 
[shall take] three pence halfpenny, and the 
second half year, three pence 



F 181 



B. IV.] 



DAUBERS. 



283 



Page 730. 

Item, Master Daubers, the first half year"^ 
five pence, and the second half year four 
pence ; and their men like the men of 
Tilers ........ 

Item, that no one shall pay more, under 
pain of [paying] forty shillings; and he 
who takes it, shall be imprisoned for forty 
Qays .«*•..• • 

Item, that a thousand of tiles shall be 
sold for five shillings, and no more . 

Item, the hundredweight of lime for five 
shillings . 

Item, a cart that brings sand or other 
thing from Algate unto the Conduit, shall 
take three pence, and beyond the Conduit, 
three pence halfpenny; and also from Cre- 
pulgate unto Chepe, three pence ; and if y 
they go beyond, three pence halfpenny : and 
the cart shall be of the capacity of one 
quarter, heaped up 

Item, a cart that brings water from Dowe- 
gate unto Chepe, shall take one penny half- 
penny; from Castle Baynard unto Chepe, 
one penny halfpenny ; and if they go beyond 
Chepe, they shall take two pence; and if 
they do not come so far as Chepe, one j 
penny farthing . . . . . . i 

Item, a cart that brings merchandize from 
Wol wharf unto Chepe, shall take four pence 

Item, for a hundred of Halwode, six-pence, 
at Crepulgate ; and for a hundred of faggots, 
four pence ....... 

Ordinance that a cart, entering and going forth, 
shall pay for Pavage one penny ; one horse loaded. 



p. 347.1), 



F 181 



* Ze. * tall wood,' fire- wood in long lengths 



F.84i7.b. 



284 L1BEK ALBUS. [B. IV, 

one farthing; a cart that brings sand and argil, by 
the week, three pence ; and those which bring com 
and flour from Stratforde, three pence. Item, carts 
that bring wood for sale [shall pay] one farthing ; 
and charcoal for sale, one penny . . 1. G f. 58 
Ordinance as to what Tilers shall take - G 100 
Ordinance as to what Masons, Carpenters, Plasterers, 
Tilers, Daubers, and their men, shall take . G 107 



Page 731. 

Item, the thousand of tiles shaU be sold for eight 
shillings, and of lime for six shillings . . G 107 

Item, what carts that bring argil, sand, merchandize, 
and fire- wood, shall take . . . , G 107 

Ordinance as to Masons . , . . G 41 

Item, that no one shall have his pavement made 
higher than his neighbour . . . . G 295 

Item, that no Labourer shall take between Easter 
and Saint Michael more than six pence ; and between 
Saint Michael and Easter, five pence ; and the Satur- 
day as a whole day, in case the week was a whole 
one . . . " G 295 

Item, that no cart shall stand in the City with wood, 
timber, or charcoal, before that the same has been 
sold Custum. 204 

That lime shall be measured by quarter and bushel 
of assize, and weU burnt , . Custum. 206 

Item, that tiles shall be of the ancient dimensions 
Custum. 206 

Item, that Paviours shall take for the toise of seven 
feet and a half only two pence , . Custum. 206 
' * • That no Carter shall drive his cart faster when un- 
loaded than when loaded . . . . H 73 

That the quarter of coal shall be sold, between Saint 
Michael and Easter, for ten pence ; and [between] 
Easter and Saint Michael, for eight pence, and no more 
H 97 



B. IV.] FARRIERS, SMITHS, AND ARMOURERS. 285 

That no one shall have his pavement made highex* 
than his neighbours LH f.98 



Page 732. 

Ordinance made as to the price of Masons, Plasterers, F.348,a. 
Carpenters, and other Workmen in the City of London 

• • • • • • • • • .X \)«7 

That no one of the said Mystery shall send bows unto p- 348. b. 
CornhuUe, or elsewhere in the City, for sale H 18 

Item, that a pair of shoes of cordwain shall be sold 
for six pence ; one pair of cow-[hide] for five pence ; 
one pair of boots of cordwain, for 3s. 6d. ; one pair of 
cow-[hide], for three shillings . . . F 182 

Item, one pair of gloves of sheep-[leather] for one 
penny halfpenny, and the best for two pence F 182 

That no cordwain or basil shall be carried out of the 
realm . F 182 

Item, that no one shall sell hides except in the Seld 
of Frydaystrete G 245 - 



Page 733. 

That Farriers shall take for [putting on] a horse-shoe, F.s49.a. 
of six nails, one penny halfpenny ; of eight nails, two 
pence ; and tor removing the same, one hali^enny ; 
and for the shoe of a courser, two pence hal:^enny; 
and for the shoe of a charger, three pence ; and for 
removing one thereof, one penny . . 1. *C 182 

Item, what Farriers shall take for the shoeing of 
horses G 107 

The Articles of the Heaumers . . . F 142 



^ This article is wanting. 



286 LIBER ALBUS. [b. IV. 

F.m-a. Page 734 

Item, what Farriers shall take for the shoeing of 
horses; that is to say, for a shoe with eight nails, 
two pence; and with less, one penny halfpenny; and 
for removing the same, one halfpeimy . 1. G f. 298 

The Articles of the Fnrbishers . . . F 184 

F.350.b. Page 736. 

Ordinance of the Glaziers . . . . G 152 
Ordinance of the Founders . . . G 159 



p. 351. a. 



P.351.b. 



Page 737. 

Item, Spurs [to be made] for six pence, eight pence, 
and the best for twelve pence . . . F 181 
The Articles of the Pinners and Cardmakers G 48 
Ordinance of the Breechesmakers . . G 32 
Bill of the Joiners 18 

Page 738. 

p.ssi.b. Ordinance of the Stainers . . . .19 
Petition of the Fullers . . . . G 240 



Omitted. 

Page 550. 
F.272.a Of taking nothing for Wharfage . . . I 193 

Page 675. 

F.3i2.a. Statute of Smethefelde as to Wheat and Malt 

Horn 237 

Page 676. 

F.3i2.a. That the Staple shall be for ever in the parts of 
Brabant or of Flanders F. 35 



Jvft; 



LIBER ALBUS. 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN AND EARLY 

ENGLISH WORDS. 



w* 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN AND EARLY ENGLISH 

WORDS. 



\. ^^ ^^V^-'X* ^r*^ 



[The figures enclosed in parentheses denote the page of Liber Albus.] 



abesser. Fr. To lower. {562.) 
abhominable, Fr. Abominable. (368.) 
aboteez. Fi*. Past participle plu- 
ral of the verb ' abotir,' to meet, 
join together, assemble. (265.) 
Mr. Wedgwood has probably 
taken a somewhat incorrect view 
of the meaning of this passage, 
in his Dictionary of English 
Etymology^ i. p. 504. 
abrocour (268, 282, 315, 586, 122), 
abrokour (261, 268). Fr. A 
broker. The reader will find a 
disquisition as to the probable 
origin of this word in Mr. 
Wedgwood's Dictionary of Eng- 
lish Etymologyy i. pp. 245-247. 
abroker. Fr. To act as broker. 

(668.) 
absteigner. Fr. To abstain. (517.) 
accioun (199, 449), accoun (199, 

203). Fr. Action, 
accommaunder. Fr, To recom- 
mend. (46.) 
accompt (20 1, 2 1 5, 21 8), accompte 
(215, 218), acompt (49), 
acompte (48). Fr. Account. 
VOL. III. 



accoun. See Accioun. 

acheisoun (111), a^hesoun (HI). 
Fr. Occasion, cause. 

acquire. Fr. To cook. (333.) 
For * a quire.' 

Actone Burnel (619). The Statute 
of 11 Edward I. (A.D. 1283), or- 
daining the Statute Merchant ; 
so termed from Acton Burnel, 
the place where it was made. 

This was a castle, formerly be- 
longing to the family of Burnel, 
and afterwards of Lovel, in 
Shropshire. 

aderer (212, 221). Fr. In arrear. 

adiesement. Fr. An annexation, 
an encroachment. (476.) 

adjoustement. Fr. An addition, 
an adjustment. (368.) 

adonqs. Fr. Then. (380, 382.) 

advouteresse. Fr. An adulteress. 
(460.) See Avouteresse. 

advoutoure. Fr. An adulterer. 
(459, 460.) See Avoutour. 

advys. Fr. Advice. (518.) 

affoerer. Fr. To value, to affeer, 
to assess. (272, 696.) As to 

T 



1 



290 



LIBER ALBUS. 



the origin of the word ^affeer/ 
see Wedgwood's Diet Engl. Ety- 
mology^ i. pp. 26, 27, 5. vv. Affeer, 
and Afford, See Afforare, 
agardable. Fr. Awardable. (188.) 
ague pier. Fr. A whetstone. (601.) 
In former times this was particu- 
larly said to be the due reward 
of him who told the greatest lie ; 
hence, * lying for the whetstone ' 
is a phrase often met with in the 
old writers. The punishment of a 
liar and slanderer, by exhibiting 
him with a whetstone fastened to 
him, as in the present instance, 
was not unfrequently practised. 
In reference to this notion 
Thomas Randolph says, in p. 37 of 
the Conceited Pedler^ — "Consi- 
" dering how dull halfe the wits 
" of the University be, I thought 
" it not the worst traffique to sell 
" whetstones. This whetstone 
*^ will set an edge upon your in- 
" yentions, that it will make your 
" rusty yron braines finer mettle 
" than your brazen faces. Whet 
" but the knife of your capacities 
" on this whetstone," etc. Simi- 
larly, upon Sir Kenelm Digby 
boasting that he had seen the 
* philosopher's stone,' but was un- 
able to describe it. Lord Bacon 
sarcastically remarked, that it 
was, perhaps, a whetstone. See 
also HudihraSy P. ii. c. i. : — 

* Diurnals writ for regulation 

* Of lying to inform, the nation, 

* And by their public use to bring down 

*" The rate of whetstones in the kingdom .' 

The custom of thus rewarding 
him who told the greatest lie 



was still existing (according to 
Budworth, Ramble to the Lakes^) 
so late as 1792. 

aides. Fr. plur. (269.) Aids. 
Payments made to the sovereign 
for the support of the state. 

aketoun. Fr. (437.) An acketon, 
or quilted leather jacket, worn 
beneath the coat of mail. 

Aldermannechurche (122). An er- 
ror of the transcriber, no doubt, 
for * Aldermariechurche.' 

Aldermaricherche (619). The 
church of St, Mary Aldermary, 
in Cordwainer Street Ward, in the 
City. According to Stow {Sur- 
vey) it was so called, because it 
was older than any other church 
of Saiht Mary in the City. 

Aldewyncle (444), Aldwinkle, in 
Northamptonshire : (a locality 
which, in a later age, is tradi- 
tionally said to have given birth 
to the poet Dry den). 

aldreman (560), aldremans (417), 
aldremens (560). Aldernian, al- 
dermen. A French adaptation 
of English words, of Anglo- 
Saxon origin. See Audermann, 

Aldrichegate (106, 586, 682), 
Aldrichesgate (463, 557, 716), 
Aldrichgate (556, 557). Al- 
dersgate, the name of one of the 
London Wards, from the City 
G-ate so called. A corruption 
of * Ealdredesgate,' or ^ Ealdred's 
* Gate,' by which name it is 
called in the Instituta LundonuB, 
enacted by King Ethelred, 
about A.D. 1000. See Thorpe's 






GLOSSiHY OF AKGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



291 



Ancient Laws and Institutes of 
England, p. 127. 

alekoiiner (254, 316, 342), alkon- 
ner (359, 360), alkonnere (360, 
361). Engl. An ale-conner, one 
who cons or examines ale ; an 
officer whose duty it was to ex- 
amine and test the quality, and 
due measure, of ale. 

aleum. Fr. Alum. (230*) See 
AlonU 

aleggaunce. Fr. Convenience, re- 
lief. (271.) 

Alemaine. Fr. Almaine, or Ger- 
many. (226.) 

aler. Fr. To go. (273.) 

Algate. Aldgate (Old-gate), the 
name of a Ward in the City of 
London. (459, 6^2^ 553, 555, 6^e, 
580, 585, 586, 730). 

AUgate (233). In this instance, in 
all probability, the City G-ate of 
Aldersgate, and not Aldgate, is 
meant. See Aldrichegate. 

allower (314), alower (47). Fr. 
To let on hire. See Lower. 

alldwez. Fr. plur. (308.) Hired 
persons, journeymen. 

iaine. Fr. Ati ell. (725.) See Ann- 
ayet, 

alom* Fr. Aluni. (223.) See 
Aleum, 

alose. Fr. A shad. (234, 375). 
Mr. Way informs us (Prompt 
Parv. I. p. 310) that it has been 
suggested that the loach {Cobitis 
harbatay Linn.) niay have been 
Bo named from the old French 
'locher,' to shake, or wag, in 
consequence of its singularly rest- 
less habits. It seems more pro- 



bable, however, that it is a cor- 
ruption, through the French, of 
the Latin * alosa ' (as used by 
Ausonius), the more especially 
as the * alosa * is identified with 
the loach, in the Ortus Vocab. 
(as quoted by Way) ; though, in 
reality, there can be little doubt 
that it originally meatit, like the 
present French word, a different 
fish, the shad. 

alowe. Fr. A lark. (468, 712.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn, p. 694. 

alower. See Allower, 

alowers. Fr. To let. (47.) The 
verb * alower ' employed as a 
plural adjective. 

ameisner. Fr. To bring. (459.) 

amenuser. Fr, To diminish, cur- 
tail, get rid of. (261.) *To 
* amenuse,' is used as an English 
verb, in the same sense, in Lyd- 
gate's Translation of De Guile- 
vile's Pilgrimaffe of the Soul; 
also, by Chaucer, in the Persones 
Tale, 

Amias (228), Amyas (418, 424, 
426, 614). -The former name of 
the City of Amiens, in Picardy. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus^ 
turn, p. 695. See Reynes, 

Ammondesham (299)* Agmon- 
desliam, or Amersham, in Buck- 
inghamshire. 

Andeluye (424)* A surname, de- 
rived probably from the Isle of 
Andely, in Nortnandy. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
695, s, V, Andley, 

T 2 



292 



LIBER ALBTJS. 



Andevere (535, 536). Andover, 

in Hampshire. 
Andwerpe (613). Antwerp, 
anoesance (506), anoesaunce (510, 

511), anosaunce (506, 510), anu- 

sance(313), anusaunce (271). Fr. 

Nuisance, annoyance. 
Anviers. Fr. Antwerp. (634.) 
annys (230), anys (224). Fr. 

Aniseed. 

anusance, anusaunce. See Anoe- 
sance, 

apiert, en (270), appiert, en (274). 
Fr. In an open place, openly. 
See Appiert. 

appelloure, Fr. (460.) An ap- 
pealer, a false informer or ap- 
prover. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum* p. 695, s, v, Apel- 
lour. 

appentice. Fr. A penthouse, or 
pentice. (288, 336,) See Pentis^ 
and Appenticum, 

appiert. Fr. Open, public. (282.) 
See Apiert^ en. 

appres. Fr. After, afterwards. (460.) 

are-a-perre. Fr. A petronel, stone- 
bow, or bow for casting stones ; 
the use of which was forbidden 
in the City. (278.) See Stan- 
boghey and Arcus de petra. 

aresoner. Fr. To interrogate. (277.) 
Hence our word * arraign ; ' the 
French word being probably de- 
rived from the Latin ' ratiocinor.' 
See, however, Du Cange (ed. 
Henschel), s, vv, Adramire and 
Arraniare, This form was eai'ly 
adopted into the Engl, language ; 
as meaning * to reason,' or ' per- 
'suade,' in Robert de Brunne's 



Translation of Langtoft's Chroni- 
cle ; * to talk to,' Ki/ng Alysauu" 
dery 6751 ; *to question,' or Mn- 
* terrogate,' Rom, of the Rose, 
6220, Cursor Mundi, f. 7. See 
Haliiwell, Diet. Arch. s. v. Are- 
son, ' Enreson ' (Robert of Glou- 
cester's Chronicle y p. 321), was 
another form of the word. See 
Arreiner. 

arest. Fr. Arrest. (220.) See 
Arrester. 

argil (730, 731), argille (728). Fr. 
Potters' clay, argil. 

argoil (225, 231). Fr. Argoil, 
argal, or argul ; the impure salt 
deposited from wine, or coarse 
cream of tartar. See Haliiwell, 
Diet, Arch, p. 82. This word 
' argoile ' is used by Chaucer ; 
but Tyrwhitt and Wright (Glos- 
sary to the Canterbury Tales) 
explain it as meaning potters' clay. 

ark (278), arke (515). Fr. A 
bow. See Arc-a-perre. 

armurer. Fr. An armourer. (301.) 

arreiner. Fr. To arraign, accuse. 
(460.) See Aresoner. 

arrester. Fr. (39, 44, 202.) To 
arrest, to seize ; a term formerly 
applied equally to the seizure of 
p^^perty L person. See^..., 
and Arestare, 

arreym. Fr. Brass. (261.) 

arrirages. Fr. plur. Arrears. (427.) 

arrivaile (574). Fr. Arrival. 

asmercier. Fr. To amerce, to 
mulct. (212, 267, 270, 274.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 694, s, V, Amerciement. 

asqun. Fr. Any. (496.) 



i 



GLOSSARY OP AITGLO-NOEMAJ^, ETC. 



293 



asserter. Fr. To assure, to certify. 
(200.) 

assient. Fr. Assent. (318.) 

assouthe. Fr. (471.) Past parti- 
ciple of the verb * assoudre/ to 
absolve. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum^ p. 697, s* v, 
Assotitz, 

a;bsj. Fr. Assay, trial. (336.) 

atravers. Fr. At traverse, at 
issue. (212, 216.) In law, a ^ tra- 
verse' signifies the denial of 
some matter of fact, alleged to be 
done in the plaintifl^s declaration. 
The formal words of a traverse 
are in old French * Sans ceo,' in 
Latin ' Absque hoc; * and in Eng- 
lish 'Without that,' ^.c. such a 
thing was done or not, etc. 

attachier. Fr. To attach. (277.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn, p. 697, s, V. Attacker* 

attainez. Fr. (367.) Past parti- 
ciple plural of the verb ' attainer,' 
to agitate ; erroneously printed 
' attamez.' 

attendre. Fr. To attaint, to con- 
vict. (262.) 

attornementz. Fr. plur. Attora- 
ments, acknowledgments of an 
existing right. (180.) 

Auban, Seint. Fr. (233, 284.) 
Saint Albans, in Hertfordshire ; 
where, as we learn from the for- 
mer passage, bread was prepared 
for the London market. 

Audermann (267, 276, 277). An 
Alderman ; a French form of an 
Anglo- Saxon word. See Aldre- 
man. 

audres. Fr. plur. Others. (111.) 



Aumbresbery (402). Amesbury 
• (formerly, Ambrosebury,) in Wilt- 
shire. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, pp. 694, 697, s, vv. 
Ambresbery^ and Aumbresbire, 

aunage. Fr. (676, 726.) Alnage, 
or aulnage, A duty paid to the 
King's aulnager, a sworn officer, 
whose place it was to examine 
into the assize of cloths, and to 
affix seals thereto; as also to 
collect the aulnage (or duty per 
ell) granted to the sovereign on 
all cloths sold. Aulnage duties 
were abolished by 11 and 12 
Will. III. c. 20. See Ahie, and 
Ulnagium, 

auneour. Fr. An aulnager. (726.) 

autentikement. Fr. Satisfactorily, 
on sufficient evidence. (48.) 

autrefoythe. Fr. Thereafter, an- 
other time. (285.) 

auxiben (370), auxibien (418). Fr. 
As well. 

aver de poise (230), avoir de poys 
(588). Fr. Avoirdupoise, wares 
weighed by the pound. See 
the Glossary to IJber Custum, 
p. 784, s. vv. Averia ponderis. 

aveynes. Fr. plur. Oats. (721, 
722.) 

avoir. Fr. (292.) Personalty, per- 
sonal property, in contradistinc- 
tion to land. See the following 
words. 

avoir (318), avoirs (231). Fr. 
Wares. Hence the old English 
words ^aveer' (Maundevile's Tra^ 
vets, p. 292) ; ' avere ' (Langtoft's 
Chronicle, p. 124) ; and ' avoir ' 
(Sevyn Sages, 2205), all signi- 



U,: 



294 



LTBEB ALBtrS. 



fying property : as, also, our 
present word * wares.' 

avoire, Fr. Property, means, af- 
fluence. (462.) See the pre- 
ceding words. 

avouerie. Fr. Avowry. (381.) See 
Avowry e^ Atoouerie, and Votv- 
aunt 

avouteresse. Fr. An adulteress. 
(457.) See Advouteresse, 

avoutour. Fr. Anadulterei\ (457.) 
See Advoutoure. 

avower. Fr. To avow, answer for, 
assert to be one's own. (264, 639, 
657, 667, 687.) See the Glossary 
to Liber Cxistum, p. 781, 5. v. 
Advocare. 

avowrye. Fr, (180.) Avowry ; as- 
sertion by a party that a thing 
has been done in his own right, 
and justification of the same. See 
Avouerie, Awouericy and Vow- 
aunt 

avys. Fr. Advice, consideration. 
(462.) 

a were. Fr. Doubt, suspense (212, 
291.) See En awere, 

awouerie. Fr. Avowry. (380.) 
See Avowrye. 

ayder. Fr. To aid, to assist. (641.) 

ayle. Fr. Gaxlic. (238, 418.) See 
OyL 

bacynette. Fr. A bassenet, or 
light helmet. (437.) 

bailies. Fr, plur. (234.) Bails ; 
hoops nailed to the sides of a 
vessel for the support of an awn- 
ing or tilt ; whence vessels of 
this description were known as 
' tilt-boats.' It seems not impro- 



bable that from this word, the 
small trading craft used on our 
Eastern coasts may have received 
the name of ' billy -boy.' See the 
Introduction to Liber Albus, p. 
xcvii. See Balles, and Beilles, 

Bakwelhalle (557, 611). Bakewell 
Hall, in Bassishaw Ward. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
699, 5. r. Bassieshaghe, 

baleyn (230), baleyne (224). Whale- 
bone. See Halliwell's Diet Arch 
p. 135. 

balles. Fr. plur. Bails. (344.) 
See Baillesy and Bellies, 

Bank. Fr. The Court of King's 
Bank, or Bench. (293.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
698. 

barbour. Fr. A barber. (714.) 

barelharang. Engl. Barrelled her- 
rings. (238.) 

bargayn (315, 369, 370, 401), bar- 
gayne (367). Fr. A bargain. 

bargayner. Fr. To make a bar- 
gain. (711.) 

barile. Fr. A barrel. (382.) 

BaiTe, la. The Bar. (100.) If 
seems highly probable that Hatch- 
am in Surrey, which was for- 
merly considered to belong to 
Kent, may be the locality here 
alluded to. Jt may have had its 
name from the A. S. ' haecca,' a 
bar or hatch, from a bar or gate 
there separating the two Counties. 
A part of it was early known 
as Hatcham Barnes, possibly 
a corruption of ^Barre' or 
^Barres.' See Garre. 



GLOSSARY OF ANGIQ^NORIMCAN, ETC. 



296 



bars du jneer. Fr. Sea bass. (234.) 
See tbe Glossaiy to Liber Custum, 
p. 785, s, V. Barcius. See Bras. 

Bartilmew. Bartholomew. (334.) 

baseyne. Fr. Basil, basan, or ba- 
zen, inferior leather made from 
sheepskin. {22S.) See Bazain, 

Bassyeshawe (463), Bassynges- 
haw (558). BassishawWard, in 
the City of London. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
699, s, V, Bassieshagke, 

bat (236, 248), bate (235, 246, 271). 
Fr. A boat. 

batele (384), batelle (277). Fr. A 
boat. 

bateller. Fr. A boatman. (579.) 

baude (457), bawde (259). A bawd, 
male or female ; a procurer or 
procuress. 

bazain (732), bazein (589), bazeine 
(231, 733). Basil, basan, or 
bazen, inferior leather made from 
sheepskin. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 699, s, v, Ba- 
zene. See Baseyne. 

bedel (119), bedelle (182, 189). 
Engl. A bedel ; probably from 
the A. S. beoban, * to bid,' from 
the fact of his being an offi- 
cial summoner or messenger. 
Possibly, however, the A.S. bebel, 
or bybel, may be from bibb an, * to 
' bid.' 

bedeleie. Bedelry, bedelship (525). 
A French adaptation of an 
English word. 

Bedieem (538), Bedlem (552, 553, 
556). The old mode of pro- 
nouncing the word ' Bethlehem,' 
the ufime of the Hospital of St. 



Mary in Moorfields ; originally 
established for the reception of 
the Order of Bethlehem and the 
Bishop of Bethlehem (mentioned 
in p. 66%)y a prelate in partibus 
injidelium. See Newcourt's Be- 
pertorium^ I. p. 464. See Beth- 
dele m, and Marice Beatm extra 
Bysshoppesgate. 

beilles. Fr. plur. Bails, (376.) 
See Bailies, and Balles, 

Bercheneslane, Birch in Lane, in 
the City. (242.) Stow is probably 
in error in his assertion (^Survey) 
that this locality was originally 
so called from one Birchover, the 
first builder and owner thereof. 

Berkinge (103), Berkyng (515, 
581), Berkyngge (373). Bark- 
ing, in Essex. 

Berkingecherche {^2)^ Berkyng- 
chirche (16, 275), Berkynge- 
chirch (53), Berkyngechirche 
(251). Barking Church; the 
Church of All-hallows Barking, 
in the City. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 700. 

besoignes. Fr. plur. Needs, wants, 
business. (45.) See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 702, s, v. 
Bosoigne. See BosoigneSy and 
Busoigne, 

bestee. Fr. A beast. (273.) 

Bethdelem (608). The Hospital of 
Saint Mary Bethlehem, in Moor- 
fields. See Bedieem, 

Bethereslane (558), It seems not 
improbable that the present Bil- 
liter Lane is meant under this 
name; though Stow says {Survey) 
that it was originally called ^ Bel- 



296 



LIBEB ALBTJS. 



^zettar's Lane/ from the first 
builder and owner thereof. 

bevere. Engl. Beaver. (605.) Beaver 
hats were not uncommonly worn 
by the wealthier classes at this 
period ; in Chaucer's Canterbury 
TaleSy L 274, for example, the 
Merchant wore upon his head 
" a Flaundrisch hever hat." 

bief. Fr. A beef, beeve, or ox, 
(712). 

Billyngesgate (238, 261, 461, 463), 
Byllyngesgate (549), Byllyngges- 
gate (578). Billingsgate, in the 
City of London. It is named, and 
is the only place so named, as the 
landing-place for foreign goods, 
in the days of King Ethelred : 
see the Instituta Lundoniae, in 
Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Insti- 
tutes of England, p. 127. 

birlester (689), birlster (689), birles- 
teri8,plur. f689). Engl. A birlster, 
birlsters. This name, given to 
hucksters or retailers of victuals 
from door to door, appears to be 
of but rare occurrence ; it is pro- 
bably to be met with only in the 
City books, temp. Edward IIL 

bis. Fr. Brown. (264.) Applied 
here to bread made of coarse 
meal, and known as 'trait' or 
* trete.' M. Michel is of opinion 
(JRecherches sur les Etoffes de 
Soie, etc. i. p. 176, ii. pp. 10-13), 
that in some instances, where this 
adjective appears in conjunction 
with another adjective denoting 
colour, it is the Latin adverb ' bis,' 
and means in such cases * twice 
' dyed,' the same as the ' dibapha ' 



of the ancients. The expression 
' pourpre bis,' for example, he 
takes to mean a purple doubly 
rich. It seems, however, at least 
equally probable that the meaning 
is, a purple shot with a sombre 
colour, brown, black, or grey ; 
similar to the expression " medley 
" brune and porre colour " (what- 
ever 'porre' may mean), quoted 
in Herbert's Hist Twelve Livery 
Comp. I. p. 64. The same remark 
will apply to the numerous pas- 
sages quoted by Halliwell, Diet. 
Arch. pp. 177, 178. As to the 
colour called * byce ' {Prompt 
Parv. p. 35), or rather ' blue byce,' 
Mr. Way is of opinion that it was 
" a preparation of zafire, of a dim 
" and brownish cast of colour, in 
" comparison with the brilliancy 
" of the true azure." According to 
a Note in Liber Horn, fol. 249 b,, 
* bis ' was a name given to the 
fur on the back of the squirrel in 
winter, evidently meaning brown. 
See the Glossaiy to Liber Custum. 
p. 700, s. V. Bisset. See Bissiis. 

bislethe (375). The meaning of this 
word can only be surmised ; ap- 
parently, it signifies ' heaped up.' 

Bithol (659). Bridge^toU; a corrupt 
form of an Anglo-Saxon word. 
See Bridtol, and Brudtoll. 

blader (261, 460, em\ bladier (261), 
bladour (693, 697). Fr. A corn- 
dealer ; also commonly known as 
a * blader' in our language, in 
former times. 

bladsmithe (735), bladsmythe (654, 






GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



297 



736). Engl. A bladesmith, or 
maker of blades. 

blank. Fr. White. (710.) 

blecche. Fr. (723.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 701. 

bocher (712, 713, 714), bouchier 
(263,279). Fr. A butcher. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 701. 

Bocheresbrigge (622). Butcher's 
Bridge; near the Black Friars. It 
probably crossed the Fleet River. 

bokeler (515, 643), bokeUer (275). 
Fr. A buckler or shield. 

Bokeleresbury (583). Bucklersbury, 
in the City of London. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 702, 
s. V. Bokeleresberi, 

bord (333), horde (232), bord, plur. 
(238). Fr. A board, boards. 

bordelere. Fr. Akeeperof abordel, 
or brothel. (275.) 

bosoignes (473, 516, 666), bosoynes 
(571). Fr. plur. Business. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
i^,l02y s,v. Bosoigne, See Be- 
soiffnes, and Busoigne, 

botelinaker. Engl. A bottle-maker. 
(654.) 

botis. Fr. plur. Boots. (732.) 

Botulf, Wharf de Seynt (579). Saint 
Botolph's Wharf, Lower Thames 
Street ; the site, it is supposed, of 
the northern foot of the London 
Bridge of Anglo-Saxon times. 

Botulves wharf, Seynt (356, 716). 
Saint Botolph's Wharf. See the 
preceding. 

bouche. Fr. Firewood. (272.) See 
Buclie, and Busche. 

bouchier. See Bocher 



bounde. Fr. A boundary, a limit. 
(379, 380.) 

bounementes. Fr. Fairly, properly. 
(295.) 

Bowe (642, 700). The common 
name given to the church of St. 
Mary in Cheapside, from the 
arches or bows on which the 
church was built, according to 
Stow {Survey) ; who says, how- 
ever, in his First Edition of that 
work, that the arches or bows 
from which the church took its 
name were on the top of the 
steeple, or bell-tower, thereof. 

bowier (732, 735), bowyer (732). 

Engl. A bowyer, or maker of 

bows. 
Braban (676), Brabant (642). A 

Brabanter, or native of Brabant, 
braceour (316, 359, 360, 361, 562, 

567, 645, 680, 699, 700, 701, 702), 

braciour (358). Fr. A brewer. 

See Braseour, 
bracer. Fr. To brew. (46, 272. 

358, 359.) 
braceresce {26^^ 267), braceresse 

(46, 259, 26^, 316, 337, 358, 359, 

360, 361, 701, 703, 704, 721). 

Fr, A brewster, or female who 

brews ale. See the Introduction 

to Liber Albus, pp. Ix., Ixi. 
bracine (564, 672), bracyne (359). 

Fr. A brewery. 
Bradestrete (463), Bradstret (394), 

Bradstrete (396, 582). Broad 

Street, in the City of London, 
braeller. Fr. A maker of braels, 

or breeches. (737.) 

bras. Fr. Probably the fish known 
as the sea-ba&s» (375.) See the 



298 



LIBKB AliBUS. 



C£ 



it 



Glossary to Liber Custum, p, 785, 
s» V. Barcius, See Bars du meer, 

braseour (701), brasseour (700). Fr. 
A brewer. See Braceour, 

brasil (230), brasille (224). Fr. 
Brasil ; a dyeing material. *^ No- 
" tices occur of hrasil-y^oo^ con- 
*' siderably anterior to the dis- 
" covery of Brazil by the Portu- 
<* guese captain, Peter Alvarez 
" Capi*alis, on the 3rd May 1500. 
" He named it * the land of the Holy 
" * Cross,' ' since of store of that 
" ^wood, called hrasillJ — ^Pur- 
" chas'5 FilgrimeSy Vol. i. It is 
*^ probable that some wood, which 
supplied a red dye, had been 
brought from the East Indies, 
" and received the name of ' brasil' 
" long previous to the discovery of 
" America. See Huetiana^ p. 268. 
" In the Canterbury Tales, the 
'* host, commending the Nonne's 
" Preeste for his health and 
^' vigour, says, — 

" * Him nedetli not his colour for to dien 
** • With brasil» ne with grain of Portingale/ 

" Among the valuable effects of 
" Henry V., (the Inventory taken 
" in 1422,) there occur 4i. 
« < graundes peces du bracile.' — 
^« Bot. Pari In Sloane MS. 2584, 
« p. 3, are directions * for to make 
" * brasil for to florische lettres, 
" ^ or to rewle wyth bookes." — 
"Way, Note to Prompt. Parv. p. 
47; where ^brasyle' is described 
as " gaudo (woad) vel lignum 
« Alexandrinum." " The word 
" bresily or brasil, was in use before 
<< the discovery of America, in the 
«< geuse of a bright red, the colour 



" of braise or hot coals ; and when 
" Brazil was discovered, it seems to 
" have been named from furnish- 
" ing a better red dye than those 
" formerly known. — Wedgwood's 
Diet. Engl. Etymology, i. p. 226. 
Brasil wood is mentioned as a 
fumigatory, among the imports in 
the Accounts of the Grocers^ 
Company, 1454. For further 
notices of this article, and the 
possible origin of the name 
(which seems to have been some- 
times given also to the kermes, 
or Coccus ilicis), see Halliwell's 
Diet Arch. pp. 178, 206 ; Du 
Cange, Glossar. (ed. Henschel), 
s. V. Brasile ; also, the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 805, s. v. 
Granum. 

Bredstrete (108,463). Bread Street, 
in the City of London. 

Bremble (232). Bromley, near Strat- 
ford in Essex ; which still has its 
flour-mills, as in the Middle Ages. 

brees (247, 432, 460), breez (314, 
460, 461), brez (693). Fr. Malt, 
or barley for making malt. 

bren. Engl. Bran. (705.) 

bretask (542). A battlement. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 703, s. V. Bretaske. 

Bretone {54}6). The name of a law 
treatise, more generally known 
as * Britton' ; of the 1 3th century, 
and the authorship of which is 
doubtful. 

brewe (467). This word is also 
mentioned in the Archceologia, and 
in the Antiq. Beperf, i. p. 78 
{Purveyance for a Feast, temp. 



I?-- 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



299 



Richard IL\ where it is queried 
whether it does not mean the 
grouse ; but from the price of it 
in the present instance, a larger 
bird would seem to be meant. In 
HenscheFs edition of Du Gauge's 
Glossary y ^ bureta ' is mentioned 
as a duck, and as being called 
^ hour ' in the dialect of Picardy. 
*Burdo' is also mentioned as 
meaning a kite ; but that bird can 
hardly be meant here. Possibly 
it may be the ^ blarye,' or bald 
coot, named in the treatise of 
Walter de Biblesworth, Wright's 
VoL Vocab, p. 165. 

Briggestrete (689). Bridge Street, 
near London Bridge ; in the 14th 
century it was extensively oc- 
cupied by fishmongers. See Vicus 
Pontis. 

Bridtol (140), BridtoUe (133), 
Brightol (155), Brithtol (149, 
165). Bridge- toll, or Pontage. 
See the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 704, 5. V, Brudthol. SeoBithol, 
and BrudtolL 

brocage. Fr. Brokerage, brokership. 
(400, 587.) 

brocour. Fr. A broker, (400.) 

brode. Engl. The brood, or young, 
of animals. (507.) 

Brokyncros (557). The Broken 
Cross, probably the Standard, or 
" Old Cross at the West end of 
"West Cheap," mentioned by 
Stow in his Survey, It stood at 
the East end of the church of 
St. Michael le Quern, and near 
the north door of St.Paul's Cathe- 



dral. It was finally removed in 
the year 1390. 

brouderer. Engl. A broiderer, or 
embroiderer. (686.) 

BrudtoU (130, 131). Bridge-toll, or 
Pontage. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 704, s. v. Brud- 
tkoL See Bithol, and Bridtol. 

bryef. Fr. A brief or wrifc. (180.) 

buche. Fr. Firewood. (259,337, 
729, 730, 731.) See Boucke, and 
Busche. 

bultel (705), bultelle (705). Fr. A 
boulter, or boulting-sievefor flour; 
hence flour of the finest quality 
was said to be ** of the best boult- 
*^ ing." See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 789, s, v. Bultellus, 

bulter. Fr. To boult meal ; to use 
the boulter, or boulting-sieve. 
(705.) 

bunchee. Fr. A bunch. (238.) 

bundelle. Fr. A bundle. (238.) 

bur (245), bure (680), Fr. Butter. 

burnet. Fr. A cloth so called. (723.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 704, s, V. Burnetz, 

busche (731), busshe (523). Fr. 
Firewood. See Bouche^ and 
Buche, 

busoigne (370,394), busoignes (522), 
busoignez (308, 311, 424, 425, 426. 
Fr. Needs, business. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 702, 
s. V, Bosoigne, See Besoignes 
and Bosoignes, 

busselle (267), busshelle (335, 336). 
Fr. A bushel. 

byer. Fr. To think, to expect. 
(371.) 

Byllyngesgate. See Billyngesgate, 



300 



LIBER ALBUS. 



bytore, Fi% A bittern. (466.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. p, 
704, s. V. Butor, 

caas. Fr. Case, state of things. 
(463.) 

caboche. Fr. (238.) In old French 
this word is explained as meaning 
a 'head'; but in the Prompt, 
Parv, (p. 57) it is mentioned as 
being identical with * currulia,' 
which in its turn is probably the 
same as ' curuUum,' mentioned in 
Du Cange, with a query as to its 
possible meaning. An earthen 
pot or pipkm seems to be the 
signification of that word ; and 
• caboche ' may possibly have been 
employed in both significations, 
just as the word ^hanapel'was 
used to signify a drinking-cup 
and the head, and as the old 
Fr. 'teste,' * the head,' is derived 
from the Latin ' testa,' an earthen 
vessel. So also with us, the 
word * pipkin' is still used, in 
cant language, to signify the head. 
In a document temp, Henry VIIL, 
marked 'Aldeboron,' and pre- 
served in the Public Record Of- 
fice, this word is translated ' ca- 
*bage' in the present instance; a 
meaning which, it is safe to say 
from the context, it cannot pos- 
sibly have ; though our word 
'cabbage,' there can be little 
doubt, comes from the old French 
'caboche.' See Nounper, and 
ValatiL 

Candelwikestrete (463). Candle- 
wick Street, now Cannon Street, 



in the City ; see the Glossary to 

Liber Custum, p. 705, s, v. Can- 

delwike* See Canewykestrete, 
canele. Fr. Cinnamon. (230.) So 

called also in early English ; see 

Prompt. Parv. pp* 22, 60 ; and 

HalliweU's Diet. Arch. p. 229. 
canele. Fr. A channel, or kennel, 

of a street, a watercourse (657) ; 

called in early English a ' canel ' 

or ' chanele ;' see Prompt. Parv. 

p. 69. See Chanel^ and Co- 

nellus. 
Canewykestrete (557). Candlewick 

Street, now Cannon Street ; see 

the Glossary to Liber. Custum. 

p. 705, s. V. Candelwike. See 

Candelwikestrete. 
Cantebrugge. Cambridge. (436.) 

See Cauntebrugge. 
cappe. Fr. A cap. (724.) 
carbon (729), carboun (232, 272, 

730, 731), carbons, plur. (337). 

Fr. Charcoal, 
carboun de meer. Fr. Sea coal. 

(237.) 
carcois. Fr, A carcase. (712.) See 

Carkays, 
cardemaker (654, 737). Engl. A 

maker of cards of iron, for carding 

wool. See Pynner. 

Cardoyl. Fr. Carlisle. (105.) 
carette. Fr. A cart. (384.) 
Carfeux (465). A Carfax, or place 
with four faces. In a MS. tran- 
scribed in the Antiq. Repert iii. 
p. 267, this word is said to be 
derived from the Fr. ' Quatre 
' voiz,' 'Four ways;' but in Mons. 
Jorevin's Description of Eng^ 
land^ Vol. iv. p. 577 of the same 



w 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



301 



work, a more correct origin, in all 
probability, is suggested, in re- 
ference to the Carfax at Oxford. — 
" This great street passes to a 
" cross-way, where is a fountain 
" with four, faces, called Kai/ex, 
" and the town-hall, with its 
« clock." 

carkays. Fr, A carcase. (712.) See 
Carcois. 

carkere. Fr. 'to load. (418, 419.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum» p. 706, s» V, Carker, See 
Kark, 

caulx (729), caux (278, 288, 730, 
731). Fr. Lime. 

Cauntebrugge. Cambridge. (105.) 
See Cantehrugge. 

Caunterbirs. Canterbury. (517.) 

caux. See Caulx. 

Caxetone. Caxton, in Cambridge- 
shire. (406.) 

ce. Fr. (506.) For the pronoun ^se.' 

cedewale (230), cetewale (224). Fr. 
Explained as meaning the plant 

* zedoary,' in Prompt, Parv, i. 
p. 67. See also Du Cange, Glos^ 
sar, 5. V, Zedoaria, which is 
identified with the Fr. * citoual,' 

* chitoual,' or * cytoal.' Zedoary 
is a root, used for medicinal pur- 
poses, belonging to the Curcuma 
Zedoaria, a plant growing in the 
East Indies, the leaves resembling 
those of ginger, only longer and 
broader. It comes in oblong 
pieces, about the thickness of the 
little finger, and two or three 
inches in length, and is a warm 
stomachic. In Halliwell's Diet 
Arch. p. 238, * cetywall ' is identi- 



fied with the herbs Valerian and 
Mountain spikenard. See also 
Setewalcy p. 724 of that work. 

cell. Fr. That. (449.) 

cendal. Fr. Cendal, sendal, or 
sandel. (283.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. pp. 706, 
792, s, vv. Cendale, Cindatum, 
and Cindon, See Sendal, 

cermountyn. Fr. Tui'pentine. 
(230.) Not improbably, this 
should be written * termountyn.' 
See Cirmounte. 

certeign (379), certeyn (306, 689, 
700). Fr. Certain. 

cervoyse. Fr. Ale. (276, 359.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 707, s, V, Cerveise, 

cetewale. See Cedewale, 

ceynturer. A girdler. (436.) See 
SeynturCy and Zonarius, 

cez. Fr. For * sez ' or * ses.' His, 
their. (383, 384.) See Sesy and 
Sez, 

chacer. Fr. To drive. (453, 731.) 

chalers. Fr. plur. (288.) It seems 
difficult to say whether this word 
means * stones,' or the * husks and 
* peelings ' of fruit; perhaps, more 
probably the latter. 

chalons (231), chalouns (225). Fr. 
plur. Shalloons : so called from 
being made originally at Chalons 
sur Marne, in France. This seems 
also to have been a name for a 
thicker texture, as it is explained 
as ' tapetum,' a * counterpane,' in 
Metr. Vocab, I4th Century, and 
Picf, Vocab, 15th Century, 
(Wright's Vol, Fbcafe. pp. 179, 
260), ^Chalun' (or ^chalone') 



S02 



LIBER ALBTJS. 



*bedde cloth^' — Prompt Parv, 
p. 68, to which see Mr. Way's 
Note. This word occurs in Chau- 
cer, Reves Tale. See Chalones. 

chamber lenc (390), charaberleyn 
(390, 528), chambirleyn (45), 
Fr. A chamberlain. See Chauni" 
herlayn, 

champertour. Fr, A champer- 
tor, one guilty of champerty, or 
corrupt maintenance of suits. 
(260. ) See the Glossary to Liher 
Custumariim^ p. 708, s. v. Cham' 
part 

Chanel (667), chanelle (675). Fr. 
A channel, or kennel. See Canele. 

chape. Fr. A cape, or hood, (672.) 

chapelette. Fr. (724.) Apparently, 
this means a hat ; whereas in p. 
218 of Liber Custumarum, the 
word * chapiau,' which ordinarily 
means a hat, is used to signify a 
chaplet. 

chaperoun. Fr. A hood. (283,459.) 

chapon (716), chapoun (466, 712, 
717). Fr, A capon. 

char (274), chare (274), chars, plur. 
(680). Fr. Flesh meat. 

charecte (232, 245, 247, 261, 266, 
288), charette (233, 247, 453, 579, 
585, 680, 688, 728, 730, 731). 
Fr. A cart. See the Glossary to 
Liher Custum. p. 708, $. v. Cha- 
rette, and p. 791, s,v. Carecta. 

charetter (533, 728), charettere 
(453)* Fr. A carter. See Cha- 
rettarius* 

charge. Fr. (225.) See Kark, 

charge. Fr. A loading. (526.) 

chasteines. Fr. plur. Chesnuts. 
(230.) See Chestaine. 



Chastel Baynard. Fr. Castle Bay- 
nard, in the City of London. (274.) 
See the Glossary to Liher CuS' 
turn. p. 709. 

chaucer. Fr. (438.) A shoemaker. 
The designation of a trade, fol- 
lowed by the individual or his 
ancestor, here employed as a sur- 
name. The person here mentioned 
was a benefactor to the Church 
of St. Mary Aldermary, and is 
supposed by Stowe {Survey) to 
have been the father of the poet 
Chaucer. 

ciiaumberlayn (587), chaumberleyn 
(248, 336), chaumbirlayn (47), 
chaumbirlein (49), chaumbirleyn 
(48), chaumbrelein (49). Fr. A 
chamberlain. See the Glossary 
to Liher Custum. p. 709, s» t?t?. 
Chaumberlayn le RoL See 
Chamherlenc. 

chaiiiidele. Fr. A candle. (714.) 

chaundoun. Fr, The chaudron, or 
entrails, of an animal. (236.) This 
word seems to have been written 
in various ways in early English: 
see HalliwelFs Diet, Arch. p. 
242. 

chein. Fr. A dog. (453.) 
Chelmersforde. Chelmsford, in Es- 
sex. (95.) See Chemereford, 

Chemereford. Chelmsford^ in Es- 
sex. (95.) See Chelmersforde, 

chemyn. Fr. A way. (313, 582.) 
chestaine. Fr. plur* Chesnuts. 
(224.) See Chasteines. 

chevance. Fr. Acquisition of pro- 
perty. *Male chevance,' Evil 
gain, gain by extortion. (367.) 



GLOSSARY dF Al^OLO -NORMAN, ETC. 



303 



See Chevancia, aiid Mala Che- 
vancia. 

cheventeyn. Fr. A chief, a prin- 
cipal, (370.) This word is also 
used in early English, in the 
Chronicle of Robert of Glou- 
cester ; also, p. 188 of Wright's 
Political Songs (Camd. Soc), 
temp. Edward I. See also Hal- 
liwelFs Diet. Arch. p. 245. 

chevisance (368, 370^ 399, 400), 
chevissance (400). Fr. Agree- 
ment, contract, bargain, business, 
transaction. In some of the 
ancient Statutes, this word is em- 
ployed as meaning an unlawful 
bargain or contract ; and so in 
p. 399 it is used in the sense of 
extortionate gain, being explained 
in the next page as * chevissance 
' illicite.' As meaning a treaty, 
agreement, or business transac- 
tion, this word is used in the 
early English of Piers Plow- 
man, Chaucer, and Lydgate ; 
see Halliwell, Diet* Arch. p. 245. 
In the prompt. Parv. it is ex- 
plained as meaning ^providentia,* 
probably, thrift or gain. See also 
Wedgwood's Diet. English Etym. 
I. p. 331. See Chevisare. 

chevisour. Fr, An agent, one 
who transacts business. (368.) 

chevy sse. Fi*. (400.) Past par- 
ticiple of the verb ^ chevir,' which 
here means * to pi^actice upon,' * to 
' jsiibject to extortion.' See Che- 
visanee. 

-ne. Fr. A chain. (335, 647.) 
Fr. Dear. (714.) 



Childwite (130, 131, 133, 155), 
Childwyte (138, 140, 149, 165, 
659). See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 710. 

Chiltre. The Chiltern District. 
(129.) See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 711, s. i). Ciltre. 

chimenee. Fr. A chimney. (333.) 
See Chymene^ and Chymyney. 

chivalere. Fr, To ride. (336.) 
chymene. Fr. A hearth, or chim- 
ney. (333.) In these instances 
it is almost impossible to say 
whether the word means a chim- 
ney in the modern sense, or 
merely a hearth with an open 
grate. The reader may consult, 
on this subject, the Introduction 
to Liber Aldus, p. xxxiii. ; H. 
Turner's Domestic Archit, of 
England, vol. i. ; Parker's Glos- 
sary of Gothic Architecture, i. pp. 
128-130; Aubrey's Note in Antiq. 
Repert, i. p* 69 ; Wright's Vol. 
Vocab. pp. 129, 237, Vocabu- 
laries of the 15th Century; 
Prompt Parv. i. p, 169, Way's 
Note ; and Halliwell, Diet. Arch. 
p. 246. See Chimenee, and 
Chymyney. 

chymyney, Fr. A chimney. (313.) 
See Chimenee, and Chymene^ 

ciere. Fr. Wax. (231.) 

cimitere (229), cimiterie (272). Fr. 
A cemetery, or burial-ground. 
See JVief Cimitere. 

cirmounte. Fr. Turpentine. (224,) 
See Cermountyn. 

citein (294, 509), citeyn (287, 296), 
citezein (271,418). Fr. A citizen. 






304 



LIBER ALBUS. 



claie. Fr. A hurdle. (265.) 
Henry Waleys, Mayor of London, 
A.D, 1283, was the first to punish 
fraudulent bakers by having them 
drawn through the streets on a 
hurdle ; a punishment which was 
discontinued in the reign of 
Henry VI. According to the Liber 
de Antiq. Legibus, p. 41, the 
ancient punishment of fraudulent 
bakers was the pillory, but in 
1258 the Justiciar Hugh Bigot 
caused them to be " exalted in the 
« tumbrel." 
clamif. Fr. An accuser. (110.) 
cleef. Fr. A key. (262.) 
cleire. Fr. Clear. (316.) 
clierz. Fr. plur. Clerks. (473.) 
clokke. Fr. A clock, or bell. (465, 
680.) In the earlier part of the 
Middle Ages, the hours were 
signified to the public by the 
striking of bells. As, however, 
clocks had been introduced into 
England before A.D. 1 360, and had 
probably come into comparatively 
general use before the end of the 
14th century, the word in the pre- 
sent instances probably means 
* clock,' in the modern acceptation 
of the word. See an Essay on this 
subject by Baines Barring ton in 
vol. V. of the Archceologia ; also 
Antiq, Repert iv. p. 318 ; and Du 
Cange, Glossar. (ed. Henschel), 
s. V. Horologium, 
cloos. Fr. A close, enclosure, or 

closed place. (453.) 
clou. Fr. A clove, in weight 
(227) ; evidently a much larger 
part of a wey than the modem 



clove, of eight pounds, 32 or 42 
of which go to the wey ; while 
in the present instance six cloves, 
to all appearance, make the wey. 

cloysure. Fr. An enclosure. (477). 

Clutere. Fr. (90.) A surname, pro- 
bably indicating the trade of its 
owner, that of a * clouter,* or 
' nailer.' 

clyens. Fr. plur. Clients. (473.) 

cobeler. Engl, A cobbler, or mender 
of shoes. (533, 732, 735.) See the 
Introduction to Liber Custum. 
p. 70 ; and Coleridge's Glossarial 
Index, p. 88, s, v* Treisuses, 

coda (237), code (246). Perhaps 
an Italian measure, as applied to 
sulphur. In Du Cange, Glossar, 
(ed. Henschel), mention is made 
{s. V. Coda) of a French measure 
used for wax, in the 14th cen- 
tury, known as the ' code.' 

codnet, Engl. (577.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber. Custum, p. 711. 

coeverer. Fr. To avow, to colour 
as one's own, to cover with ex- 
emption. (693,697.) 

coffrer. Fr. A cofferer, or maker 
of coffers, (737.) See Co/re, 

cofre. Fr. A coffer, or small box. 
(261.) 

coigne. Fr. Coinage. (574.) 

coiller. Fr. To gather, to collect. 
(273.) 

coke. Engl. (406.) Probably, a cook. 

coket. Engl. (45.) A cocket or 
seal. In the present instance, the 
seal employed by the Sheriffs of 
London in reference to the cus- 
tody and release of prisoners in 
Newgate. This term has been 



GLOSSARY OP ANGLO-NOHMAN, ETC. 



305 



long used as applied to certain 
documents issued under seal by 
officers of the Custonfis: see Ma- 
dox, Firma Burgi, p. 9, and Hist, 
Excheq. i. p. 783. As to cocket- 
bread, see the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p, 793, s» v. Cokettus, 
See Kokettus. 
Cokkeslane (459). Cock Lane, si- 
tuate without Newgate. 
Coloniens. Fr. The Colognese, or 
people of Cologne. (229.) As to 
their early commerce with this 
country, see Liber Custum, 
pp. 66-68, and Introd. pp. xli., 
xlii. ; also, Introduction to Liber 
Albus, p. xcvi. 
colourement. Fr. Colourably, (371.) 
companon. Fr. A partner. (400). 
compleint (462), compleynt (518), 

Fr. Complaint. 

comyn. Fr. Cummin. (224, 230.) 

condyt (583, 730). Fr. A conduit. 

In these instances, the " Great 

" Conduit," at the east end of 

Cheap and adjoining the Poultry, 

is meant. See the Glossary to 

Liber Custum. p. 771, s. v. Ty- 

bourne, 

conille. Fr. A coney, or rabbit. 

(465.) 
conins panes. Fr. plur. Coney 

furs, or rabbit-skins. (230.) 
conissance. Fr. Acquaintance. 
(458.) Assessment, estimate. 
(523.) 
conistre. Fr. To know. (368.) 
conoille. Fr. A distaff. (459.) 
conseler (306, 360), conseller (382). 

Fr. To conceal, 
contek. Fr. Contest, contention, 
veil. III. 



strife. (312, 642.) Under the 
various forms of ^cuntek,' ^contek,' 
*conteke,' 'conteck,' and *con- 

* take,' this word was imported 
into early English, the Chronicle 
of Robert of Gloucester, and the 
works of Chaucer, for example. 
See also Halliwell, DicU Arch. 
pp. 268, 287. In Langtoft's 
Chronicle^ p. 328, we find the 
word ' contekour,' a quarrelsome 
person ; and hence, in all proba- 
bility, our cant word, still in use> 

* cantankerous,' signifying, quar- 
relsome. Mr. Wright, in his Glos- 
sary to Chaucer, marks the word 
^ contek,' as Anglo-Saxon, but to 
all appearance it is French. 

contemptent. Fr. Contempt. (369.) 
contenderesse. Fr. A scold. (457.) 
contenue. Fr. The contents. (508.) 
continuez. Fr. Contained. (514.) 
contraduersie. Fr. A controversy, 

or dispute. (44.) 
controever. Fr. To invent, to fti- 

bricate. (601.) 
conusaunce. Fr. Reputation. (275.) 
conyn (466), conyng (225, 712, 717), 
conynge (592). Engl, A rabbit ; 
but in p. 225 a rabbit-skin is 
meant. This word was employed 
in various forms in early English ; 
conyng rested," "copuU con- 
yng," — Purveyance made for 
King Richard II. Antiq, Bepert, i. 
p. 73 ; " Ffat conyngus and newe.'" 
Romance of Sir Degrevant^ 
1. 1405. {^Thornton Romances, 
Camd. Soc.) See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 712. See 
Conins panes, 

rr 



a 



cc 



306 



LIEER ALBirS. 



convssance. Fr. Knowledge. (520.) 

cool. Fr. The neck. (265.) 

cor. Fr. (422.) Horn, or possibly, 
bark. 

corbail (231, 266), corbaille (2B1). 
Fr. A pannier, or basket for 
bread. 

Corby (228), Corby e (418). Corby, 
or Corbie, in Picardy, See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 713. 

cordewane (225), cordewayn (732), 
cordewayne (231), cordwayn 
(732), cordwayne (589). Cord- 
wain, Cordovan leather. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
713, s,v, Cordewan, 

Cordewanerestrete (122, 447, 463). 
Cordwainer Street (known as 
" Corveiser Strate," temp* Henry 
,ni.), the former name of the 
Ward now known as " Cord- 
" wainer's Ward," in the vicinity 
of St. Paul's ; and so called 
from the Cordwainers, or Shoe- 
makers, who resided there in 
former times. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 713, s.v, 
Cordewan. 

coreis. Fr. Kersey cloth. (225.) 
Formerly called * carsey ' or 
*cresy.' See Halliwell, Diet. 
Arch. p. 233. 

coriour. Fr. A carrier. (738.) 

corn. Fr. A horn. (335.) 

corndisshe. Engl. A dish, or vessel, 
for holding corn. (243.) 

cornere. Fr. A comer. (465.) 

Comhul (667, 718). CornhiU, in the 
City of London. 

correctage (315), correttage, (315). 
Fr. Correctorship, brokership. 



correcter (589), correctour (394, 
587). Fr. A corrector, or licensed 
broker. Brokers legally appoint- 
ed were so called ; for example, 
in the Ordinance of the Staple, 
27 Edward III. c. 22 {Stai.Realm, 
1810, I. p. 341.), Correctors are 
defined as " good people, suflicient 
" and having knowledge of such 
'* mystery (the staple), lawfully to 
" make and record the bargains 
" betwixt the buyers and the 
" sellers." See further as to this 
word (whence the modern Fr. 
courtier y *a broker') in Wedg- 
wood's Diet Engl, Etym. i. p. 
246. See Correctarius. 

correcterie (589), correctrie (589). 
Ft. Correctorship, the calling of 
a corrector. See Correcter. 

correctour. See Correcter, 

cote. Fr. A coat. (727.) 

cotel (642, 644, 664), cotelle (314, 
388). Fr. A knife, or dagger. 
See Cutelle, 

cotiller. Fr. A cutler. (88, 123.) 
The name of an occupation, em- 
ployed as a surname. 

cotnet. Engl. (346.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 711, 
s. V. Chotnet. See Shotnet, 

cotoun (230), cotounn (224). Fr. 
Cotton. 

coucher. Fr, To set forth, to state. 

(516.) 
coumbie. Fr. An accumulation. 

(288.) 

coumbie (730), counble (728). Fr. 
Heaped up. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 714, 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NOHMAN, ETC. 



307 



couTiceil(516), counceille (514, 516, 
517). Council. See Counsaille, 

coungee. Fr. Leave. (228, 229, 
271.) 

counsaille (516), counseille (319, 
464), counsel (462), counselle 
(318). Fr. Council. See Coun- 
ceiL 

counte. Fr. A count, or plea, in 
law. (^65). 

counter. Fr. To count, or declare, 
inlaw. (182.) 

counterouUez. Fr, plur. Counter- 
enrolled. (190.) See Encountre^ 
route. 

countour. Fr. (605.) A metal 
counter j probably, a jetton of 
brass, or mixed metal, formerly 
known as an * Abbey counter 'or 
* Nuremberg token.' 

Countour (199, 222, 313, 332, 522, 
523, ^m)y Countoure (460). Fr. 
A Compter, or Counter. Certain 
prisons were so called, which were 
immediately under the supervi- 
sion of the Sheriffs of London. 
See Computatorium. 

Countour. Fr. A Counter (46, 47, 
570, 571, 572). See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 714. 

couper. Fr. A cooper, (737.) 

coursable. Fr. Common, of public 
resort. (283.) 

court. Fr. (587.) The heart. Pro- 
bably for * cour.' 

Court Christiene. Fr. A Court 
Christian. (314.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 796, 
s, vv. Curia Christianitatis. 



couverfeu. Fr. A curfew, or cur- 
few-bell. (275.) See Coverfeu, 
and Curfeu. 

coverfeu (387), coverfew (699), co- 
vrefeu (276.) Fr. A curfew, or 
curfew-bell. For some informa- 
tion as to the curfew-bell and the 
implement known as a ^ curfew * 
or 'fire extinguisher,' see the 
Antiq, Repert i. pp. 3, 4 ; also. 
Brand's Popular Antiquities^ ii. 
pp. 220, 225 (ed. Ellis). See 
Couverfeu J Curfeu^ and Ignite^ 
gium. 

covertire. Fr. To convert. (427.) 

covine (460, 640, 645), covyn (371), 
covyne (259, 336, 466, 641, 645), 
covyngne (400.) Fr. Covin, un- 
derstanding, premeditation, agree- 
ment. For early uses of the 
English words * coveyn ' and 
' covine,' see Halliwell, Did. 
Arch. p. 275. 

Covyntre, Coventry, in Warwick- 
shire. (34.) 

Coytif (638). Cardiff (?). 

craft. Engl. A trade. (204.) From 
the A. S. cpaep t, of like meaning. 

creiable. Fr. Credible. (372.) 

crente. Fr. Fear. (281.) 

Crepulgate. Cripplegate. (463.) 
This (in addition to Aldersgate 
and Billingsgate) is the only 
City Gate mentioned as existing 
in the time of Ethelred. See the 
Instituta Lundonim^ in Thorpe's 
Ancient Laws and Institutes of 
England^ p. 127. See also the 
Glossary to Liher Custum, p. 
715, 5. V, Crepelgate. 

V 2 



308 



LIBER ALBCrS, 



Crete (711). The name of a wine, 
imported from the isle of Crete, 
or Candia, in the Middle Ages; 
similar probably to Malvezie, 
and perhaps identical with that 
known as * Candie.' "Vernage 
" and Crete " are mentioned as 
choice wines in the early Romance 
of Sir Degrevant {Thornton 
Romafices, Camd. Soc), 1. 1407 ; 
also in Col^n Blowholles Testa- 
ment (MS. Bawl. c. 86). " Ver- 
" nuge, Crete, and Raspays also." 
— " Clarett and Creette.'' — Morte 
ArthurCy MS. Lincoln, f. 6^. As 
to the present wine of Candia, 
see Redding On Wines (Third 
ed.), pp. 25, 291, 292. 

cribre. Fr, (705.) Past participle 
of the verb ^cribrer,' to boult, 
or pass through a sieve. 

crie. Pr, A cry, or proclamation. 
(49.) 

crioure. Fr. A crier, one who 
makes proclamation. (310). 

crouse. Fr. A cruse, or small 
drinking-cup, (708.) Early Eng- 
lish forms of this word were 
*croise,' *cruce,' * cruise,* and 
perhaps, *cruck' and *crouke.' 
See Cruskyn. 

cruskyn (708). An English form, 
equivalent to the old Fr. ' creuse- 
* quin, a little cruse, or drinking- 
cup. * Cruskyn, or cruske, coop 
*of erthe.' — Prompt. Parv. p. 
106 ; for instances of the early 
use of the word, see Mr. Way's 
Note to the passage. See Crouse, 

crute texture. Fr. Raw texture. 



(225). Probably the same as 

* cruture ' and * cruturenne,' q. v, 
cruture (327), cruturenne (227). 

Fr. Probably a kind of worsted, 
slackly twisted, similar to that 
formerly known in England as 

* crewel,' and perhaps so called 
from the roughness, or rawness, 
of its texture ; though, according 
to Palsgrave (Eclaircissementy 
1530), * crule ' was identical with 

* cadas,' or * saijette,* serge. Ac- 
cording to Roquefort (Gloss, 
Langue Rom. i. p. 326), *crus' 
was a name given in the Middle 
Ages tounwrouglit silk. * Cote ' is 
mentioned as a name for refuse 
wool in Stat. 27 Edw. III. s. 8 
{Stat. Realm, 1810, i. p. 351); but 
that may possibly be an error for 
'crote,' dirty. As to "pannus 
" crudus," which seems to have 
been a different thing, see Madox, 
Firma Burgiy p. 270. See 
Linages. 

cubibes. Fr. Cubebs. (230.) The 
use of this drug is now solely 
confined to medicine ; but in the 
Middle Ages it seems to have 
been used as an article of cookery; 
see the treatise of Walter de 
Biblesworth (Wright's Vol. Vo- 
cab. p. 174), where it is men- 
tioned as such, under the name of 

* quibibes.' The "Piper cubeba'' 
and the "Piper canicum " are still 
esteemed as a pleasant condiment 
in Java, their native country. 

cuntre. Fr. A country. (660.) 
curfeu (639, 640, 641, 645, 699, 
700, 706, 707, 708, 718), curfieu 



i 



GLOSSAEY OF ANGLO-NOEaiLA.N, ETC. 



309 



(639, 640), Fr, A curfew, or 
curfew-belL See Coverfeu. 
curtasie {266\ curtesie (705). Fr. 
Curtesy money : a gift presented 
at certain periods of time ; in 
these instances, towards the close 
of the week. 

oust. Fr. Cost. (226.) 
custous. Fr. Costly. (282.) 
custumer. Fr. Accustomed to. 

(281.) 
cutelle. Fr. A knife, or dagger. 

(475.) See CoteL 
cynk. Fr. Five. (598.) 
cytee. Fr. A city. (459.) 

dacre. Fr. (237, 246.) The *dacre,' 
' dicker,' or < dykere,' was ten of 
a commodity. In the present 
instances, a * dicker' of leather 
seems to have been one -sixth of a 
last. 

Danegelde. Danegeld. (128.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 797, s, V. Denegeldum, 

darrees (266), darres (371, 723). 
Fr. Articles, goods, commodi- 
ties ; an early form probably of 
the present Fr. 'denrees.' The 
fact mentioned in p. 266 is de- 
serving of notice that, so early as 
the close of the 13th century, thir- 
teen articles went to the baker's 
dozen. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 716, s, v, Darees. 

dars. Fr, plur. (689.) Probably, 
dace ; and perhaps not the sea- 
fish mentioned as * darce ' in 
Liber Custum. p. 279. See the 
Glossary to that volume, p. 716. 



dates (224), datez (230). Fr. plur. 
Dates ; the fruit so called. 

dauber (258, 289, 334, 338, 533, 
728, 730, 735), daubier (252), 
dawber (728). Engl. A dauber. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus' 
turn. p. 716, s. V. Daubours. 

de par. Fr. On part of. (46.) 

de suffisantie. Fr. Efficiently, 
with sufficiency. (463.) 

deal (274). See Seal. 

deceyt. Fr. Deceit. (373.) 

deceyvre. Fr. To deceive. (368.) 

decopier. Fr. To cut, or hew, down. 
(111.) 

dedeinz (387, 418, 458, 462), de- 
dincz (219, 220, 286), dedinz (271, 
275, 293), dedynces (211), de- 
dyncz (274). Fr. In, within. 

defence. Fr. Fence, a state of 
prohibition. (507.) 

deffaire. Fr. To defeat. (570.) 

defoulez. Fr. (458.) Past par- 
ticiple plural of the verb ' defou- 
*ler,' apparently meaning "to 
" confront." 

degouter. Fr. To throw, to dis- 
charge. (690.) 

degrees. Fr. plur. Flights of 
stairs. (685.) See Grees. 

deigner. Fr. To deign, to think 
proper. (46.) 

deincz (291), deins (732), deinz 
(282, 417, 522, 525, 526, 590, 
592, 689, 695, 723). Fr. In, 
within. 

deinsein (693, 715, 716, 717), dein- 
szein (587, 668, 716, 725), dein- 
zein (401, 465, 466, 589, 668, 
695, 715, 716, 726), deinzeyn 
(465), deinzsein {6QS, 667, 669, 



310 



LIBER ALBUS. 



697, 716), denszeiu (448), denzein 

(202, 292). Fr. A denizen, a 

freeman dwelling in a city. See 

the G-lossary to Liher Custum. p. 

717, 5, i7. Denzein. 

delicious. Fr. Delicate, (282.) 

deligenoe. Fr. Diligence. (367.) 

demeine. Fr. (353.) See Panis 

Dominicus, 
demoer (523), demore (288). Fr. 

Stay, soujurn. 
demourer (470), demourrere (460). 
Fi% To remain, to be. See De* 
murren 
demurrer (268, 283, 287). Fr. To 
remain, to dwell, to abide. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
717, s. V. Derhoerer. See Z>c- 
mourer, 
deraurre. Fr. Sojourn, stay. (273.) 
denee. Fr. Denial. (472.) 
deneire. Fr. A penny. (238.) 
Deneis. Fr. (229.) It seems dif- 
ficult to say with exactness what 
persons are here meant. The 
Danes may possibly be alluded 
to ; but not improbably the ' Di- 
^ nanters,' or people of Dinant, in 
the province of Namur, are in- 
tended ; as, according to Dr. Lap- 
penberg, at an early period Di- 
nant had an important trade with 
this country, and in the present 
instance would seem to hare 
traded in conjunction with the 
Colognese, who occupied their hall. 
Not improbably, also, together 
with the Colognese, at the close 
of the 13th century, they joined 
the Hanseatic League. The " Hall 
" of the Deneis," here alluded to, 



as occupied by the Colognese, is 
mentioned in the Charter of 
Richard I., {Placita de Quo 
WarrantOy p. 468), of Edward I., 
Liber Custum. pp. 66-68, and in 
Liber AlbuSy p. 241. See Ginge" 
bredy GyngebraZy and Guyhalda 
Colonensium, 

deneyer. Fr. To refuse, to deny. 

(707.) 
depardela. Fr. From beyond sea. 

(726.) 
depescier. Fr. To cut asunder, to 

break open. (HI.) 
deques. Fr. Up to. (247.) 
derener (109), dereyner (408), de- 

resnier (109). Fr. To prove. 

See the Glossary to Liber Custum, 

p. 716, s. V. Darreiner, and p. 

798, 5. v. Disrationare. See Are- 

soner, 
Dertforde. Dartford, in Kent. (373.) 
descarkere. Fr, To discharge, to 

unload. (418,419.) 
desceit (433), desceyt (371). Fr. 

Deception, deceit. See Disceit. 

desceyvre. To deceive. (370.) 
deschaucez. Fr. plur. Unshod, 
without shoes. (370.) 

desconvenable. Fr. Undesirable. 
(378.) 

desheritesoun. Fr. Disherison. (519.) 
deshonure. Fr. Dishonour. (457.) 
deslaier. Fr. To delay. (217,291.) 
desoreenavaunt, Fr. From hence- 
forth, hereafter. (272.) 

desouthe (225, 271, 289, 378, 379, 
418), dessouthe (280), dessoutz 
(336). Fr. Under, beneath, 
further. 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



811 



despit. Fr. Besistance, contumacy. 
(264.) 

desporte. Fr. Favour, leniency. 
(284.) 

desresonablement. Fr. Unreason- 
ably. (281.) 

destourbe. Fr. Disturbance. (462.) 

destourber. Fr. To disturb, to 
hinder, to withstand. (306, 308.) 

destrees. Fr. Decrease, diminu- 
tion. (306.) 

destrendre. Fr. To distrain. (423.) 

destres (188), destresce (290), des- 
tresse (188). Fr. A distress, or 
seizure. 

destruyre. Fr. To destroy. (399.) 

desuys. Fr. Before. (296.) 

detrosser. Fr. To untruss, to un- 
pack. (726.) 

devaunt la mayn. Fr. Before- 
hand. (698.) 

devisere. Fr. To distinguish. 
(370.) 

devye. Fr. (283.) The third 
person singular, pres. subj. of the 
verb *deiver,' to ought to be, 
to be about to be. 

dewete. Fr. A debt. (209, 213.) 
The word ' dwte ' was used in 
early English in a like significa- 
tion ; see Prompt, Parv, p. 135, 
" Dwte, Debitum," See Duete. 

Die. Fr. God. (371.) 

dilegealment (370, 373), diligeau- 
ment (372). Fr. Diligently. 

dilleoqes (459, 460), diUoques (459) 
Fr. From thence. 

Dimange. Fr. Sunday. (384.) 
See Dy mange, 

disceit. Fr. Deceit. (494.) See 
Desceit, 



discent. Fr. Descent. (496.) 

discucus. Fr. (421.) Settled, 
discussed ; apparently the past 
participle of a verb ' discucer.' 

disoitisme. Fr. The eighteenth. 
(109.) 

displeisance. Fr. Displeasing, dis- 
pleasure. (457.) 

disport. Fr. Indulgence. (474.) 

distourbaunt. Fr, Fractious. 
(494.) 

distreyndre. Fr. To distrain, or 
seize as a distress. (180.) 

Donestaple (97), Donstaple (97). 
Dunstable, in Bedfordshire. 

dore. Fr. 234. A dory. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
799, 5. t7. Doracus, 

dosse. Fr. A dozen. (466.) 

dosser. Fr. A dorser, or basket 
borne on the back. (235.) See 
Dossarium, 

douber. Fr. (378.) To dub ; Le. 
to place good wares in the upper 
part of a basket, and inferior be- 
neath ; a term still in use in Bil- 
lingsgate Market. See Dubbeour, 

Douegate (72, 87, 241, 463). Dow- 
gate. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 719. 

doun (308), dounn (284). Fr. A 
gift. 

dounkes. Fr. Then. (109.) 

dragges, Fr. plur. Drugs. (588.) 
This word was employed in the 
same sense in early English. 

* his apotecaries. 



' To send him dragges- 



Chaucer, Cant. Tales^ 1. 428. 
drap de ray. Fr. Cloth of ray ; 
striped, or rayed, cloth. (676, 



312 



LIBER ALBUS. 



724, 725.) See the Glossaiy to 
Liber Custum, p. 757, s, v. Bete, 
See Haif, 

dreiturel. Fi'. Rightful. (245.) 

droiturilment. Fr. Rightfully. 
(408.) 

drotures (309), droturez. (310). 
Fr. plur. Rights, See Droy- 
ture, 

droyture. Fr. Right. (306.) See 
DrotMres. 

dubbeour (83), dubbour (103). Fr. 
A dubber, or furbisher up, of old 
clothes ; employed as a surname 
in page 83. See also, the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum, p. 757, s, v, 
Redubber. See Douber^ and Dub- 
ber. 

dubber. Fr. To dub, or furbish 
up ; as in the case of old clothes. 
(718.) See Dubbeour. 

duete (211), duite (204). Fr. 
A debt. Hence our word *duty.* 
See Dewete. 

duresce. Fr. Severity, hardship. 
(281.) 

duwe. Fr. Due. (318.) 

Dymange (728), Dymenge (232, 
273, 517). Fr. Sunday, See 
Dimange. 

dys. Fn Ten. (44, 524, 625, 
608.) 

ease. Fr. Comfort, ease. (523.) 
eawe (263, 268, 273), ewe (271, 

460). Fr. Water, 
edefiement. Fr. An edifice, a 

building. (477, 580.) 
eifette. Fr. Effect. (373.) 
egret. Fr. and Engl. (467.) A 

kind of heron. See Ordinances 



and Regulations of the Royal 
Household (1790), p. 220 : and 
Harrison's Description of Lng^ 
landy p. 223. 

eintz. Fr. Within. (279.) 
einz. Fr. But rather, on the con- 
trary. (368.) 

eioir. Fr. To enjoy. (268.) See 
Enjoiere, and Joyer* 

eiraunz (296), eyrauntz (296). 
Fr. plur. Errant, itinerant. See 
the Glossary to Liber Cuslum, 
p. 720, s. V, Eirauntz, See Heire, 

Eldefistrate (378). Old Fish Street, 
near St. Paul's Cathedral; where, 
in the Middle Ages, one of the 
principal fish-markets of Londcn 
was held. See OldefisshestretCy 
and Westflstrete, 

emboscher. Fr. To lie in ambush, 
to lie concealed. (371.) 

embraceour. Fr. (522.) An em- 
bracer ; one guilty of suborning 
jurymen, an offence formerly 
known as * embracery.* See 
Tomlins' Law Diet, s, vv. Em- 
braceor and Embracery. 

cmperler. Fr. To imparl ; to gain 
time, on part of the defendant, for 
further consideration what course 
he shall adopt. (214.) 

empeschement, Fr. Hindi'ance. 

(421, 422.) 
empescher, Fr. To impeach. (400.) 

See Enpescher, 

empeyrer* Fr. To hurt, to injure, 

to impair. (311.) 
emport. Fr. A drawback. (373.) 
emprentice (383), enprentice (383). 

Fr. An apprentice. 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NOKMAN, ETC. 



313 



. 



en awere. Fr, In doubt, in sus- 
pense. (212, 291.) Awere, or 
"dowte," Prompt, Parv, p. 18. 
^' Dyswere, or dowte," p. 123. 
** But as I stood thus in awlier," 
and, " For dread of lier I was in 
" were." — ^De Guilevile's Pilgr. 
of Man. MS. Tiber. A. vii. "My 
'^ wit is in a were wheither ye 
" shall fynde that solingere."— 
Chester Plays^ i. 180. Though 
a French form, the expression is 
probably based on the A. S. 
fajpian, * to be in doubt off and 
to it we owe our words ' unaware ' 
and ^unawares.' 

en muscettes, muscettez, mussetes. 

See Muscettes, 
encarier. Fr. To carry away, to 

cart off. (579.) 

enchacer. Fr. To discharge, to 
diive out, to send away. (286, 
332.) 

encountre-roule. Fr. A counter- 
roll or check-roll. (291.) Hence 
our word * control.' See Coun- 
ter oullez. 

encoure (401), encourgere (315). 
Fr. To incur. 

encrecer. Fr. To increase. (318.) 
encupez. Fr. One inculpated or 
accused. (Ill, 112.) 

endocement (210), endossement 
(211). Fr. An endorsement. 

Enefelde (411), Enfelde (410). 
Enfield, in Middlesex. 

enforger. Fr. To enforce, to 

compel. (522.) 
enformaceon, Fr. Information. 

(372.) 



enfreindre (212), enfreyndre (212, 

259). Fr. To infringe, to break. 

engeteraent. Fr. Ejectment. (293.) 

engetter, Fr. To expel, to eject. 

(293.) 

engyn (395), engyne (507). Fr, An 
engine, a contrivance. See Male 
engine. 

enhancer (511), enhauncer (506, 
510,511,518). Fr. To heighten. 
As to the meaning and early use 
of this and other kindred words, 
see Prompt, Parv, pp. 230, 231, 
and Mr. Way's Note. 

eaheriteez (182), enheritez (182, 
189). Fr. Holding lands. Ap- 
parently the past participle of the 
verb * enherifcer.' 

enjoiere. Fr. To enjoy. (420, 
427.) See Eioiry and Joyer. 

enloigner. Fr. To eloign, to re- 
move. (282, 382.) Sec Es- 
loigner. 

enlumyner. Fr. To light. (714.) 
enpcscher. Fr. To impeach. (205, 
459.) See Empescher. 

enprisonement (274), enprysone- 
nient (274). Fr. Imprisonment. 

enquere. Fr. To enquire. {510.) 
enquest doffice. Fr. Inquest of 
office. (200.) An enquiry made 
by the King's officer, his sheriff, 
coroner, or escheator, by virtue of 
his office or by writ sent to him 
for the purpose ; or else by com- 
missioners specially appointed; 
concerning any matter that en- 
titles the King to the possession 
of lands or tenements, goods or 
chattels. 



Efe? 



I5(' MK ■^~ '^ ..M^■^^ 



314 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Ft. To rase, to destroy, 
(334.) 
em-ouller. Fr. To enrol. (272.) 
enaens. Fr. Frankincense. (224.) 

See FraunkemeTis. 
cntagler. Fr. To involve, em- 
barrass, entaogle. (367.) 
en tencioun (373), entencoun (50). 

Fr. Intention, 
entendre. Fr. To attend. (308.) 
eopt. Fr. Eight. (463.) Pro- 
bably, a Walloon form of the 

Erehithe (515). Erith, in Kent. 

ernes. Fr. Earnest. (262.) 

OS. Fr. And. (45.) 

oacantilon (731), escauntiloun 
(278), escanntilounn (288). Fr. 
Pattern, standard, dimensions. 
" Scantlon of a clothe," meaning 
' pattern.' — Palsgrave's Eclair- 
cissement (1530). The word 
'scantiloun' was also used in 
English to signify a carpenter's 
measure. — Rom. of the Rose 
1. 7114, aaid Cursor Mundi, MS. 
Xrin. Coll. Cantab, fol. 14. See 
HalliweU's Diet. Arch. p. 709. 
See Scantilo. 

Escswenge. Fr. Scavage. (230. 
See Seawage. 

eaceikermerye. Fr, Fencing. (639.) 
See Eskermerye. 

eachele. Fr. A ladder. (334.) 

enchetour. Fr. An esclieator. (49.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tam. p. 722. 
. eschujre. Fr. To avoid. (453.) 

escolle. Fr. A school. (274.) 

escout (261). A scont, or sehuyt ; 
a vessel from the Low Countries. 



Dutch ' eel-scouts ' are still to be 
seen in the Thimiea. According 
to Halliwell, Diet. Arch. p. 737, 
a small boat, nearly flat-bottomed, 
used for passing over the drains, 
is still known in Lincolnshire as 
a ' shout.' Bargemen also seem 
to have been known as ' shoute- 
' men,' according to Areheeol. 
XXIV, 303, 304; and seven ' sliout- 
' ere,' with their ' shoute,' we 
mentioned in a document temp. 
Edw. n., quoted in Antiq. Re- 
pert. II, p. 407. See Scut. 
escoute et ciy. Fr. Hue and cry. 
(263.) See the Glossary to Li- 
ber Custum. p. 809, s. v. Hutt- 



'r. To sconr, (719.) 

escuter. Fr, To hear, to listen to. 
(201, 522,) 

eskermerye (640, 643, 644), es- 
kirime (274). Fr. Fencing. 
Hence the word ' scrimer,' used 
in old English as meaning a 
fencer. Seethe Glossary to itfier 
Custum. p. 723, *. V. Eskermir. 
See Escerkermeri/e. 

Eskevyn. Fr. (423, 424.) An 
Echevin ; one of the ' Scabini,' 
exercising judicial authority in 
the cities of France and Flanders, 
similar to that of the Mayor and 
Sheriffs in England. See Sca- 
Knus. 

eelir (221), eslire(44), eslyre(463). 
Fr, To elect, 

esloigner. Fr. To eloign, to re- 
move. (216, 220.) ^eEnlotgner. 

espavnler (361,367), esparnir (316). 
Fr, To spare. 



"F" 



GLOSSARY OF AHQLO-NOBMAN, ETC. 



315 



egpe (644), espeie (49). Fr. A 
sword. 

espeeefier. Fr. To specify. (466.) 

eapecerio coufitee. Fr. Confec- 
tures of Bpicery, (230.) 

espicer (99), espicier (107). Fr. 
A spicer, or grocer ; the name of 
a calling employed as a surname. 
See Spicer. 

espicery. Fr. (588.) Spicery ; in 
contradistinction to grocery or 
heavier goods. By the Assisa de 
Pond, et Mensur. (Stat. Realm, 
1810, I. pp. 204, 205), probably 
of the time of Edward I., the 
pound of spices or confections is 
to be 20 shillings in weight in 
other words 12 ounces ; but of 
all other things 25 ehillings, or 
15 ounces. Here, at a la1«r 
period, we see the pound of 15 
ounces employed alike for spicery 
and grocery, or coarser goods. 
See Groserie, and Spicerie. 

esporner Fr. (242.) A spurrier ; 
the name of a trade employed aa 



I (345), esproz 
(384). Fr. plur. Sprats. See 
the Grloasary to Liber Custum. 
p. 827, s. V. Sprottus. Sec 



esc(uireus (225), esquireux (231). 
Fi-. plur. Squirrels ; or rather, 
in the present instances, ellipti- 
cally, the skins of squirrels. 

esBoigne (181, 389, 408), easone 
(181, 182, 571, 665), essoyn(471), 
essoyne (663, 665). Fr. An es- 
soin. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 723, s. v. Essoyne. 



esBoneoor. Fr. An essoiner. (470, 
471.) See the Glossary to Liher 
Custum. p. 697, s. v. Assoignour, 
and p. 722, s. v. Ensoignour. 

essonier. Fr. To essoin. See the 
Glossary to Liher Custum. p. 723, 
s. p. Essoyne. ' 
Est Watergate (579). The East 
Watei^ate, near the Tower of 
London. See Liber Custum. 
p. 446. 

establissant (424), esfablisaantz 
(425), establissanz (426). Fr. 
Persons nominating ; the present 
participle plural of the verb ' es- 
' tablier,' 

estaches (505, 506, 509), estakes 
(510). Ft, Stakes driven into 
the bed of a river for the purpose 
of intercepting the pasage of the 
fish. Hence this name was given 
to such localitiea ; of which 
Cowey Stakes, on the Thames, 
near Chertsey, is perhaps tai ex- 
ample ; unless, indeed, Camden 
is correct in his surmise that the 
river here was staked by Cassi- 
vellaunuB, to intercept the pas- 
sage of Ccesar and his troops ; an 
opinion, however, which has been 
conti-overted by Dmnes Barring- 
ton, Salmon, and Lysons, who 
regard these stakes as merely the 
remains of an ancient wear for 
catching fish. See Brayley and 
Britton's History of Surrey, ii. 
pp. 342-345 

estaiUe (271), estalle (336). Fr. 
A stall. 

estaUage. Fr. Stallage. (232.) See 
Stallage. 



516 



U13EK ALBUS. 



estaakc. Fr, A stank, or dam (505^ 
506, 507, 509) ; the Latin ' stag- 
' num.* For early uses of this 
word in the English language, 
see Halliwell, DicL Arch. p. 798, 
s* v» Stank. 

estantarde. Fr. Standard. (574.) 

estaple. Fr. A staple, or public 

mart appointed by law. (676.) 

estaun. Fr. Probably, a stand, or 
place for standing. (288.) 

estee. Fn Summer. (334.) 
estein (225 , 231 ), esteyn (574). Fr. 

Tin. 
ester adroit. Fr. (110.) To stand 

one's trial. See the Glossary to 

Liber Cusfum. p. 724. 

esterlinge (419), esterlyng (574). 
Fr, plur. Sterlings, easterlings. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tiim, p. 828, s. V. Sterlingus. 

Estouves. Fr. (277.) The Stevr-s, 
or Stoves, in South wark; houses 
of ill fame there situate ; for an 
account of which, see Stow's Sur- 
vey (p. 151, ed. Thorns). 

estraundage. Fr. Strandage, (237.) 
See Strandage. 

estraungees (260), estraungeez (260). 
Fr. plur. Strangers. 

estrone. Fr. (266.) Hansel-money, 
ernest, or vantage; a present given 
on some day in especial, new 
year's day, particularly; the * stre- 
* na ' of the ancient Romans, and 
the origin of our Christmas-boxes 
and new year's gifts. See Hamp- 
son's Med. jEvz Kalendar. i. 
pp. 131, 132 5 also, Prompt. Parv. 
I. pp. 14, 142, and p. 226, s. v. 



HaiuaUy with Mr. Way's valu- 
able Note, 
estreiture. Fr. A straitening, or 
narrowing. (518.) See Estroi- 
tour. 

estrete. Fr. Estreat. (506, 514.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn. p. 801, s. V. Extracta. See 
Extrete. 

estrettement. Fr. Strictly. (525.) 
estreim (579), estreyin (335). Fr. 

Straw. See Streyin^ and Streym, 
estroitour. Fr. A narrowing. 

(510.) See Estreiture. 

Euerwyke. York. (517.) 

evechepinge (719), evechepyng 
(718), evechepynge (533, 735), 
evechepyngge (718). Engl. An 
evening market. See Liber Cus- 
tum. pp. 426, 427. 

examinement. Fr. Examination. 
(522.) 

Exigende, Exigent, Brief de. Fr. 
Writ of Exigent. (190.) A writ 
that lay where the defendant in a 
personal action could not be found, 
nor any property of his within 
the County be attached or dis- 
ti'ained ; directed to the Sheriff, to 
summon him on %s^ County Court 
days, charging him to appear, 
upon pain of outlawry. It was 
called * exigent,' as ' exacting ' the 
party, i.e. requiring his appear- 
ance, or forthcoming, to answer 
the law. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 801, s. v. 
Exigenda. 

extendre. Fr. To extend, to value. 
(215.) 



GLOSSARY OF AKGLO-NORMAN, ETC, 



817 



extent (217), extente (520). Fr. 

An extent, or valuation of real 

property, 
extrcte (514), extretez, plur. (312, 

318), Fr. Estreat. See the 

Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 

801, 5. v. Extracta. See Estrete. 
eyde. Fr. Aid, assistance. (206 

220, 229, 281, 284.) 
eyder. Fr. To aid. (641.) 

faget, Engl. plur. Faggots. (731.) 

fair. Fr. To make, to deal with. 
(422.) See Fayre. 

faisure. Fr. A making, or forma- 
tion. (476.) 

"Fait assavoir" (546). "Be it 
"known," that the "King ordained 
" at Westminster, etc.; " the title 
of an Ordinance of 27 Edward I., 
as to Writs of enquiry on amortiz- 
ing lands, etc. See Stat Realm 
(1810), Vol. I. 

fardel. Engl. A package. (549.) 

" Who would fardels bear ? " 

Hamlet, A, iii. sc. i. 
faucement. Fr. Falsely. (369.) 
faucementz. Fr. Falsely. (378.) 

An adverb with a plural termina- 
tion, as applying to more persons 

than one. 
fauceyn. Fr. Falsity. (370.) See 

Faucine^ Fausine^ and FaiLxcyine. 
faucine (367, 369), faucyne (369, 

370). Fr. Falsity, knavery. 

See Fauceyn^ Fausine^ and Faux^ 

cyine, 
faucite. Fr. Falsehood. (371.) 
fausine. Fr. Knavery. (369). See 

Fauceyn^ Faticincy and Faux- 

cyine. 



fauxcyine. Fr, Knavery, trickery. 
(494.) See Fauceyn, Faucine, 
and Fausine, 
fiiuxement. Fr. Falsely. (522.) 
fayre. Fr. To make. (180.) See Fair. 
feamez. Fr. plui\ Women. (180.) 
fee. Fr. Tenancy, homage. (289.) 
fee (230, 231), fees (231). Fr. A 

fixed charge, or rate, 
fein (579), feyn (721, 722). Fr. 

Ha}'-, 
feir (675), feire (261). Fr. A fair, 
ferein. Fr. A foreigner, one not 
a freeman. (400.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 727, 
s. V. Forein. 

ferme. Fr. Ferm, farm, or yearly 
rent. (229, 271, 523, 567.) See 
the Glossary to Uber Custum. 
p. 802, s. V. Firma. 

former. Fr. A fermor, or farmer, 
one who holds at a yearly rent. 
(220, 317.) One holding a con- 
tract for the receiving of customs 
or taxes, on payment of a ferm or 
yearly rent. (473.) 

ferrure (733), ferure (734). Fr. 
Shoeing, the putting on of a 
horse's shoe. 

ferthing (574), ferthinge {2m). 
Engl. A fai'thing. From the 
A. S. feojiiSinj, a fourth part. 
" Ferthyn or ferthynge, Quad- 
"rans." — Prompt Parv. p. 158. 
In p. 574 a farthing of gold, one 
fourth of a noble, is meant. 

fesour (367), fesur (728). Fr. An 
actor, an agent. 

fesselette. Fr. A fesselet, or small 
bunch. (233.) 



S18 



LIBER ALBUS. 



fest. Fr. A feast (229.) In the 
present instance, that of St. 
Michael, or Michaelmas, no doubt, 
is meant. 

fesure. Fr. A making. (727.) 

few (313, 334, 337), fewe (334). 
Fr. Fire. 

few. Fr. (292.) The third person 
singular perfect indicative of the 
verb * estre,' To be. 

fewaile. Fr. Fuel. (337.) 

feyn. See Fein. 

fier. Fr. Iron. (261.) 

fige. Fr. A fig. (224,230.) 

filace. Fr. 188. A file made of thread 
or silk cord, with a tag; the word 
being derived from the Latin 
* filum,' of that meaning. Hence 
the word * filazer ' or * filacer,' the 
name formerly of an officer of the 
Court of Common Pleas, who filed 
the writs whereon he made pro- 
cess. See further as to this word. 
Notes and Queries^ 2nd Ser., xi. 
pp. 349 and 439. 

filee de leyne. Fr. Woollen yarn. 
(246.) 

fimes, Fr. plur. Dung. (581, 585, 
586.) See Fymes. 

fins. Fr. plur. Dung. (579.) Pro- 
bably an error for ' fiens.' 

fispounde (246). Engl. See 
Fyssheponde, 

fleccher. Fr. A fletcher,ormaker 
of arrows. (533, 735.) 

flechable (271), flecthable (336), 
Fr. Flexible. 

flesshshameles. Engl. Flesh-sham- 
bles. (465). See Nicholas. 

Flete. The river Flete, or Fleet, in 
the City of London. (232, 233, 



579.) As to the early use of this 
word, signifying a channel for 
water, see Prompt Parv. p. 166 > 
also, the Glossary to Liher Cus- 
turn. p. 726. In p. 232, under 
this name Flete Street is meant. 
Fletebrigge (86). Fleet Bridge, 
connecting Fleet Street with the 
foot of Ludgate Hill. *Flete- 

* briggestret,' Fleet Bridge Street, 
was the early name of Fleet 
Street ; see the Miracula St/mo- 
nis de Montforf (Camd. Soc), 
p. 108, temp. Henry III., for ex- 
ample. 

Fletestret. Fleet Street. (25.) 
flour (265), floure (265). Fr. 
Flour ; so called as being the 

* flower ' of meal. 

foith (359, 400), foithe (183, 185, 
267,359), foitz (111, 112, 265, 
336, 370, 371, 394, 458, 459, 
462, 494, 525, 526^ 699, 701, 
704, 705, 723), foiz (508, 723). 
Fr. Time, times. See Foyth. 
fole. Ft, Lewd, unprincipled. (259.) 
FoDcemannemote (104), Folkesmot 
(36, 113, 118, 119, 129), Folkes- 
mote (8). The Folkmote. See 
the Glossary to L^er Custum. p. 
726, 5. V. Folkesmot. 
for. Fr. Except. (381.) 
forbarrer. Fr, To bar. (475, 

664.) 
forcermaker, Engl, (737,) A 
maker of forcers, i. e. small cas- 
kets, cabinets, or chests. As to 
the origin of the word * forcer,' 
see Way's Note to Prompt. Parv. 
I. p. 170; also, Halliwell's Diet. 
Arch. p. 370, s, V. Forcer. 



K 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



319 



forces. Fr. A pair of forceps, or 
shears, used for clipping the nap 
of cloth. (724.) See Way's Note 
to Prompt, Parv, i. p. 1 70. 

forchepe (384), forechepe (384). 
Engl. Porecheap ; i.e, extortion, 
or illegal exaction, by forestall- 
ing, from the A. S. fop, ' before,' 
and ceapan, 'to buy;' known 
in MediaBval Latin as ^' foris ca- 
" pium,'* or " mala tolta," mal-tolt. 
The earliest mention probably of 
* forecheap ' is in the Laws of 
Ethelred, (Instit Lundonice^ 
Thorpe's Ancient Laws and In- 
stit, of England, p. 128), where 
foreign merchants are forbidden 
" aliquod forceapum facere burh - 
"mannis," — To commit any ex- 
tortion upon the burgesses. 
See Forscheper. 

forfature(421,433), forffaiture (460, 
461). Fr. Forfeiture. See i^br*. 
faiture, 
Jorfett. Fr. Forfeited. {26Q.) 

forger. Fr, To force. (572.) 

forscheper. Fr. To practice fore- 
cheap, or extortion. (688.) See 
Forchepe. 

forsfaiture. Fr. Forfeiture. (465, 
466.) See Forfature, 

forshot, Engl. Foreclosed. (469.) 
See Forsshardy and Shartfort. 

forgurer. BV. To forswear, to 
abandon on oath. (269.) 

forsprys. Fr. Save, except. (235, 
29 1 . ) See Horsprys, 

forsshard. Eng]. Foreclosed. (63.) 
See Forshoty and Shartfort 

forstal (269), forstalle (380). Engl. 
Forestalling, forestahnent. See 



• the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 727, s, V. FordstaL 

forure. Fr. {22S, 280.) Fur, a 
set of furs. In the former in- 
stance, some particular fur, proba- 
bly, then in common use is meant; 
but now impossible to be identified. 
See Furrure. 

foundere. Fr. To wet, to moisten 
(262) ;dn the present instance, for 
the purpose of making malt. 

foundour, Fr. A founder. (736.) 

fourbour. Fr. A furbisher. (734.) 

fourn (265, 272), fourne (46, 259). 
Fr. An oven, a ftirnace. Hence, 
in early English a baker was 
called a *furnour.' See Ordi- 
nances and Regulations for the 
Royal Household (1790), pp. 
70, 232. According to Halliwell 
{Diet, Arch, p. 386), this latter 
word is still in use in Kent. 

foyth (262), foythe (188, 207, 262, 
2^^y 26Q, 267, 269, 276, 277, 278, 
286), foytz (459). Fr. Time, 
times. " Ascune foythe " (293), 
Sometimes. See Foith. 

franc plegge. Fr. (259, 722.) 
Frankpledge. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p, 727, s, v. 
Fraunhep legge. 

Fraunceis (353), Fraunceys (340). 
Fr. French. 

freeUe. Fr. A frail, or wicker 
basket, or receptacle (229) ; in 
this instance used for the packing 
of woad, and evidently, from the 
heavy duty levied on it, of very 
large dimensions. In the Romance 
of Coer de Lion, 1. 1549, mention 
is made of « Fyggys, raysyns in 



320 



LIBEPv ALBTJS, 



« frayel." " Frayle of frute '* is 
mentioned in Prompt, Parv. p. 
175, where see Way's Note as to 
the origin of the word. "A frail e 
" of green rushes," Cotgrave's 
DicL s. V, Jonchee. ' Fraels ' of 
figs, almonds, and raisins, are men- 
tioned in Mag. Mot Henr. III. 
5. a. ; and the word * frayel * oc- 
curs in Piers Ploughman^ p. 2B2\ 
see HalliwelFs DicL Arch, p. 377. 
A fuller account of the importa- 
tion of woad into London by the 
frail, is to he found in the Liber 
de Antiq. Legibus (Camd. Soc), 
p. 30. See Fraellatus. 

Frere Menours (716), Freres Me- 
nours (433, 465), Frers Minours 
(261). Fr. plur. The Friars 
Minors; meaning the Convent of 
the Friars Minors, or Franciscans, 
situate near Newgate; on the 
Pavement before which a corn- 
market was held. 

Frere Prechours. Fr. plur. (647.) 
The Friars Preachers ; mean- 
ing the Convent of the Friars 
Preachers, Dominicans, or 
Black Friars ; in the locality still 
known by the latter name. See 
Fratres Pradicatores. 

fres (234, 380, 689, 690), frez (687, 
690). Fr. Fresh. 

Fressheforce (195, 197, 198, 519). 
Fresshforce (173). An English 
term formerly applied, not only 
(as in the above instances) to as- 
size of Novel Disseisin, but to as- 
size of Mort d'Ancestor, Intru- 
sion, etc* Also, where a person 
was disseised of tenements within 



a cit y or borough, he might, by the 
usage and custom thereof, bring 
his assize, or bill of Freshforce, 
within 40 days after the * force ' 
committed, and recover the lands. 
See Fitzherbert's New Natwra 
Brevium^ See Novel Disseisine^ 
and Frisca-forcia, 

freyde. Fr. Cold. (266.) 

frie. Fr. Fry, (508.) 

friser. Engl. A frizer ; or maker 
of frieze cloth, of coarse texture, 
with a thick nap on one side. 
(723, 735.) 

froyt. Fr. Fruit. (667.) See 
Fruyt. 

frustreter. Fr. To frustrate, to 
withhold, to withdraw. (306.) 

fruyt. Fr. Fruit. (236.) See 
Froyt. 

furmage. Fr. Cheese. (237,247, 
667.) 

furneux. Fr. A furnace. (259, 336.) 

furre. Fr. (264.) A past parti- 
ciple, signifying either "coated 
"with," or "filled with— bran;" 
probably the latter. See Fur- 
ratus» 

furrure. Fr, Fur trimmings, a set 
of furs. (279, 718, 719.) See 
Forure* 

fustain (225), fustiane (231). Fi\ 
Fustian. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 728, s. v. Fus- 
tayn. 

futif. Fr. Fugitive, likely to ab- 
scond. (220.) 

fymes (584), fyms (335). Fr. plur. 
Filth, dung. See Fimes. 

fyn. Fr. The end. (295,372,425, 
520, 566.) 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-KORMAN, ETC. 



321 



fyn (228, 360, 387, 388, 389, 391, 
401, 417, 509, 587), fyne (361, 
523, 667, 701). Fr. A fine. 

Fynkislane. Finke's Lane, now 
Finch Lane, Cornhill. (236.) 

fynnes. Fr. plur. Fins. (236.) 

fyssheponde. Engl. (237.) The 
meaning of this word is doubtful ; 
but it not improbably is identical 
with the *fisc-welle' of the Anglo- 
Saxons (A. S, Vbcab. in Wright's 
VoL Vocah, p. ^) and the * visch- 
* beun ' of the modern Dutch ; the 
well in fishing-vessels, in which 
the fish are kept ; somewhat like 
the 'bordigala,' or * burdiculum,' 
mentioned in Du Cange, Glossar. 
(ed. Henschel). See further on 
this subject. Notes and Queries ^ 
2nd Series, vm. pp. 115, 259. See 
Fispounde, and Harpoys. 

Fysshwharfe (690). Fish Wharf; 
near the end of Bread Street Hill, 
in the vicinity of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. See Liber Custum. pp. 385- 
406,453. 

Gaivelett. Engl. (186.) See Gave- 
lett 

galoche. Fr. (736.) The galoche, 
or galache, was a kind of patten, 
or shoe with wooden soles, fastened 
to the foot by cross latchets, and 
worn by men, in the 14th cen- 
tury. AUusion is made to it by 
Chaucer, Squire's Tale, 1. 10,869. 
See also the Prompt Parv,, p. 
184, and Mr. Way's Note ; who 
remarks that in the Inventory of 
the efiects of Henry V., taken be- 
fore A.D. 1423, mention is made 
VOL. III. 



of " one pair of galaches, made of 
" straw; " but is at a loss to under- 
stand how straw could be a pro- 
per material for the purpose. The 
fact, however, is, that straw shoes 
are worn in Germany to this day. 
See the Times newspaper of 12th 
December 1859, where mention is 
made of this usage. 

galyhalpens. Engl. plur. (575.) 
Galley-halfpence ; a small coin of 
silver. It is said (Stow's Survey) 
that they were brought by Ge- 
noese merchants, whose galleys 
landed wines and other merchan- 
dize at Galley Quay in Thames 
Sti'eet. It seems not improbable, 
however, that they were so called 
from the figure of a galley im- 
pressed upon them. The circu- 
lation of this coin was forbidden 
in the 13th of Henry IV. and 
by Stat. 3 Henry V. c. i. 

garceoun. Fr. A labourer, lad or 
man. (533.) See Garson. 

Garde. Fr. A Ward, of the City. 
(277, 647.) 

Gardemote. A Wardmote, or meet- 
ing of the inhabitants of a Ward. 
(265, 276, 457.) A French adap- 
tation of an A. S. word. 

garden (275), gardeyn (280, 291). 
Fr. A warden, a keeper. 

gardynere. Engl. A gardener. (554.) 
garner (238), garnere (246). Fr. 
The meaning of this word is 
doubtful ; it may possibly signify 
a set of ship's stores ; or perhaps 
a separate hold, granary, or gar- 
ner> for storing corn. 

X 



322 



LIBER ALBUS. 



gamier, Fr. To warn, to give 
notice to* (187, 208.) 

garnjsement. Fr. Warning, notice. 
(297.) 

Garre, la (100). This, to all appear- 
ance, is equivalent to the word 
*Barre,' and has the same mean- 
ing. See Barrcy la. 

garson (318,729, 730), garsoun (47). 
Fr. A journeyman, serving-man, 
or groom. " Garcio, a knafe." — 
Pict. Vocab. l^th Cent (Wright's 
Vol. Vocab. p. 275). Both the 
words * knave ' and * groom ' have 
been said to give their origin to 
this word, but query as to this. 
The idea is still extant in our 
word * post-boy,' a name given to 
a serving-man, who not unfre- 
quently has passed middle age. 
See Garceoun. 

garthman. Engl. (507.) A * garth ' 
or * fishgarth ' was a place formed 
at the side of a river, that the 
fish might be the more easily 
taken; the ^garthman ' being the 
person who farmed it. The word 
" 'garth' is supposed to be derived 
" from the Scottish garty signify- 
" ing ' inforced,' or * compelled,' 
** the fish being forced by the 
wear to pass in at a loop, where 
they are taken." — Tomlins'Xaw 
Diet s. V. Garthman. 

gaunter. Fr. (105.) A glover; 
the name of an occupation em- 
ployed as a surname. 

Gavelett (184), Gavelette (455). 

The name (from the A. S. Jajol, 

rent ' or < tribute ') of a Writ an- 



te 



« 



ciently used in the Court of 
Hustings in the City of London; 
where the parties, tenant and de- 
mandant, appeared by Scire facias y 
to show cause why the one should 
not have his tenement again on 
payment of his rent, or the other 
recover his lands, on default there- 
of. See Gaivelett, Gaivelettum, 
and Gavelettum. 
gayn. Fr. Profit, gain. (381,703.) 
gayner. Fr. To gain. (591.) 
gayte (647), gaytes, plur. (315). Fr. 
Watch and ward, watches. See 
Geity GeyteSy and Wayte. 

geit (284), geite (284), geitee (284). 
Fr. Watch. See Gat/te, Geytes, 
and Wayte. 

gelyne. Fr. A hen. f712.) 

genetre (225), genettz, plur. (230). 
Fr. Marten-skins ; probably the 
same kind of fur that was for- 
merly known in England as ^jen- 

* nets.' See Halliwell, Diet Arch. 
p. 483. 

gentil. Fr. (453.) As applied to 
dogs, this word may either mean 
such as belong to gentlefolk, or 
else such as are of tame and 
gentle disposition; pet dogs of the 
then known description. So in 
the Northumberland Household 
Booh (Antiq. Repert. iv. p. 143), 
"vi. gentle hors — ^iv, palfreis," 
i.e. quiet horses. 

, Gerchirche (247). A corruption of 

* Graschirche,' q. v. 

Gernemue. Yarmouth, in Norfolk. 
(236.) See Gernemutay and t/er- 
nemuta. 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NOBMAN, ETC. 



323 






Gerunde* The district now known 
as the ^ Grironde,' in the East of 
France- (632.) 

gete (585), getee (584), gettee (288), 
getiz, plur* (271). Fr. A jetee, 
jettie, or jutty ; a p&rt of a build- 
ing projecting from the body of a 
house* See Prompt Parv. i, p. 
192 (and Mr. Way's Note), where 
it is said to apply to the * solere,' 
or upper storey^ of a house ; also, 
Parker's Glossary of Architect 
ture, I. p. 275, s* v* Jettie, See 
Geticium* 

getter. Fr. To throw. (335.) See 
Gouter* 

^'Qjte^. Fr. Waits, watchmen, or 
individuals forming the City 
watch* ( 280. ) In Neckam De 
Utensilibus (Wright's Fo/. Vocah. 
p. 106 ) they are called *veytes,' 
and in the Prompt* Parv, 

* wayte ^ is rendered " speculator 
" foris " and " explofator foris," a 

* watchman,' or * looker - out.' 
There seems reason for believing 
that the original ^waits' were 
minstrels or musicians, who pa- 
raded the sheets, and sounded the 
watch on certain wind instru- 
ments, which from them derived 
their name \ see Notes arid Que^ 
riesy 2nd Series, Tii. pp. 341, 480, 
where the original meaning of 
this word is largely discussed. 
The " City Waits " were main- 
tained at the expense of the Cor- 
poration, down to a comparatively 
late perriod ; and it seems not 
improbable that they were the 
immediate predecessors of the 



City trumpeters of more recent 
date. See Gayte^ Geit, and 
Wayte. 

gilofre. Fr.plur. Cloves. (230.) 

gingehred. Engl. Gingerbread. (224.) 
It is curious to find this article 
named as one of our important 
imports in the 13th century. Not 
improbably, it was extensively 
imported from the Low Countries, 
which are still celebrated for its 
manufacture, Dinant and LouVain 
more especially. See Gyngehraz. 

glace (230), glasce(224). Fr. Glass. 
It is probably coloured glass that 
is here alluded to ; which was 
extensively imported into this 
country in the Middle Ages ; see 
Parker's Glossary of Gothic 
Architecture^ i. p. 231, s, v. 
Glazing ; also, Introduction to 
Liber AlhuSy p. xxxiii. 

godelmynges. plur. (231.) In a 
similar passage in Liber Horn^ a 
Note is added, from which it would 
appear that a * godelmynge,' (or 
* godanesine,' as it is there cor- 
rected) was cordwain made from 
the skin of a young animal. The 
name apparently is derived from 
Godalming, in Surrey, where the 
trade of tanning is still carried 
on. 

Goderounelane (102). Gruthrum's 
Lane, now corrupted to " Gutter 
" Lane," in Cheapside. Fine silver 
was called " silver of Guthurun's 
"Lane," from the fact of the 
principal goldsmiths and silver- 
smiths of London residing there 
in the 13th and Hfch centuries. 

X 2 



/m 



324 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Gofregd Portrefan (13). In the 
passage in .Liber Custumarum 
here refen^ed to, foL 187, the 
reading is " Gofregth Portere- 
" fan ;'* while that of the so-called 
original Charter, still preserved at 
the Guildhall,-is '' Gosfregth Por- 
<* tirefan." — ^But why should Car- 
penter, the Common Clerk of the 
City, refer here to the copy in 
Liber Custumarum, if the origi- 
nal was then known to be in 
existence ? 

goldbeter (738), goldbetere (436). 
Engl. A goldbeater, the designa- 
tion of a trade employed as a 
surname. 

gors (505, 506, 508, 509, 510), 
gortz,plur. Fr. (513.) A gorce, 
or fish-wear. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 730. 

goter. Fr. (584.) A gutter ; in 
early English called *gote' or 
' goote ;' see Prompt Parv, i. p. 
205, and Way^s Note, in reference 
to early and still existing forms of 
the word. See Guttere. 

gouter. Fr. To throw, to discharge. 
(273.) See Getter. 

Granthamlane. (558.) Grantham 
Lane ran from Thames Street, in 
the City, to the river. See Liber 
Custum. p. 449. 

Graschirche. Gracechurch. (247, 
261.) See the Glossaiy to Liber 
Custum. p. 729, $. v. Garsckirche, 
See Gerckircke, smdGreschirche. 

Graunt Cape, The Grand Cape. 
(181, 185.) A Writ (now abo- 
lished) that lay before appearance, 
to summon the tenant to answer 



the default ; and also, over to the 
demandant. In the Old Natura 
5rei7e««» it is defined to be, — ^where 
a man hath brought SbPrcecipe quod 
reddat of a thing touching plea of 
land, and the tenant makes de- 
fault at the day given to him in 
the original writ, then this Writ 
shall go for the King to take the 
land into his hands ; and if the 
tenant come not at the day given 
him thereby, he loses his land. 
See Petit Cape* 

Graunt Destresse. Fr. The Grand 
Distress. (202.) A Writ so called 
from the great extent thereof ; it 
extending to all the goods and 
chattels of the party distrained 
within the County. It lay either 
when the defendant or tenant had 
been attached and had made de- 
fault ; or when the tenant had 
once appeared, and afterwards 
made default ; in which case this 
Writ was had by common law, in 
lieu of a Petit Cape, 

Graunt Lei. Fr. The Great Law. 

(110.) For a further explanation 

of this mode of trial, see Liber 

Albus, p. 57. See Lei, Legem 

facere, and Lex. 

Graveshende. Gravesend, in Kent. 
(579.) So called, it is said, from 
the fact that in early times it was 
the Eastern limit of the jurisdic- 
tion of the gerefa^ reve, or chief 
officer, of the City of London. 

grees. Fr. plur, (477, 585.) Steps. 
* Grees,' or * greese,* was a term 
used in early English for a set of 
stairs or steps. See the authori- 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-KORMAN, ETC. 



325 



ties quoted by Halliwell, Diet, 
Arch, p. 416. See Degrees, 

greine (223, 230), greyne (224). 

Fr. Grain. 
Grendone (552). Garfndon, now 
Quorndon, an abbey in Leicester- 
shire ; which institution had an 
hermitage, or cell, here alluded 
to, in Monkwell Street, Cripple- 
gate. It was known as the 
" Church of St. James in the 
** Wall,'* and is said to have been 
founded by Henry III., though 
not improbably a century earUer. 
The chapel and its appurtenances 
were granted by Henry VIII. and 
Edward VL to William Lambe 
(the builder of Lamb's Conduit) ; 
who bequeathed it to, and at his 
death endowed it for the benefit 
of, the Clothworkers' Company. 
For further information on this 
subject the reader may consult the 
Antiq. ReperL i. pp. 366, 367. 

Greneford. Grreenford, near Han- 
well, in Middlesex. (614). 

grenour. Fr. Greater, larger. (424.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn, p. 730, s, V, Gregnour, 

Greschirche. Gracechurch, (349, 
356.) See Graschirche. 

greve. Fr. Heavy, grievous. (261, 
262, 268.) 

grevous, Fr, Heavy, grievous. 
(278.) 

grief. Fr. Heavy, grievous. (266.) 

grisoevere. Fr. Grey-work. (231.) 
See G^ys oevere. 

groos. Fr. Gross, the whole, 
wholesale. {226y 261, 274, 295, 
460.) 



groos. Fr. plur. Groats, of three 
pence English in value. (574.) 

groserie. Fr. (588.) Grocery, 
heavy goods sold by the grocer ; 
as to the original meaning of 
which word, see the Glossary to 
Xsiber Custum.^. 730, s.v, Gros- 
sour. See Espicery, 

grys oevere (279), grys overe (225). 
Fr. Grey-work ; an inferior 
kind of fur, extensively imported 
into England from Germany 
in the Middle Ages. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, pp. 
730, 806, s, vv, Grisevere, and 
Griseum, See Grisoevere, 

Guldeford (625). Guilford, in Sur- 
rey. 

guttere. Fr. A gutter. (288.) 
See Goter, 

GuyhaUe (44, 181, 265, 268, 315, 
383, 525, me), Guildhall; a 
French adaptation of an English 
word. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 729, $, v, Gihale, 

Gyldeday. Engl. A Guild day, or 
day for holding the Guild. (666.) 

gyngebraz. Fr. (230.) Perhaps for 
* gyngebraet,' meaning ginger- 
bread : which may possibly have 
been imported by the Deneis, or 
people of Dinant, in Namur, 
where it is still extensively made. 
See Deneisy and Gingebred, 

gyve. Fr. A package. (726.) 

haberdassherie (231), haberdasshrie 
(230). Fr. See HapeHas. 

haberjon, Fr. A habergeon ; a 
breastplate of leather or of mail. 
(437.) 



326 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Halimot (380), Halimotz, plur. 
(379), Halymote (686). A HaU- 
mote, or meeting in the Hall of a 
trade. 

** The devel may sitte softe, 
"An6 holden his halymotes ofto/' 

occurs in some verses temp. 
Edward L, (Wright's PoUt. 
SongSy Camd. Soc. p. 154); 
whicli the Editor explains, iu p. 
374, as meaning ^ holy meetings/ 
and translates ^ Sabbaths i ' but 
without sufficient authority, to 
all appearance. In Liber Horn 
f. 218 b., there is a Note to the 
effect that the Hallmote was so 
called as being a ^sound' or * whole' 
meeting, from the fact of the 
whole of the trade being then 
bound to appear. See Halt- 
motum. 
Haliwelle (104). Holywell. See 
the Glossary to Liber Cusium. 
p. 802, s. vv. Pons Sacer, 
hampsokne. A. S. (111.) Literally, 
Home protection, i,e. the pro- 
tection from assault afforded by a 
man's house^ In the present in- 
stance, it is used in its enlarged 
and legal signification, — a viola- 
tion of that protection by forcible 
entry into a man's house. For a 
full description of this offence, 
see the Laws of Henry L, lxxx. 
10, 11 (Thorpe's Anc, Laws and 
Instit. of England, p. 256). 
himocyne, Fr. A cockle. (275.) 
hanon. Fr,. A cockle. (673.) 
hanap (276), hanape (702). Engl. 
A goblet, or drinking cup ; the 
same as the hnaep of Archbishop 



iElfric's Vocab. and the Anglo- 
Saxon Vocabularies (Wright's 
Vol Vocab. pp. 24, 82, 290). 
It has been suggested that this 
word * hanap ' is from the German 
' Itand' and 'napf,' signifying a 
handled vessel; whereas it appears 
much more probable that it is 
simply a corruption of the A* S. 
hnaep. The word ' hanaper ' too 
has been explained as 'hand- 
^ pannier; ' whereas it seems much 
more likely that it was originally 
a basket, or hamper, in which 
the hanaps were carried from 
table and perhaps kept. Qn this 
subject, see Du Cange, Glassar. 
s. V. Hanapus; also. Pictorial 
Hist. tJngl, i. p. 866; and Way's 
Note to Prompt. Parv. i. p. 226. 
hapertas (225). A cloth of a pecu- 
liar texture, probably coarse and 
thick. It seems not improbable 
that this cloth was identical with 
the ' halberject,* or ^hauberjet,'the 
uniform breadth of which is 
enacted by c. 34 of l3ie Mctgna 
Charta of King John, c. 23 of 
the first Magna Charta of Henry 
III., 0. 31 of the second Magna 
Charta of Henry III., and o, 25 
of the fir^t Magna Charta of 
Edward I. The word *halber- 
< ject,' it has been suggested, is 
from the German *al,' *ajl,' or 
^haltz' or *hals,' ^the neck,' and 
*berge?i,' Uo. cover;' and, as a 
material, it was used for the habits 
of monks ; see Thomson's Hist. 
Essay on M<igna Charta of King 
John^ p. 217. Mention is made 



GLOSSABY OP ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC, 



327 



of 3043 ells " de halbergo albo,** 
" of white lialberject,*' for the 
king's use, in the Mag. Rot. 14 
Joh. S. a. m. \. In the word 
* hapertas' there can be little 
doubt that we have the origin of 
our present word 'haberdasher ;' 
the more especially as the present 
word is represented by the word 
^ haberdassherie ' in an almost 
exactly similar passage, of nearly 
cont^mporay date, in page 23 L 
See Ifaberdasskerie. 

hareber (242). Probably, a harbourer, 
herbergeour, or lodging-house 
keeper ; the name of an occupa- 
tion employed as a surname* 

Hareflew (616), Hareflut. (630). 
Harfleur, in France. 

harepoys (246), harpoys (237). 
Dutch. The mixture formerly 
known in England as 'arpeys ;' 
composed of tallow, wax, and 
pitch, or tar. See the Archmolo- 
gia^ Vol. xxx. p. 404, and Halli- 
well's Diet, Arch, p. 86. This, no 
doubt, is the same as the " cera 
" picata " or " cire commixta cum 
• " pice" of Neckam2)e Utensilibus 
(Wright's Vol. Voeab. p. 114). 
The application of melted wax 
and resin to the exterior of ships 
was practised by the Romans ; 
see Pliny's Hist, Nat, kxxv. cc. 
31, 41 (pp. 244, 282, Vol. yi. 
Bohn's Translation.) A some- 

. what similar preparation, to all 
appearance, ia applied to the ex- 
terior of Dutch and Flemish 
vessels at the present day. For 
^ further discussion as to the 



meaning of the present passage, 
the reader may consult Noies and 
Queries^ 2nd Series, viii. pp. 115, 
259. See Fyssheponde, 

Harewe (612). Harrow, in Middle- 
sex, 

hasardour (259, 642), haserdour 
(337). Fr. A player at games of 
hazard, a gamester. " Hie aliator, 
"Anglice, hasardore.*' — Engl. Fb- 
cab, of the \6th Century ^ Wright's 
Vol, Vocab. p. 194. "Hasarde, 
'* play, Aleatura. Hasardoure, 
" Aleator." — Prompt, Parv, i. p. 
228. 

haste. Fr. Anger. (384.) 

haubergere. Fr, (436.) A maker of 
hauberks, or coats of mail ; the 
designation of an occupation em- 
ployed as a surname. 

haunter. Fr, To frequent. (426, 
693, 697.) See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 732, 

haute none. Fr. High noon. (274.) 
Probably from mid-day, or per- 
haps one o'clock, to four, the hour 
of Vespers. See the Grlossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 746, s, v. None, 

hautpas. Fr. (557.) A hautpas, or 
halpace ; a room built on a raised 
Hoor and extending into the 
street. 

hayour (306, 528), hayoure (308, 
316, 317). Fr. Hate, hatred. 

heire. Fr. The eyre, iter, or circuit, 
of the Justiciars Itinerant. (297.) 
See Eiraunz. 

Henaude. Fr. A Hainaulter^ or 
native of the province of Hainault. 
(642.) 



328 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Hengham (546), See Parva Heng- 
hdm. 

heoure, Fr, An hour, time. (470, 
474, 476.) See Hoeur^ Houre^ 
and Hure, 

herbergage. Fr. A lodging-house. 
(523.) See the Glossary to Liber 
Cusium, p. 733. 

herbergeour (388, 667, 721), her 
berger (283), herberjour (268, 
282, 586, 721, 722). Fr. An her- 
bergeour, or keeper of an herber- 
gage, or lodging-house. See 
Way's Note to Prompt. Parv, i. p. 
236, and Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 733, s, V. Herbergage. 

herberger. Fr. To lodge or harbour, 
to warehouse. (223, 224, 287.) 

herbergerie, Fr. A lodging-house. 
(720.) 

heritantz. Fr. plur. Inhabitants. 
(463.) 

herone. Fr. A heron. (466.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum^ 
p. 732, s, V, Heiroun, 

heu. Fr. (281.) Hue ; a shout, or 
cry, raised in pursuit. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
809, s. V, Hutesium, See Huwe, 
and Utesium. 

heumer. Fr. A maker of helms, or 
helmets. (733.) 

HiUer (507), Hillere (508), Seynt. 
Fr. The Feast of Saint Hilary, 
13th of January. 

hoescip (343, 374). A high ship, or 
ship with tall bulwarks. Pro- 
bably a Dutch word, and the same, 
no doubt, as the vessel with * scal- 
* tres,' or * shelters.' See Scatters, 
and Okschip, 



hoeur (495), hoeure (45, 46). Fr. 
An houi", time. See Heoure, and 
Houre. 

Hokeday. Engl. (234.) Hockday, 
the second Tuesday after Easter j 
when certain rude sports called 
* hocking,' were practised. See 
Brand's Popular Antiq, i. pp. 
184-191 (ed. Ellis); and Hamp- 
son's Medii uEvi Kalendarium, 
I. pp. 203, 204, and ii. p. 198. 
See Hohhyng. 

hokestere (337). A huckster ; a 
French form of an English word. 
See Huckestre^ 

hokkyng. Engl. (681.) The sports 
practised on Hockday, the second 
Tuesday after Easter ; in which, 
jokes were practised by either 
sex, of a rough and practical 
nature, whence in all probability 
our modern word *hoax.' See 
Hampson's Medii JEvi Kalenda- 
rium^ II. p. 198 ; and Brand's 
Popular Antiq, i. pp. 184-191 
(ed. EUis). 

Holbourne (554), Holbume (232, 
233), Holeburn (232). Holborn, 
without Newgate. So called from 
the *hul (A.S. for hill) bourne' 
the brook that ran at the foot of 
the hill ; and was crossed by Hol- 
bourne Bridge, mentioned in p. 
554. 

Holebeche. Holbeach, in Lincoln- 
shire. (105.) 

horloc (376), horlok (375). Engl. 
Oarlocks, or rowlocks. See Orlok, 

Horsebrigge (697), Horsobrigg 
(242). Horse-shoe Bridge ; which 
crossed the stream of Walbrook 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



329 



in the close vicinity of the church 
of St. John the Baptist, de- 
stroyed in the Great Fire of 
London. 

horsprys. Fr. Save only, except. 
(273.) Hence the old law term, 
" to foreprize ;*' ue. to warn, ex- 
clude, or except ; especially used 
in leases and conveyances. 

Hospitale Seint Johan (247), The 
Hospital of Saint John of Jeru- 
salem, at Clerkenwell. 

hoste. Fr. A guest. (361, 388, 701, 
721, 722.) 

hosteler (721), hostiler (268, 361, 
388), hostiUer (259, 268, 282, 
388, 587, 721, 722). Fr. A hos- 
teler, or keeper of a hostel or 
inn. See Osteler, 

hostelle (268), hostiel (421), hostielle 
(262, 383, 389). Fr. A house, 
hostel, or inn. It has been well 
remarked by Roquefort (Gloss. 
Langue Rom, p. 760), that until 
the 14th century the word * hos- 
^ tel ' was an appellation for houses 
in general ; but that since then 
it has been limited, in France, 
wholly to places of resort for 
travellers, and the mansions of 
the most opulent. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Cusfum, p. 734, s. v, 
HostieL 

hosteirie (722), hostekye (722). Fr. 
A hostelry, or inn. 

houche. Fr. Ahutch, orbox. (261.) 
See the Glossary to Ltber Cus-* 
turn, p. 734; also^ PrompU Parv, 
I. pp. 242, 266^ and Way's Notes. 
See Hucche, 



houre. Fr. An hour, time. (265 
270, 274, 276, 279, 291, 292, 296.) 
See Heoure^ Hoeur, and Hure, 

househir (220), househire (204). 
Engl. House-rent. 

Hoylande. Hoyland, or Holland, in 
Lincolnshire. (419.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum» p. 734, 
5. «?. Hoilonde. 

hucche. Fr. A hutch, or box. 
(266.) See Houche. 

huckestre (361), hukestere (314, 
316), hukster (46, 527, 532, 690, 
698, 701, 702, 705), hukstere (259, 
360). Engl. A huckster, or female 
hawker ; one who sells commo- 
dities from house to house. As 
to the probable origin of this 
word, see Prompt Parv. i. p. 252^ 
Way's Note. See Hokestere, 

huis. Fr. Use. (704.) 

hurdis (477, 685), hurdys(477, 585). 
Fr. A palisade. Hence the word 
< hoard,' now confined perhaps 
to London and the vicinity, as 
meaning a palisade of boards 
erected around a house while 
building. In Prompt. Parv. * hur- 
«dy«je' is given as signifying the 
same as * hustylment,' or utensil. 
See also Halliwell's Diet. Arch. 
p. 470. See Hurdicium. 

hure. Fr. An hour, time. (201, 
288, 380.) See Houre. 

hurer. Engl. A hurrer, or maker 
of hures, or rough hairy caps. 
(727.) The word 'hure' is 
used in the Lancashire and 
Cheshire dialects, as signifying 
the hair, at the present day. See 
the Introduction to Liber Alhus^ 



330 



LIBEB ALBUS. 



p, xc, and Way's Notes to Prompt 
Parv* I. pp. 61 5 249, 252 ; also, 
Herbert's Hist Twelve Livery 
Companies^ n. 533, In Wright's 
Political Songs (Camd. Soc.) p. 
166, *^ there sit an old cherl in a 
"Wake hure," is explained as 
meaning a ^ black gown, * but query 
as to the correctness of this. See 
Hurarius, 

husebaunde (1 12), husebonde (112). 
Engl. A husband, a married man. 

hustilemena (719), hustillementz 
(667). Fr. plur. Utensils, See 
the Glossary to Liber Cu&ium, 
p. 773, s, V, Ihtilemenz. 

huwe, Fr. (313.) Hue ; a cry 
raised in pursuit. See Heuy and 
Utedum. 

illeoqes (273), illeosqes (433), il- 
. loesqes (433). Fr. There. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum» p. 
735, s. 1?. Illoek. 
Infangthef. A. S. (145, 159, 167, 
414, 661, 679.) See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 735, s. v, 
Infangenethef, 
Ireis, le. (86.) Fr. Apparently 
this means, for want of a more 
formal surname, ^* The Irishman." 
isser. Fr. To go forth from. (377.) 
issues. Fr. plur. (202.) Issues ; 
profits from lands and tenements, 
(in this case) held in sequestra- 
tion. 

ja le pluis tarde. Fr. Still later. 

(228.) 
jademeyns. Fr. Neyertheless. (389, 

473,474,475.) 



jalemeyns. Fr. Nevertheless. (268, 
283, 664, 669.) 

jalon (267), jaloun (266, 267). Fr. 
A gallon. 

jamber. Fr. A jambiere ; leather 
armour for protection of the legs. 
(437.) 

jammes. Fr, Ever. (285, 427.) 

Jeresgive (133, 155), Jeresgyve 
(130, 149, 165). Seethe Glossary 
to Liber Custum. pp. 777, *• «?. 
Yeresgive. See Yeresgeve, 

jeut. Fr. There lay. (109.) Third 
person singular perfect indie, 
of the verb ^ giter,* or * jiter,' 
to lie* 

jewise. (459.) Fr. See Jutoise. 

joyer. Fr. To enjoy. (287.) See 
Eioir, and Enjoiere^ 

joynour. Fr. A joiner. (737.) 

Judeu. Fr. A Jew. (233.) 

justice, la. Fr. Though of the 
feminine gender, this word here 
(110) signifies a justice, or jus- 
ticiar. So in the Laws of Henry 
I. (Thorpe's Ancient Laws and 
Instit, of England, p. 235) men- 
tion is made of " Rex vel Justitia 
" ejus," " The King or his Justi- 



"ciar.'* 



justisable. Fr. Eesponsible, ame- 
nable. (268.) 

justizablees. Fr. plur. Amenable 
to justice. (282.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Cu$tum» p. 736, s, t?, 
Justizable. 

juwise (458, 459),juwyse (336,458, 
465),juyse (665). Fr. Judicial 

. punishment, or sentence* Under 
the forms * jewise* and ^ juise,' this 
word was adopted, with a similar 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAi^, ETC. 



331 



signification, in early English. 
See extracts froia Gower's works 
as quoted by Halliwell, Diet 
Arch p. 484, See Jewise. 

Juylle. Fr. July* (3730 

jujse, See Juwise* 

kaie (476), kaye (476, 580, 711.) 
Fn A quay. See Ke^, and Ko^. 

kark (224), karke (224, 230, 238), 
Engl. The weights of the various 
< kai'kes' are given at considerable 
length in pp. 223,-4 ; being the 
sameasthe^charge'ofp.325. The 
weight of the ^ charms,' ' charre,* 
^ karke,' or ^ carke,' is given also in 
the Assisa de Pond* et Mensur. 
(probably of like date, the reign 
of Edward I.), Stat. Eealm ISIO, 
I. pp. 204,-5 ; but seems to differ 
froni the present rates; the. " great 
"charre in London" being 1 20 stone 
of 12^ pounds, and elsewhere 2100 
pounds. We learn, on the same 
authority, that according to iron 
weight, the ^charre' was of 2016 
lbs., and that the " charre of the 
"Peak'' (as applied to lead, and 
mentioned as a karre in Phillips's 
World of Words) was less than 
the great * charre' of J^ondon. 
Hearne, in his Glossary to IJang- 
toft's Chroniehy rem^ks that the 
old Engl. * karke,* meaning charge 
or care, is similar to the word 
^ karke,' as meaning a load of 
goods; but it seems not impro- 
bable that while the former is 
from the A. S. cape, * care,' the 
latter^ is a corruption of the A. N. 
^ charge,* < a load.' In the Ma^. 



Mot 2 Henr, IlI.Rot, 5. a., men- 
tion is made of a carcka of 
almonds. See Madox, Firma 
Burgiy p. 170, and Aichdeacon 
Hale's Domesday of St* PauVs^ 
Introd, p. Ixxxi. 

karre. Fr. (238,246.) Probably 
the * charrus,' or load, of 175 stone 
of 12 pounds each ; possibly, a 
squared {carre) pig of lead may 
have been so called. See Kark. 

Kelenworthe (545). Kenilworth, in 
Warwickshire. For the " Dicta de 
" Kelenworthe," The Award of 
Kenilworth, here mentioned, see 
the Statutes of the Realm (1810), 
Vol. I. 

keu {266, 704), kew (316), kiew 
(715, 717)* Fr. A cook. 

key, Fr, A quay. (382.) See Kaie, 
and Koy. 

kiew. See Keu. 

kooye. Fr. A barrel, open vessel, 
or vat. (334.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Cusfum. p. 796, 
s. t?, Cuva. See Fausa. 

key, Fr. A quay ; " the Koy Jor- 
«< dan " (380), or Jordaii's Quay, 
may possibly have had its name 
from the William Jordan, temp. 
Edward I,, mentioned in p. 94 of 
Liber Custum&rum. Its locality 
is probably unknown, but the 
close vicinity pf the Tower of 
London seems not unlikely. See 
Kayum Jordani.. 

kydel (505, 506, 509, 510, 514, 577). 
Engl. A kind of wear for taking 
fish ; in p. 577 a net is meant. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 



332 



LIBER ALBUS. 



turn, pp. 736, 810, 811, s, vv. 
Kidellcy KidelluSy and Kydellus* 
Kylburne (611 )♦ Kilburn, in Mid- 
dlesex ; so called, according to 
Norden, from the cold (ceald) 
bourn, or spring, there. As to 
the Priory there situate, here al- 
luded to, which was a cell for 
nuns to the Abbey of Westmin- 
ster, see Newcourt's Bepertorium^ 
1. pp. 681, 682. 

laeure. Fr. Width or breadth. 
(585, 725.) See Laieure^ and 
Laour, 

Lagehalimotz (379). Engl. See 
LaioeJialymoz^ ssidLaghelmotum, 

laieure. Fr. A breadth. (458.) 
See Laeure, and Laour, 

lak (224), lake (230), Engl. A 
kind of fine linen, of which shirts 
were made. According to Halli- 
well {Diet. Arch, p. 502) it is 
mentioned in a laundress's list of 
articles in M&,Cantahr, F. f. 1, 6, 
fol. 141, and in fol. 11 its re- 
markable whiteness is alluded to. 
" Margaret de Knaresburgh de- 

" vises in 1 397 pannum de 

" lak.'' — Way's Notes to Prompt, 
Pari). I. p. 249, « Cloth of lake " is 
also mentioned by Chaucer, in his 
Ryme of Sir Thopas. 

Lambehirst (297), Lambhirst (298). 
Lamberhurst, in Kent. 

lampron (689), lamproon (691). A 
]ampern. See the Griossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 811, s. v. Lam^ 
preda. See Laumpron, 

landfisshe. Engl. Fish brought 
by land. (376.) 



landlorde (221), lanlorde (221)* 
Engl. A landlord, a lessor of 
land. See Lanlordus, 

lanee. Fr. WooUed, with the 
wool on. (274.) 

Langebourne (463), Langeburae 
(34), Langbourn Ward, in the 
City. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 737, s, v, Langeburne, 

laour. Fr. Breadth. See Laeure^ 
and Laieure. 

lapprys. F. (265.) The taking: — 
for " la prys." 

last. Engl. A measure of capa- 
city. (237, 238.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 811, 
s. V. Lastum. 

latein (674), latone (602, 604). 
A compound metal. ^'Auricalcum, 
*' latyn," — Diction. Jok. de Gar- 
lande (Wright's Vol. Vocab, p. 
123). " Auricalcum, Anglice 
*^ latone," — Engl. Vocab. loth 
Cent. p. 195 ; to which Mr. Wright 
adds in a Note, " ' Laten ' or 
' latten,' from the Fr. laiton, 
was a compound of copper, 
very much resembling brass, 
extensively used in the Middle 
Ages, but the exact composi- 
tion of which seems now not to 
" be known." Latten was much 
used in the formation of monu- 
mental brasses, and was probably 
extensively imported from Ger- 
many, being also known as " Cul- 
" len (Cologne) plate." Gower 
speaks of it as distinct from brass: 
see Wray's Note to Prompt. 
Part\ 1. p. 289. An account of the 
composition *orichalcum* (which. 



6i 



a 



a 



i< 



« 



a 



S?'^' 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



S3S 



he says, is wrongly written * au- 
«richalcum') is to be found in 
the Opus Minus of Roger Bacon 
(edited for this Series by Mr. 
Brewer), p. 385 ; though his ex- 
act meaning seems to be doubtful 
in the extreme. In Devonshire, 
the word *latten* means plate- 
tin ; see Halliwell, Diet Arch. 
p. 507. 
latoner. Engl. Alattener,ormaker 
of vessels of latten. (738.) 

latte (232). A lath ; or perhaps, in 
this instance, a plank larger than 
what is now understood as a lath. 
Indeed, in the Isfominale of the 
15th Century/ (p. 235 Wright's 
Vol, Vocab,\ the Latin woi'd 
' asser/ which means a plank, is 
rendered ' a latt.' The word is 
from the A. S. laetta, or latta 
(JElfric's Vocab.^ p. 26 of the 
same volume). According to 
Wilbraham's Cheshire Glossary 
(Vol. XIX. of the Archceoloffia), 
the word * lat * is still used in 
Lancashire and Cheshire to sig- 
nify a lath. See Latys. 

latys. Fr. plur. Laths. (333.) 

laumpron. Fr. A lampern. (577.) 
See the. Glossary to Liber Cms- 
turn. p. 811, 5. V. Lampreda. See 
Lampron. 

launge. Fr. Long* (288, 725.) 
See LiengCy and Lung* 

Lawehalymoz. Engl. (379.) Law- 
Hallmotes ; i.e. meetings in the 
hall for reading the laws of the 
trade. See LagehalimotZy and 
Laghelmotum. 



layn (230), layne (245, 274, 712), 
Fr, Wool. See Leyn^ and Lyne» 

lays. Fr. plur. Laymen. (332.) 
lazer. Fr. A lazar, or beggar, 

(591.) 
le. Fr. Breadth. (279.) 
leauementz. Fr. Lawfully. (288.) 
Ledenhalle. LeadenhalL (465, 715.) 
For the early history of this lo- 
cality, see the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 760, s, vv. Sale de 
Plqm. 

Ledes (144). Leeds, in Kent. The 
castle here, which belonged to 
Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, 
stood a fortnight's siege by Ed- 
ward IL, in the year 1322. The 
aid given by the citizens of Lon- 
don on this occasion is here al- 
luded to. See the Croniques de 
London (Camd. Soc), pp. 42, 
43. 

lei. Fr. A law. (110, 111, 112.) 
A set of compurgators, or jurors, 
who on oath were to declare as 
to their belief in the guilt or in- 
nocence of the accused, was thus 
called. See Graunt Lei, Ley, 
Legem facere^ and Lex. 

leinz. Fr. Therein, (276.) 
Lembourk, Limburg, or Limbourg, 

a province of Holland. (614.) 

See Lamburga. 

lendemaigne. Fr. On the morrow, 

the next day. (275.) 
Lenne. Lynn, in Norfolk. (539.) 
leprous. Fr. A leprous person, a 

leper. (273, 590.) 

leue. Fr. (471.) Past participle 
of the verb * lire,' or Meire,' to 



334 



LIBER ALBUS. 



read : misprinted ^ leve.' See 
Lewez, 

lever. Fr. To wash, (288.) 

levejne. Fr. Leven. (705.) 

levir. Fr. To levy, to raise. (427.) 

lew. Fr. Place. (370.) 

lewez. Fr. (268.) Past participle 
plural of the verb *lire/ to read. 
See Leue, 

ley. Fr. A law (203, 204) ; Le. 
a jury, or set of compurgators. See 
Leiy Legem facer €, and Lex* 

ley. Fr. Election, choice. (227.) 

ley marchaunt. Fr, Law-Mer- 
chant. (390.) See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 812, s. vv. 
Lex Mercatoria, 

leyn. (226), leyne (225, 226, 230, 
246,574,724). Fr. Wool. See 
Layrty and Lyne, 

licorys. Fr. Liquorice. (230.) See 
Lycorys. 

iienge. Fr. Long. (273.) See 
LaungCy and Lung. 

Iienge teille (226^ 725), linge teille 
(230, 726). Fr. Linen cloth. 
See Linea tela. 

Hew. Fr. A place. (182.) 

Linoges (225). Limoges, in France, 
capital of the Department of 
Haute Vienne. This place is still 
celebrated for its manufactures 
of broad-cloth, kerseys, drug- 
gets, flannels, and other woollen 
goods. In the 12th century it 
was famous for its manufacture 

of carpets : — 

'Pais sen monta en unes loges, 

* !Et fist un tapl de Limoges 

* Devant lui a la tere estendre.' 

Erec et Eride, MS. La Valliere, 
No. 78, fol. 139; quoted by M. 



Michel, Eecherches sur les 
Etoffes de Sole, etc* n. p. 405. 

Use. Fr. It may be lawful, or 
permitted. (47.) Third person 
singular present subj. of the 
verb * loire,' * lere,' or * lesir.* 

liver (230), liveree (225). A pound. 

Londoneston (103). London stone, 
in Candlewick, now Cannon, 
Street. From his residence near 
to it, Henry Fitz-Alwyne, the 
first Mayor of London, is usually 
called "of London Stone ;'^ see 
p. 1 of the Liber de Antiq. Legi" 
bus (Camd, Soc.) for example. 
London Stone was removed from 
its original site in Cannon Street 
to its present locality, in the wall 
of St. Swithin's Church, towards 
the close of last century. 

loos. Fr. Beputation, good name. 
(371.) This word, as meaning 

* fame * or * repute,' was adopted 
into early English. " Fame, or 
"loos of name," — Prompt Parv. 
I. p. 148 ; see, also, Way's Note to 
p. 313, who justly dissents from 
Home Tooke's suggestion that it 
is from the A. S. hlipan, *to 

* celebrate,' but rather considers it 
as taken from the Fr; * los ' (or 

* loos ') ; though the French word 
is always used in a good sense, 
whereas the English word signi* 
fies either praise or dispraise, 
celebrity or notoriety. As mean-^ 
ing praise, it occurs in the CAro- 
nicle of Kobert of Gloucester j in 
both a good and bad sense it 
is to be met with in Chaucer ; 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



335 



also, as meaning a *bad name,* in 
Prompt Parv, p, 313. 

loour. Fr. Their. (514.) 
loquendes. Fr. plur. (668.) Points 
for discussion. See LoquendcB. 

lorimer. Engl. (736.) A dealer 
in lorimery, the iron work for 
horses' trappings and harness. 
See the Grlossary to Liber Cus- 
turn. p. 739, s, 17. Lormerie. 

lormerie. Fr. (231.) In the 
present instance, this word seems 

, to have exactly the same signifi- 
cation as ^ lymere,' q, v. 

Lowe (507). Probably, the river 
Lone, or Lune, in Lancashire, is 
meant. It rises in Westmoreland, 
and from it Kirby Lonsdale has 
its name. 

lower. Fr. To let on hire, to hire. 
(46, 680, 697, 703.) SeeAllower. 

lower. Fr. Pay, hire, reward. (570.) 
Adopted in early English in a 
similar sense, — ** Gif us now our 
" lower. '* — Arthour and Merlin^ 
p. 15. 

loyens. Fr. Far. (509.) 

Lucie, Seinte. Fr. Saint Luke. 
(418.) 

Lud (14). See Luddesden. 

Luddesden (14). This fabulous story, 
as to the origin of the name of Lon- 
don, seems to b© borrowed from 
the Sri fish History of Greoflfrey 
of Monmouth, who says that King 
Lud, son of Heli, rebuilt the walls 
of Trinovantum (New Troy); for 
which reason it was afterwards 
called * Kaerlud ; ' corrupted into 
* Caerlondon,' whence * London.' 



Lumbardez. Fr. plur. Lombards, 
natives of Lombardy. (372.) 

lung (719), lunge (384). Fr. Long, 
tall. See Launge, and Lienge, 

Lussheburghe (575). A counterfeit 
coin, resembling the English 
penny or sterling, was thus called. 
These coins had their name, there 
is little doubt, from the fact of 
their being coined at Luxem- 
burgh ; the word lvcembor., 

LVSENBOR., or LVSEBVKGENSIS, 

forming part of their legend in 
many instances. These spurious 
monies are mentioned in Piers 
Plovyman (1. 10,322), and by 
Chaucer. See further on this 
subject Way's Note to Prompt. 
Part?, pp. 317, 318. 

luy. Fr. (424.) For the definite 
article * le.' See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 739, ^v. v. LuL 

luymesmes. Fr. Himself. (203.) 

lycorys, Fr. Liquorice. (224.) See 
Licoirys. 

lyme. Engl. Lime. (278.) 

Lymehostes, le (683). Limehouse, 
on the east of London ; * hoste ' 
being an early English word, sig-. 
nifying 'house.' 

lymere. Fr. (225.) This seems to 
correspond with the material 
called 'lormerie* in page 231. 
Not improbably it was a texture 
used for the covering of saddles ; 
and it would seem to be identical 
with the material called * lymour,' 
mentioned as being used for 
making pillows and ' crowps,' in. 
the Wardrobe Account of Richard 



336 



LTBER ALBUS. 



III., 1483. See Antiq* Repert, i. 
p. 47. See Lormerie. 
Ljmestrete (463). Lime Street 
Ward, in the City. Stowe says 
that the name is from the former 
making or selling of lime there; 
but a Saxon word lim, * dirty,' 
has been suggested as the origin 
of the name, from the swampiness 
of the locality, occasioned by the 
brook, known as ' Langebourne,' 
running through it. 

lymiter (645), lymyter (48). Fr. 
To limit, to appoint. 

lymnour. Engl. A limner. (715.) 
The business of the* limner con- 
sisted in transcribing books, and 
adoraing them with vignettes 
and illuminated capital letters. 
See Illuminator, 

lyn. Fr. Flax. (238,459.) 
lyndraper. Fr. A linen-draper. (723.) 
lyndraps. Fr. Linen cloth. (533.) 
lyne. Fr. Wool. (592.) See Lat/n, 

and Leyn. 
lyst. Fr. List, or selvage. (725.) 
lytemoise. Fr. Litmus; a blue 

pigment prepared from the 5oc- 

cella tincioria. (238.) 
lyverie. Fr. Delivery. (208.) 

mader. Fr. Madder. (615.) 
maes. Fr. But. (524.) See Mas, 
Mays, and. Meas, 

maffaisour (641), maffesour (642). 
Fr. A malefactor, misdoer. See 
Maiffaisouvy Malefeisour, and 
Maufaisour, 

mahaym(281), maheim (643). Fr. 
The maiming or mutilation of a 



limb necessary for defence in 
fight. See Mahemium. 

maiffaisour. Fr. A malefactor, mis- 
doer. (639.) See Maffaisour, 
Malefeisour, Maufaisour, and 
Meffaisour. 

maigne. Fr. A household, an es- 
tablishment. (49.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 743, 
s, V. Mesneng, See Meigne. 

maillee. Fr, (233.) Apparently, a 
halfpenny-worth. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum, p. 740, s. v, 
Maille, 

mainpernour. Fr. A mainpernor, 
surety, or manucaptor. (200, 222, 
474.) See the Glossiary to Liber 
Custum, p. 740, Sn V, Mai7iprise, 
and p. 813, s. vv» Manucapere, 
and Manucaption See Maynper- 
nour, and Meynparnour. 

mainteignire. Fr. To maintain. 
(426.) See Meinteigner, and 
Meyntenir, 

Mair (269, 426, 427, 459, 477, 496, 
586, 587, 643), Maire (277). Fr. 
A Mayor. See Mayr, Meire, 
Meyre, and Miere, 

mairalte. Fr. The mayoralty. (306.) 

makerews. Fr. plur. Mackerel 
(235.) 

male. Engl. A male, or bag used 
for the carriage of clothes. (549.) 
Hence our more modern word 
* mail.' It is worthy of remark 
that the words * male ' and * mail ' 
were used in the sense of a port- 
manteau so recently as in the 
writings of Smollett ; see the 
beginning of Humphrey Clinker, 

male engine (433), male engyn (395). 



m-r 



GLOSSARY OP ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



337 



Fr. Evil intent. The word 

* engine ' was used in early Eng- 
lish as signifying a device or 
scheme ; see Dialogue of Soul 
and Body (p. 337 of Appendix to 
Mapes^s Poems, Camd. Soc), L 
125, and Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 
58. *Mal-engine* is also used in the 
signification of wicked artifice, in 
Hairs Henry VL, fol. 31 (as 
quoted by Halliwell, Diet. Arch. 
p. 538). See Engyn. 

malefeisour (313), malfaisour (645). 
Fr. A malefactor, a misdoer. 
See Maffaisour, Maiffaisour, 
Maufaisour, and Meffaisour. 

malemaker. Engl. A maker of 
males. (736.) See Male. 

Malvezie. Fr. (711.) Malmsey 
wine ; grown at Napoli di Mal- 
yasia and Napoli di Eomania, in 
the Morea, but extensively imi- 
tated during the Middle Ages. 
See Redding On Wines (third 
ed.), pp. 25, 291. See Romeney. 

Malyns (61 5). Mechlin, or Malines, 
in the province of Antwerp. . 

maner. Fr. An abode, a dwelling- 
house. (274.) 

mangbot (374), mannbot (343). 
Probably, a boat navigated by but 
one man. 

manueste (282), manuestee (276). 
Ft. Apparently, this word means 

* offence ' or * transgression ;' and 
*manuester' is given as a verb 
in Kelham's Norman Dictionary. 
It seems, however, not impro- 
bable that the true reading of the 
MS. should be ^ mauveste ' and 
' mauvestee,' of like signification, 
VOL. IIL 



manyer. Fr. To knead. (705.) 

marche (692, 693), marchies, plur., 
(432). Fr. Market, markets. 

marchandie (676), marchaundie 
(587, 588, 667). Fr. Merchan- 
dize. 

mareschal. Fr. A farrier or shoe- 
ing smith. (733,734.) 

Margarete, Seynt. Fr. (689). The 
church of St. Margaret, Bridge 
Street, on the site of which the 
Monument is now built. In the 
present passage it is erroneously 
said to be situate in Old Fish 
Street ; which street, in reality, 
was in Castle Baynard Ward, and 
in it the church of Saint Mary 
Magdalen, next mentioned in p. 
689, was situate. 

margwyne (274), This word is 
used in Liber Horn, to all ap- 
pearance, as the equivalent of 
' mascref,' meaning ' a butcher.* 

Marleberge. Marlborough, in Buck- 
inghamshire. (543.) 

maryner. Fr. A waterman, a ma- 
rmer. (238.) 

mas. Fr. But, but only, provided. 
(196, 276, 279, 294, 295.) See 
Maes, Mays, and Meas. 

mascref (232), masecref (274). Fr. 
A butcher. Hence our word 
* massacre.' 

mask. The mesh of a net. (577.) 

mason (477), masoun (289, 477). 
Fr. A mason. 

masuele. Fr. A club, or mace. 
(644.) ^QQ Massuellus. 

matire. Fr. A matter. (522, 525.) 

matyn. Fr. Morning. (266.) 

maucountier. Fr. To miscount, to 

Y 



338 



LIBER ALBUS. 



make an error in declaring, or 
stating the case. (295.) See the 
Grlossary to Liber Custum. p. 743, 
s. V. Meskenninga. 

maufaisour, Fr. A malefactor, or 
misdoer. (643.) See Maffaisour^ 
MaiffaisouTy MalefeisouTy and 
Meffaisour^ 

maunche. Fr. A handle. (335). 

mavays. Fr. A bad person, (276.) 

mayn. Fr. A hand. (203,272,279, 
285, 292, 294, 390, 521, 677, 694, 
695, 697, 698.) In p. 203 a juror, 
or compurgator, is so called, pro- 
bably from the extension of his 
hand when taking the requisite 
oath. See Manus, 

maynpernour. Fr. A mainpernor, 
surety, or manucaptor. (200.) See 
Mainpernoury and Meynparnour. 

manynprys. Fr. Bailed, main- 
prised, released on surety. (296.) 

maynpryse. Fr. Mainprise, manu- 
caption, security. (199.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 740, 
s* v» Mainprise^ See Meynprys, 

mayntenour. Fr. A maintainer. 
(640.) 

Mayr (459), Mayre (458). Fr. A 
Mayor. See Mair^ Metre, Meyre, 
and Miere» 

mays. Fr. But. (449, 465.) See 
Maes, Mas, and Meas. 

meas. Fr. But. (449.) See Maes, 
Mas, and Mays. 

measoun. Fr. A house. (205, 221, 
226, 261, 264, 270, 271, 313.) See 
Meson* 

medler. Fr. To meddle. (465.) 

medlee. Fr. Mixed, intermingled. 
(279, 280,) 



meffeez. Fr. plur. Misdeeds. (277.) 
meffaisour (639, 641), meffeisour 

(314), meffesour (275, 276, 280, 

315,388,639,642,643.) Fr. A 

malefactor, misdoer. See Maffai- 

sour, Maiffaisour, Malefeisour, 

and Maufaisour, 
megre. Fr. Thin, lean. (234.) 
meigne. Fr. A household. (722.) 

See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 

turn. p. 743, s. V. Mesneng. See 

Maigne, and Meyne. 
meigner, Fr. To dwell, to abide. 

(334.) 
meiltz. Fr. Best. (216.) See Meltz, 

Meultz, and Mieutz, 
meinoverer. Fr. To work, to follow 

a handicraft. (383, 384.) 
meinprise. Fr. (369, 389.) Main- 
prise. See Maynpryse, and 

Meynprys. 
meinteigner. Fr. To maintain, 

(368.) See Mainteignire, and 

Meyntenir, 
Meire. Fr. A Mayor. (262, 268.) 

See Mair, Mayr, and Meyre. 
meism. Fr. The same. (459.) 
meistre. Fr. A master. (45.) 
Meleforde. Melford, in Suffolk. 

(406.) 
meliour. Fr. Better of the two. 

(316.) 
meltz (475, 476), melz (367.) Fr. 

Better of the two, best. See 

Meiltz, Meultz, and Mieutz. 
melvelle. Fr. (236.) A melwel. See 

Mulvel, and Milwellus, 
mendiver. Fr. To beg, to act the 

mendicant. (590, 591.) 
menever (283), meniver (283.) Fr. 

The fur known as * miniver.' As to 






GLOSSARY OF ANQLO-KORBfAN, ETC. 



339 



its identity, see the Glossary to 
Liber Custum^ p. 834, s, v, F«- 
riuni, 

menu especerie. Pr. Small spices. 
(230.) 

menu mestier. Fr. A small trade. 
(23 L) A name given to callings 
connected with the sale of bread, 
poultry, and the like. 

mercerie. Fr, Merceries, fine goods. 
(224, 235, 230.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 742. 

merche. Fr. A mark. (336, 704.) 

merchie. Fr. A market. (264.) 

merchiez. Fr. (267.) Past participle 
plural of the verb 'merchier,' to 
mark. 

mereswyn. The sea-swine, or por- 
poise. (343, 375.) 

mereisme (731), mereym (729), me- 
risme (232, 333.) Fr. Timber. 
See Merym. 

Merlawe. Marlow, in Buckingham- 
shire. (612.) 

merling (468), merlyng (234, 240, 
468). Merling 5 probably, the 
fish now known as * whiting.' If so, 
the meaning given to it must be 
corrected in. Liher Custum, p. 
815, s. v. Merlingus. 

Merse. The river Mersey. (507.) 

merym (272), merysme (273). Fr. 
Timber. See Mereisme. 

mes. Fr. Save only, except. (296, 
523.) 

meschefe. Fr. A mischief. (514.) 

Mescredy. Fr* Wednesday. (464.) 
See Mesqerdy* 

Meskenninga (129, 130, 131, 132, 
135, 149, 164), Meskennynga 
(140). A* S. See the Glossary to 



Liber Custum. p. 743. See Mis- 
kenninga. 

meson (334, 335, 478), mesoun 
(223, 267, 272, 276, 279, 286, 
288, 332, 336, 337, 384, 449, 465, 
523). Fr. A house. See Measoun. 

mesour. Fr. A measure. (336.) 

mesprisyoun. Fr. Misprision. 
(474.) 

Mesqerdy (518), Mesquardy (195, 
197). Fr. Wednesday. See Mes- 
credy» 

mesqes. Fr. Provided that. (388.) 

message. Fr. A household. (275.) 

message. Fr. A messenger. (672.) 

mestre. Fr. A master. (723.) 

mesurere. Fr. A meter, or mea- 
surer. (410.) 

meultz. Fr. Best. (462.) See Meiltz, 
MelfZf and Mieutz» 

mevable. Fr. Moveable. (585). 

meyne. Fr. (279.) A hand ; or 
possibly, an unusual form of the 
old Fr. * meisnie,' a house. See 
the Glossary to Liber. Custum, 
p. 743, s. t7. Mesneng, See 
Maigne, and Meigne, 

meyner. Fr. To bring. (381, 730). 

meynprys (218), meynpryse (201). 
Mainprise, manucaption, surety. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 740, s» «?. Mainprise, See 
Maynpryse* 

meynpamour. Fr. A mainpernor, 
surety, or manucaptor, (297.) 
See Mainpemour, and Maynper- 
nour, 

meynpemaunce. Fr. Mainprise, 
the condition of being a mainper* 
nor, or surety. (201). 

meyns (225, 265, 279, 280, 316, 359, 

T 2 






340 



LTBER ALBUS. 



360, 381, 471, 520, 577, 585, 663, 
734), meynes (267). Fr, Less, 
the least. 

meyntenance (389), meyntenaunce 
(317). Fr. Maintenance, sup- 
port. 

meyntenant. Fr. Forthwith. (271, 
387.) 

meyntenir. Fr. To maintain. (388.) 
See Mainieignire, and Meinteig" 
ner, 

Meyre. Fr. A Mayor. (262.) See 
MatTy MayVy Meire^ and Miere^ 

mez. Fr. Even though. (475.) 

mienwe. Fr. (338.) Apparently, 
the past participle of the verb 
' miener,* to carry on, 

miere. Fr, The sea. (419, 420.) 

Miere. Fr. A Mayor. (262). See 
Mair, Mayr^ Meire^ and Meyre. 

mieutz. Fr. Better, (264). See 
MeiltZf MelfZf and Meultz. 

miler {226, 237), miller (247). Fr, 
A thousand, a thousand-weight.| 

ministrallx (459), ministralx (459), 
minstralx (459). Fr. plur. Min- 
strels. See Mynstralx. 

minstralcie. Fr. Minstrelsy, mu- 
sic, (460.) See Mynstralcye. 

misericord (475), misericorde (644). 
Fr, A thin-bladed dagger ; so 
called from its being usfed for 
mercifully despatching a wounded 
enemy. It was known by the 
same name in early English, — 
**Pugio, a mysericord," — EngL 
Vocab^ of the 16th Century, 
(Wright's Vol. Vocah. p. 195). 

Miskenninga (154), Miskennyng 
(138). Miskenynga (659). See 
Meshenninga. 



mister (272), mistier (718, 646). 
Fr, A trade, or mystery. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 815, s, V. Ministerium, 

mister (271, 292), mistier (667). 
Fr, Need, necessity. See Mm^ 
tier, 

moiller (724), moyler (724). Fr. 
To damp, to shrink by wetting. 

moim. Fr. (110, 119). An early 
and unusual form of the pronoun 
(or adverb) * meme,' 

moit (524), moite (524). Fr. A 
moiety, half. See Moyte* 

moldyngborde. Engl. A mould- 
ing-board ; the board upon which 
bread was kneaded and moulded 
into loaves, (602). 

moleyn (509), molyn (505, 506, 507, 
509). Fr. A mill. 

moneour, Fr. (90.) Amoneyer, 
one employed in the King's Mint ; 
the name of an occupation em- 
ployed as a surname. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
815, 5. V, Monetarius, 

monger (696), mongere (270, 271, 
657, 696). Engl. A monger, a 
seller ; from the A. S. monjepe, 
of like meaning, which may have 
originated in the Latin * mango.' 
See the Glossary to Zeficr Custum. 
p. 813, s. V, Mango. 

money (574), monoye (574). Fr. 
money. 

monstre, Fr. Show, proof. (261.) 

Montfichet. (127). A castle in the 
vicinity of Baynard's Castle, near 
St. Paul's. It was built by Wil- 
liam de Montfichet, and, upon 
Richard de Montfichet joining 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-KORMAN, ETC. 



341 



the Barons^ was destroyed by 
King John ; afterwards repaired, 
and finally destroyed A.D. 1276, 
to make room for the church of 
the Black Friars. See Moun- 
fychet 

More, le (581), The Moor, of 
Finsbury ; from which Moor- 
fields has its name. See Mora. 

Mort dauncestre* Fr, (187, 197.) 
The Assize of Mort d^ Ancestor 
was a Writ that lay where a man's 
father, mother, brother, sister, 
uncle, aunt, or certain other rela- 
tives, died seised of lands, rents, 
or tenements held in fee, and after 
their death a stranger abated. It 
held good as well against the 
abator as any other in possession 
of the land. See Fitzherbert's 
New Natura Brevium. This Writ 
is abolished by 3 & 4 William TV. 
c. 27, s. 36. See Mortis Ante^ 
cessoris placitum. 

moultz* Fr. Many. (226.) 

Mounfychet (535). See Monifi- 
chet. 

mountance. Fr. An amount. (422.) 

Mountenhaut. Mounthaw. (726.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum. p. 744, s. V. Montenhaut 

mounture. Fr. Array. (282.) Rid- 
ing. (422.) 

monster (281), moustier (281). Fr, 
A church. See Mustier. 

moyler. See Moiller. 

moys, Fr. A month. {666.) 

moyte. Fr. Half. (668, 687.) 
See Moit. 

mucettes, en. Fr. In a secret place, 
(266, 274.) See Muscettes. 



mulvel (234, 240), mulvelle (233). 
Fr. A melwel, green fish, or 
Scotch cod. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 745, s. v. Mul- 
velstokftsshe^ and p. 816, s. v. 
Mulvellus. See Melvelle, and 
Milwellus. 

Murage. Fr. Murage. (421.) See 
the Glossary to LU}er Custum. 
p. 816, s. V. Muragium. 

muscettes (279, 261, 433, 466); 
muscettez (314), mussetes, en 
(692). Fr. In a secret place. See 
Mucettes. 

muskeles. Engl. plur. Mussels, 
(244.) See Muxlen. 

mustier. Fr. A church. (643.) 
See Monster. 

mustier. Fr. Need, necessity. (477.) 
See Mister. 

muxlen. Mussels. (245.) ^Mucxle* 
and * muxle * are given as the A. S. 
for a mussel, in A. S. Vocabula- 
ries of the 10th centurt/, in 
Wright's Vol. Vocab. pp. 66, 281. 
See Muskeles. 

mynstralcye. Fr. Minstrelsy. (460.) 
See Minstralcie. 

mynstralx. Fr. plur. Minstrels. 
(458, 459.) See Ministrallx. 

mylieu. Fr. Middle, midway. (657.) 

nadgars. Fr. Lately, of late. (390.) 
namices (382). An error, on 
part of the transcribers, in Liber 
Custumarum and Liber Albus for 
^ Nauntes,' the name of the place 
whence choice lampreys were im- 
ported. See Introd. to Liber 
Albus, p. Ixxvii. Note, 
naymes. Fr. plur. Distresses, or 



342 



LIBER ALBUS. 



naams, (188, 633.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 816, s. v. 
Namium. See Neyme^ and Na- 
mium, 

ne. Fr. Our. (424.) 

necessitate. Fr, Necessity, (180.) 

Neelle (424), Nele (228, 418). The 

town of Nesle, in Picardy. See 

the Glossary to Liber Custum. 

p, 745. 

nemye. Fr. Not, not at all. (47.) 
neof. Fr, Nine, (247,465.) 
neofisme. Fr. Ninth, (515.) 
neot. Fr, A night, (476.) See 
Noet. 

neqedent. Fr. Nevertheless, (271.) 
nes, Fr. (111.) For «neles,"not 
them. 

netture. Fr. Cleanness, (457.) 
Nevereatham (83). Never-at-home ; 
a surname, evidently originating 
in jest, 
neyme (184). A French form of 
the A, S. naam, or nam, signify- 
ing a seizure or distress. See 
the Glossary to Liber Gustum, p. 
816, s. «?, Namium^ See Naymes, 
and Namium, 

Nicholas Flesshshameles, Seynt. 
Saint Nicholas Flesh-Shambles. 
(465.) See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 817, s. vv. NicJiolai 
Aldrethegate, 

Nief Cimitere, la. Fr. (229,) The 
New Churchyard, or Cemetery. 
Possibly, the locality formerly 
known as the * New Churchyard,' 
on the site of the present Liver- 
pool Street, Bishopsgate, in the 
City, is meant. 



nief (229, 246, 271, 275), niefs 
(236). Fr. A ship, or vessel. See 
Scatters* 

nient contresteaunt (45), nientcoun- 
treesteaunt (183), nyentcontre- 
esteaunt (182). Fr. Notwith- 
standing. 

nient meyns, Fr. Nevertheless. 
(722.) 

nient replenissable (663), nientre- 
plevizable (188). Fr, Irreple- 
visable 5 that neither may nor 
ought to be replevied, or delivered 
on sureties. See Noun-replenissh" 
able, 

noeptandre. Fr. By night, (382.) 
From the mediaeval Latin *noc- 
' tanter,' of the like meaning. 

noesaunce, Fr. Nuisance, (585.) 
See Nosance^ and Noysaunce. 

noet, Fr. Night. {266, 273, 276, 
280, 282, 332, 388, 453, 523, 
578, 645, 647, 722.) See Neot. 

nois mugettes. Fr. plur. Nutmegs 
(230) 5 (where read as above, for 
" nois nuigettes "). In Chaucer the 
nutmeg is called * notemuge' ; a 
compound word, probably derived 
from the French. 

noisz (238), noiz (238, 246, 247). 
Fr. plur. Nuts. Under this name, 
both walnuts and smaller nuts 
were probably meant ; as in the 
Nominate of the I5th Century 
(Wright's Vol. Vocab. p, 228), 
the word *avellana' is given as 
both a ' walnutte' and * the nutte,' 
See Notz. 

nomement, Fr, Especially, by 
name. (281, 334.) 

non. Fr, A name. (390.) 



GLOSSAEY OF ANGLO-NOKMAN, ETC. 



343 



none. Fr. Noon. (45, 687, 712.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn. p. 746. 

Northmymmys. North Mimms, in 
Hertfordshire. (550.) 

nosance (313), nosaunce (259). Fr. 
Nuisance, annoyance. See iVbc- 
saunccy and Noysaunce, 

nosante. Fr. Evil, hurtful. (314,) 
Nostre Dame atte Bow. Fr. Our 
Lady at Bow. (387.) The church 
of Saint Mary le Bow, in Cheap- 
side, said to have been so called 
from having been the first church 
in London built upon arches. See 
Stow's Survey. See Bowe, 

notoirment. Fr. Notoriously. (476.) 
notz. plur. Nuts, (232.) See 

Noisz. 

noun (465, 471, 515), nounn (277, 
281). Fr. Not. 

noun. Fr. A name (425, 426, 458, 
463, 520, 522, 646, 664). See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p*746. 

noun (381, 384), noune (271). Fr. 
Noon. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 746, s. v. 
None. 

nounper (245), nounpier (237). Fr. 
Nonpareil. In a document temp. 
Henry Vm., marked ^Aldebo- 
' ron,' and preserved in the Public 
Record Office, this word (or rather 
the word or words which occupied 
its place in the copy from which 
the translation was made) is trans- 
lated, " not bound,'* See Caboche^ 
and ValaiiL 

HQun-replenisshable, Fr. Irre- 



plevisable. (472.) See Nient re- 
plenissable. 
nounsuyte. Fr. A nonsuit. (181.) 
Novel Disseisine (566), Novelle 
Disseisyne (187, 195) Fr. The 
Assize of Novel Disseisin was 
a speedy remedy for the re- 
covery of lands or tenements of 
which the party was disseised. 
It was so called because the Jus- 
ticiars in Eyre went their circuits 
every seven years ; and no assize 
being allowed before them, which, 
commencing before the last cir- 
cuit, was called an Ancient Assize, 
that which was based upon a 
disseisin since the last circuit 
was called an Assize oi Novel Dis- 
seisin. This Writ of Assize is 
abolished by 3 & 4 WiUiam IV. 
c. 27. s. 36. See FressheforcCy and 
Frisca-forcia^ 
noyr. Fr. Black. (725.) 
noysaunce. Fr. Nuisance, annoy- 
ance. (337.) See Noesaunce, and 
Nosance* 
nules. Fr. Any person. (283.) 
null. Fr. Any person. (HO.) 
nurry. Fr. Bred, brought np. 
(49.) 

obligacoun faite en le sengle. Fr 
An obligation made in the single. 
(211.) A bond with a single 
penalty. See Obligatio. 

obligeez (206), obligez (206). Fr. 
plur. Persons bound in an obli- 
gation or bond ; now called, not 
* obligees,' but * obligors,' the word 
having a reflective signification. 

oeveraigne. Fr. Work. (672.) 



3U 



LIBER ALBUS. 



oeverauntz. Fr. plur. Workmen, 

(732.) 

oeverour. Fr. A workman. (672, 

673.) 
oignoun (418), oinoun (260). Fr. 

An onion. See Oynon. 

Oistergate (235), Oystergate; a 
Watergate adjoining old London 
Bridge, the present bridge occu- 
pying its site. See Liher Cus* 
turn. pp. 367, 447, 448, and Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum, p. 747, 
s. V, Oistregate, 

okschip (374). See Hocscip, 

Oldefisshestrete (686), Oldefissh- 

strete(689), Oldfisshestrete (689). 

Old Fish Street, near St. Paul's 

Cathedral. See Eldejistrate, and 

Westjistrete. 

Olerom (536, 547). The Isle of 
Oleron ; off the coast of Charente 
Inferieure, in France. The Code 
of naval laws is alluded to, said 
to have been made at that island 
by Bichard I., before his expedi- 
tion to the Holy Land. 

onhour. Fr. Honour. (368.) 

ordeignement (286, 290), ordeyine- 
ment (284). Fr, An ordinance. 

ordynaunce. Fr. An ordinance. 
(2S8.) 

orible. Fr. Horrible. (367, 394.) 

orlok (235), orlokes (237, 239). 
Engl. Oarlocks, or locks for the 
oars, now known as * rowlocks.' 
Boats thus navigated seem to 
have been uniformly of larger 
size than those rowed with thole- 
pins. See Horlocy and Tholles, 

orphanynis. Fr. plur. Orphans. 
(309.) 



orpiment (230), orpyment (224). 
Fr. Orpiment, or gold pigment ; 
sesquisulphuret of arsenic, either 
a native ore or artificially pre- 
pared. 

ose. Fr. Bold, daring. (270.) 

osteler. Fr. A hosteler, or keeper 
of a hostel or inn. (667.) See 
Hosteler. 

Otteforde. Otford, in Kent. (297.) 

ottroier. Fr. To authorize, to 
grant. (424.) 

oure (621). It seems impossible to 
identify the beast meant under 
this name. It may have been 
the Urus of the East of Europe j 
or possibly the Ihrwy, which has 
lately been introduced into this 
country from Morocco. 

Outfangthef (145, 159, 167, 661). 
A. S. See the Glossary ix^ Liber 
Custum, p. 773, s, v. Uifangene- 
theof. 

outlage (259), outlaghe (660). Engl 
An outlaw. 

outrageous. Fr. Outrageous, be 
yond measure, excessive. (510.) 

ovekes (111), ovesqes (44, 400,427 
459,496,517). Fr. With. 

overaigne (494), overaygne (477) 
Fr. Workmanship, work. 

overir. Fr. To work. (672.) 

overour. Fr. A workman, a la- 
bourer. (728.) 

ovesqes. See OtJefe*. 

owel (389, 704, 705), owele (308, 
317). Fr. Equal, like. 

oyl. 'Fr. Garlic. (667.) See 
Ayle. 

oynon (667), oynoun (238). Fr. 
An onion. See Oignoun, 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



345 



oynt. Fi\ Lard, grease, (237, 

245, 279, 713.) 
oystrebot. Engl, An oyster-boat, 

(343, 376.) 
oytisme. Fr. The eighth. (368.) 

pael (261), paiel (675, 719). Fr. 
A pan, a frying-pan ; the same 
as the modern French *poele.' 

* Ahenum,* a cauldron or brazen 
vessel, is given as the equivalent 
of ^ paele ' in Neckam De Uten^ 
silibus (Wright's VoL Vocab, 
p. 97) ; and in the same page, 

* sartago,' a frying-pan, is rendered 
^* graunt paele," Hence, too, the 
word « peel,' the name of an im- 
plement used by bakers. See 
Payele, 

paisaunt. Fr, A peasant, a coun* 
tryman, (260, 263.) 

palys, Fr. A set of palings or 

palissades. (477, 585.) 
panelx, Fr. plur. Panels of jurors, 

(198,) See Panellum. 

panes, Fr. plur. Furs, skins. 
(230,) See Conins panes, 

panier (234, 378), panyer (378, 381, 
549, 687). Fr. A basket or 
pannier ; properly, a basket for 
holding bread {payn\ See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
818, s, V, Panerius; also, the 
Introduction to Liber AlbuSy p. 
Ixviii. See Panerium, 

papir (188), papire (519). Fr. A 
paper. 

parcelle. Fr. A parcel, part, or 
separate quantity. (209, 211, 
248, 274.) 



parcomplir. Fr. To complete, to 
fulfil, to accomplish. (272.) 

pardecea. Fr. On this side, (578, 
580.) 

parentre. Fr. Through, by rea- 
son of. (284.) 
parfourmer. Fr, To perform. (494.) 
parmentrie (231), parmentrye (225). 
Fr. Parmentery ; a peculiar 
kind of cloth (probably of the 
finest texture) used by the ' par- 

* menter,' or tailor, of the Middle 
Ages, Mr. Stapleton, in the 
Preface to his edition of the Li" 
ber de Anfiq, Legibus (pp. xi., 
xii.), contends that the 'par- 
'mentarius* was not identical 
with the ' cissor,' * tailor,' or * cut- 

* ter-out* of clothes; but that he 
was a merchant clothier, or sort 
of wholesale dealer in clothes and 
furs ; and he censures Du Cange 
for giving the former explanation 
to the word. His arguments, 
however, though interesting, do 
not carry conviction, 

parole. Fr. Plaint, accusation, suit. 
(110, 183.) 

parroye. Fr. A partition of rooms 
in a house. (333.) 

partier (274), partiere (448). Fr. 
To part with, to g^i rid of. 

Pas (728), Pask (229), Pasqes 
(518). Fr. Easter. 

past. Fr. Dough. (705,706.) 
pastes. Fr. plur. Pasties, pies, 
pastry. (265.) 

pasteler. Fr. A pasteler, pie-baker, 
or maker of pastry. (680, 717.) 
See Pyebakerey and Pastellarius* 



SiS> . :■ 



346 



LIBER ALBUS. 



patyn. Fr. A paten, or flat earthen 
dish. (238.) 

Pauntage. Fr. (421.) An error 
for ^ pountage/ a toll for the re- 
pair and maintenance of bridges, 
exacted from those passing over 
or beneath. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 704, s* v* Brud" 
thoL 

Pavage. Fr. Pavage; a toll levied 
for paving streets and highways. 
(421.) See the Glossary to Li- 
ber Cu$tum» p. 819, 5. v. Pava- 
gium, 

paveour (728, 731), paviour (729), 
pavyour (533). Fr, A pa- 
vior. 

pavise. Fr. A large shield. (515.) 
The word ^ pavisse,' * pavys,' or 
* pavish,' was used in this sense 
in early English. See the autho- 
rities quoted by Haliiwell, Diet, 
Arch. p. 609. 

pavyment. Fr. A pavement. (562, 
716.) 

payele. Fr. A pan, or frying-pan. 
(6670 See FaeL 

payn (260, 264, 265, 266, 333, 694, 
695, 721), payne (264). Fr. 
Bread, a loaf of bread. 

payn pur chivalx. Fr. (722.) Horse- 
bread. This was made of beans, 
as well as peas. " Bushell 
" of beanes for hors-breade to 
" be made for th'expences of 
" xxvii hors of my lords ;" — Nor^ 
thumbd. Household Book, Antiq, 
Bepert iv. p. 143. It was also 
made into loaves, the weight and 
quality of which were regulated 
hj assize. See Panis equinus. 



peal. Fr. A skin. (274, 667, 712, 
713, 719.) See Pealxlanuz, and 
Pel 

pealxlanuz (713),peauxlanuz (279). 
Fr. plur. Woolfels, the skins of 
sheep with the wool on. See 
Pelles lanes. 

peas (285), peys (285). Fr. Weight. 

See PeiSy and Poys. 
peas. Fr. Peace. (259, 276, 277, 

280, 284, 315, 332, 333, 388,420, 

528, 640.) See Pes. 

pees. Pr. plur. Feet. (271.) 

peii. Fr. Clothofpile,i.e. cloth with 

a thick nap. (231.) See Pyles. 
peir (727, 732), peire (732). Fr. A 

pair, 

peire. Fr. A pear. (236.) 

peis. Fr. Weight. (226.) See PeaSy 

and Poys. 
peisage. Fr. Pesage. (247.) See 

the Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 

819, 5. V. Pesagium. See Poisage. 
peise. Fr. A wey, or weigh. (226, 

245.) See the Glossary to Liber 

Custum. p. 820, s. v. I^sa. See 

Poise, and Poys. 

peiser. Fr. To weigh. (285.) 
peisour (285), peisur (285). Fr. A. 
weigher. 

peivere. Fr. Pepper. (223, 224,230.) 
pel (712), pelle (466). Fr. A 

skin. See Peal. 
peleter (279), pelleter (288). Fr. 
A skinner, or pelterer j so called 
from his dressing pelts, or fleeces 
with the wool on. See Pelter, 
and Peletarius. 

peletrie {226, 279, 719), pelletrie 
(230). Fr. Peltry, or woolfels j 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



347 



the skins of sheep with the wool 

on. 
pek. EngL A peck, in measure, 

(335.) 
pelles lanes. Fr. Woolfels. (246.) 

See Pealx lanuz, 

palter. Fr. A skinner, or pelterer. 

(554, 719, 720.) See Peleter. 
pelure. Fr. Prepared lambskin or 

goatskin, known as ' budge.* 

(279,592,718.) 

penaunce. Fr, Penalty, punishment. 
(189.) 

pentis (584, 585), pentiz (271), 
pentys. (584). Fr. plur. Pent- 
houses, or pentices; open sheds or 
projections over a door, or window, 
to form a protection against the 
weather* Anciently known also 
as a 'lean-to,' or a *to-falL' See 
Parker's Glossary of Gothic 
Architecture^ i. pp. 283, 475. See 
AppenticCy and Appenticium, 

peple. Fr. People. (514, 518.) 
pepoudrous. Fr. Dusty foot. (67.) 
A name applied to travellers and 
wayfarers making short stay in 
a place. From this term our 
word * pedlar' is said to be de- 
rived. The Courts of ^Pie-powder' 
(or dusty-foot), held for the benefit 
of such persons, at a later period 
were confined solely to Fairs. In 
the 13th and 14th centuries they 
were held daily in the City. 

per au per. Fr. Like to like ; on 
an equal footing. (287.) 

perche. Fr. An ale-pole, or ale- 
stake. (260, 338.) From the 
JLatin * pertica,' See Halliwell's 



Diet. Arch. p. 41, s. vv. Ale- 
polcy and Ale^stake. 

perdoun, Fr. Pardon. (380.) 

pemour. Fr. A taker, (690.) 

perpaier. Fr. To pay in full, to 
settle with. (262.) 

personee (279, 289, 387), persoune 
(275). Fr. Rung out. Past par- 
ticiple of the verb * personer ' or 
' persouner.' 

pes. Fr. Peace. (640.) See Peas. 

pescer. Fr. To feed. (282.) 

pescher (288, 517), pesker (381). 
Fr. To fish, to catch by fishing. 

pescherie. Fr. Fishing, the act of 
fishing. (381.) 

peschour. Fr. A fisher, or fisher- 
man. (507, 689.) 

pesiblement. Fr. Peaceably. (319, 
421.) 

pesker. See Pescher. 

pesson (507, 515, 518, 680, 690, 
691), pessoun (233,235, 270, 273, 
308, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 
384, 513, 687, 688, 689, 690, 696, 
717), pessounn (234, 235, 288) 
pessouns (288). Fr. Fish. 

pessoner (271, 289, 378), pessonere 
(289, 690), pessouner (377). Fr. 
A fishmonger. 

pessonierie. Fr. (380.) A fish- 
mongery; either for the sale of 
fresh fish, or for that of dry salt 
fish, or stockfish. 

pester. Fr. To make or knead 
bread, to bake. (259, 338, 722.) 

pestour. Fr. A baker. (259, 264, 
265, 266, 680, 694, 697, 703, 704, 
705,706,721.) 

pestre (717), pestrer (717). Fr. 
To put into a crust or paste. 



: 



348 



LIBER ALBUS. 



pestrie. Fr. Akneading, (706). 

pestrine. Fr. A bakehouse. (703.) 

Petit Cape, Petty, or Petit, Cape. 
(181.) A judicial Writ, touching 
pleas of lands or tenements. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 750. See Graunt Cape. 

peti-esnet (346), petrisnet (577). 
Engl, See the Grlossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 749, s, v, Peteresnet. 

pens. Fr. plur. Woolfels. (246.) 

peutre. Fr. Pewter. (601.) 

peutrer. Fr. A pewterer. (737.) 

peyn (261, 334), peyne (263, 264, 
268, 271, 273, 274, 388, 401, 421, 
453, 460, 507, 525, 579, 584, 664, 
699, 706, 709, 711, 722, 730). 
Fr. Pain, penalty. 

Peytevin. A Poitevin, or native of 
Poitou. (101.) 

phelipen Fr. A pheliper, or frip- 
perer; a dealer in old clothes and 
furniture. (279, 718.) 

pieaux* Fr. plur. Skins. (260). 

pier (333), piere (259, 313), Fr. 
stone. 

pilory. Fr. The pillory. (458.) 
See Pyllorye. 

pioine. Fr. (230.) See Pyoine, 

Pipe (318). The Pipe Roll, or Great 
Roll of the Exchequer, containing 
the accounts of debts due to the 
King ; said to have been so called 
from its resemblance in shape to 
a pipe for wine, and in the cus- 
tody of the Clerk of the Pipe. 
Certain charges made out against 
the Sheriflfs of Counties were 
called " Summonses of the Pipe." 

pissounerie. Fr. The calling of a 
fishmonger. (379.) 



plaitz. Fr. plur. Pleas. (110.) As 
to the possible origin of this 
word (from the Latin ^placitum') 
see the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
pp. 795, 796, 5. vv. Crux Lapidea, 
See Pledz, 

plaistrer (252), plaster (728), plas- 
trer (289, 553, 554, 735), plays- 
terer (533). Fr. A plasterer. 

pledz. Fr. plun Pleas. (317.) 
See Plaitz. 

plegge. Fr. A pledge, or surety. 
(110, 268.) 

plein accompt. Fr. Settled account, 
receipt in full. (525.) 

pleindre (295, 369), pleyndre (296, 
567, 572, 663). Fr. To com- 
plain, to make complaint. 

pleint (472), pleynt (200, 213, 216, 
293, 508, 510), pleynte (293, 
669), Fr. Plaint, complaint. 

pleniement. Fr. Fully. (423.) 

plesir. Ft. Pleasure. (518.) 

pleyn. Fr. Full. (316,359,695, 
697.) 

pleynt. See Pleint, 

pleyntif. Fr, A plaintiff, or com- 
plainant. i6SS^ 677.) 

plomeez, Fr. (278.) Leaded, fitted 
with lead* Past participle plural 
of the verb * plomer,* 

plum ( 574 ), plumbe (259). Fr. 
Lead. 

plumbe. Fr. (288.) Leaded, fitted 
with lead. Past participle of the 
verb 'plumber.' 

plus (382), pluous (687). Fr. Rainy. 

poar (310), poare (319), poair (567, 
585, 642, 721), poaire (311, 312, 
360, 426). Fr. Power. See 
Poere, Poiar, and Power. 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAK, ETC. 



349 



poere, Fr. Power. (311, 317.) See 
Poor J Poiary and Power. 

poiar (280, 286, 383, 388, 425), 
poiare (315, 317, 420, 422). Fr. 
Power. See Poar^ Poere, and 
Power. 

poigne. Fr. The fist. (389.) See 
Poygn. 

poisage. Fr. Pesage. (226.) See 
Peisage. 

poise. Fr. A wey, or weigh. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 820, s. V. Pisa^ See Peise, and 
Pof/8. 

polayne (279). See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 751, s» v. Polan. 

Pole, la (249, 263, 279, 708, 709, 
710, 711). The Pool ; a part of 
the Thames extending from the 
Tower to Limehouse. It is de- 
rived, probahly, from the A. S. 
pol, a pool, or lake. 

poleterre. Fr. A poulterer. (289.) 
See Pulletere, 

poletrie. Fr. Poultry. (231,260.) 
See Pulletrie. 

Pool, Seint. Fr. Saint Paul. (119.) 
Down to the 16th century, if 
not later, the Cathedral of Saint 
Paul was known in this country 
as ^Poules,' or 'Powles.' See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
pp. 751, 752, s. vv. Pol and Pooh 
See PouU 

pople. Fr. The people. (283.) 

pople (279.) According to a Note 
in Liber Horn, fol. 249, this was 
the fur of the back of the squirrel 
in spring. 

porcherie. Fr. A pigsty. (260, 
590.) 



porrez. Fr. plur. Leeks. (233.) 
Portsokene (138, 154, 164, 273, 

720), Portsokne (301, 463). The 

Portsoken. See the Glossary to 

Liber Cusfum. p. 821, s, v, Porte' 

sokcb. 
potelle. Fr. A pottle, two quarts. 

(260, 335, 336, 361.) See the 

Glossary to Liber CiLstum, p. 

821, s. V. Potellus. 
pottz. Fr. plur. Pots. (261.) 
pouchemaker. Engl. A maker of 

pouches, or leathern pockets, hung 

from the girdle. (654, 736.) See 

Tassemaker, and Bursarius, 
pouf. Engl. Puff, a kind of light 

French bread. (353, 354.) See 

Puffe. 
Poul (261, 270, 279, 289), Poule 

(475), Seint. Fr. Saint Paul. 

As to the foot of St. Paul (p. 

279), see the Glossary to Liber 

Custum. p. 751, s. V. PoL See 

Pool. 
pouns- Fr. An inch. (577.) 
pover (262, 295), povere (295.) Fr. 

Poor, 
power. Fr. Realm, dominion, power. 

(248, 280, 293, 388, 473, 494, 

641, 642, 645.) See Poar, Poere^ 

and Poiar. 
poygn (180), poyn (642, 644.) Fr. 

A hand, or fist. See Poigne. 
poynt. Fr. A point. (644.) 
poys. Fr. Weight. (223, 224, 588.) 

See PeaSy and Peis. 
poys. Fr. A wey, or weigh. (237, 

238.) See the Glossary to Liber 

Custum. p. 820, s. v. Pisa. See 

Peise, and Poise. 
poys. Fr. plur. Peas. (705.) 



350 



LIBER ALBUS. 



poyser. Fr. To weigh. (285.) 
Prattisferie (516), Prattysferye 
(515). Probably identical with 
the present Rainham Ferry, near 
Barking, in Essex. It may pos- 
sibly have had this name from 
some person named * Pratt,' who 
rented it. 

preisen Fr. To appraise. (188,202, 
520.) 

preiser (471), preisour (471.) Fr. 
An appraiser. 

prentiz. Fr. An apprentice. (272.) 
pridnet. Engl. (346, 577.) See the 

Glossary to Liber Ciistum, p. 

753. 

primes. Fr. First. (268.) 

Primer Sacrement, Fr. (426.) The 
First Sacrament. Easter Sunday, 
uot improbably, is meant ; one of 
the names given to which was, 
^^ Prima Dominicay^ the First 
Sunday. 

prisonee. Fr. A prison. (387, 389.) 
See Prysoun, 

prisoun. Fr. A prisoner. (47.) 
prodhomme. Fr. (44.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum, p. 753, 
s, V, Prodeshomes, 
proeve. Fr. Proof. (669.) An 
approver, or inforraer. (475, 765.) 

profit. Fr. Profitable. (371.) 
prohibucioun. Fr. Prohibition. 
(420.) 

promesce. Fr. A promise. (308.) 
propirtee. Fr. Property. (189.) 
Province. (711.) Wine of Provence; 
similar, probably, to the red wine 
now known as RoussiUon, or 
Masdeu. 



prow. Fr. Profit, advantage. (306.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 754, *. V, Pru. 

pru. Fr. (379.) Advantage. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 754. 

Pruz. Prussia. (238.) " An hundred 
" marke of Pruce money fyne." 
MS. Bawl. c. 86. 

Pryme. Fr. The canonical hour of 
Prime. (270, 271, 279, 289.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
753, s, V, Prime, 

prynce. Fr. A prince. (388.) Ed- 
ward the Black Prince, eldest son 
of Edward III;, is here alluded to. 

prys. Fr. Price. (271.) 

prys (247, 248), pryse (248.) Fr. 
Prise, prisage, or seizure in the 
King*s behalf. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 821, s, v, 
Prisa, 

prysoun (283), prysoune (269). Fr. 
A prison. See Prisonee, 

pryve (263), pryveez, plur. (282, 
306). Fr. A denizen, one having 
civic rights. 

puffe. Engl. Puff, a kind of light 
French bread. (353.) See Pouf, 

puise. Fr. Then. (408.) 

pulletere (289, 465), puUeter (465), 
pulletier (465), pulter (715, 716, 
717), pultere (716). Fr. A poul- 
terer. See Poleterre, 

pulletrie (465, 667, 696, 715), pul- 
trie (231, 673, 716, 717). Fr. 
Poultry. See Poletrie, 

punicement (281), punisshement 
(476). Fr. A punishment. 

purcelle. Fr. The bird known as a 
* purcel.' (466.) 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC, 



351 



purchacer. Fr. To obtain, to buy, 

to purchase^ (228, 408). 
purchacere. Fr. refl. To prosecute 

one's suit, (472.) 
purparlance. Fr. A meeting, a con- 
ference. (276.) 
purpresture, Fr. A purpresture or 

pourpresture, an encroachment. 

(259.) See the Glossary to Liber 

Custum, p. 822, s, v. Purprestura. 
purprise. Fr. A purpresture. (476, 

477, 580, 584, 729). 
pursueour (425), pursuer (424). Fr. 

A pursuer, or promoter, 
pursuere (390), pursuier (188). Fr. 

To prosecute a suit, 
putayne (457, 459), puteine (259), 

puteyn (457), puteyne (275, 591). 

Fr. A harlot, a courtesan, 
putere. Fr. A harlot, a courtesan. 

(332, 336.) 
puteresse. Fr. A receiver, orhar- 

bourer, of courtesans. (458.) 
putour. Fr. A brothel-keeper, a 

whoremonger. (259, 457, 458, 

592.) 
pyebakere. Engl, A pasteler, or pie- 
baker. (316.) See Pasteler, and 

Pastellarius, 
pygoun. Fr. A pigeon. (467.) 
pyke. Engl. The pike, a fish, (607.) 
pyles. Fr. plur. Probably, cloths 

of pile, cloths with a thick nap. 

(225.) See PeiL 
pyllorye (336), pylorie (279, m6), 

pylory (263, 465). Fr. The 

pillory. See Pilory, 
pynner. Engl. (737). A pinner, 

or maker of pins. It has been 

represented that pins were not 

made in this country until the 



time of Henry VIII. ; we here 
see the Pinners established in 
London, in the reign of Edward 
III. They also made iron cards, 
for the carding of wool. See 
Cardemaker. 
pyoine. Fr. (224.) The Latin 
word *■ pinetum ' is explained as 
" a pyoun '' in the Nominale of 
the I5tk Century (Wright's VoL 
Vocab. p. 227); and a 'pyoun,' 
or *pione,' probably means the 
seed of the piony; formerly used 
as a spice, according to Halliwell, 
Diet. Arch, p. 626. But query as 
to this; for though pungent, these 
seeds are cathartic and emetic. 
'Pione ' seems also to have been a 
mediaeval name for hemp; see Du 
Cange, Glossary (ed. Henschel), 
s» V, Piones, See Pioine. 

qar. Fr. For. (368.) 

Qaresme. Fr. Lent. (577.) 

qeconqes. Fr. Whatever, what- 
soever. (369,520,523,524.) See 
Queconqes. 

qi. Fr. Which. (44.) 

qu. Fr. That. (268.) 

quanq. Fr. As much as, so far as. 
(309.) 

quartrounn (232), quartrun (674). 
Fr. A quarter of a hundred- 
weight. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 755, s, v, Quar- 
teroun, 

quatroun. Fr. A quarter of a 
hundred- weight. (235.) See the 
preceding word. 

queconqes. Fr. Whatsoever. (507.) 
See Qeconqes. 



352 



LIBER ALBXJS, 



queek (606). Probably, a chess- 
board of some description ; this 
perhaps being the only instance 
in which it occurs. In Gough's 
Wardrobe Accounts^ 28 JEdw. I. 
p. 351, there is an entry, " iw- 
" dend* ad creag/^ which in the 
Introduction is taken to mean 
cribbage. Again, in Vol. v. of 
the Royal Ordinances of France^ 
p. 253, art. 3, a very similar 
word, * quecce,' is used as signi- 
fying a barrel for fresh herrings. 
« Quecord ' is mentioned by Halli- 
well, Diet Arch. p. 657, as a 
game prohibited by an ancient 
Statute, and supposed by Blount 
to be similar to shovel-board. The 
word * chequer ' is used by Robert 
of Gloucester, 1, 192, to signify 
either the game of chess or the 
chessboard. Not improbably, 
* queek' is a vulgar corruption 
of the word, 
Quenehethe. Queen-Hythe, in the 
City of London. (463.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 755. 
On the etymology and exact 
meaning of the word *hythe,' 
see Way's Note to Prompt, Parv. 
p. 242. 
Quenesburghe. Queenborough, in 

Kent. (536.) 
qui. Fr. Than. (462,463.) 
qui. Fr. That. (460, 461, 462, 463, 

466.^ 

quicunqes. Fr. Whoever. (465.) 

quinse. Fr. Fifteen, (462.) 

quinzeine (110), quinzisme (508). 

A quinzisme, or quinzaine, a full 

fortnight. See the Glossary to 



Liber Custum. pp. 756, 822, s. w, 

Quinzeyne and Quindena, 
quit. Fr. Acquitted. (521.) See 

the Glossary to Liber Custum, p, 

756, s. V. Quotes, 
quiteez. Fr. plur. (278). Baked, 

subjected to the action of fire. 

Past participle plural of the verb 

Squire.' See Quyte, 
quivere. Fr. Copper. (225, 231.) 
quynt. Fr. Five. (506.) 
quyte. Fr. Baked. (288.) See 

Quiteez, 
qy. Fr. The which. (371.) 

rale (234), raye (234). Fr. The 
fish known as a * ray/ 

rakyer. Engl. A raker. (335.) 
The * raker ' of the Middle Ages 
performed the same duties as the 
* scavenger' of the present day; 
who derives his name from the 
' scavager,' or officer who received 
the duties on the opening out, or 
showage, of imported goods, and 
whose office it also was, to see 
that the wharfs and streets were 
kept free from nuisances. See 
the Introd. to Liber Albus, p. xli. 
See Scavegeour, Scawage, and 
Pastraior, 

raser. Fr. To shave. (458, 460.) 

raunceon (643), raunsoun (281, 
290). Fr. Ransom. 

ray (459), raye (459). Fr. Made 
of ray, a rayed or striped cloth. 
See Drap de ray, 

raye. See Raie. 

real. Fr. Royal. • ** Rues realx.*' 
Royal streets, i, e, the King's 
highways. (273.) 



GLOSSAHY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



S53 



receant (283), receaunt (203). Fr. 

Resident, residing in. See Res- 

ceant, and Resteaunt, 
recettement. Fr. Harbouring, con- 
cealment, reception. (283.) 
recettour. Fr. A receivei*. (276.) 
recevire. Fr. To receive. (390, 394, 

400.) 
rechatre. Fr. To buy back again. 

(694.) 
reconisance (471), reconisaunce 

(471, 478). Fr. Recognizance, 

acknowledgment, 
recoveree. Fr. (44.) A recovery, 

either true or feigned ; in either 

case, the obtaining a thing hy 

judgment or trial of law. See 

Tomlins' Law Diet, s, v» Re- 

eovery* 
Redyng (535), Redynge (540). 

Reading, in Berkshire, 
ree. Fr. A net. (507.) See. J2e«>, 

and Rey. 
reen. Fr. Nothing. (279.) 
regrater. Fr. To regrate, to sell 

by retail. (275, 689, 690.) 
regrateresce {^^^\ regrateresse 

(704). Fr. Aregratress, a female 

who sells articles by retail, 
regratier (270), regratour (46, 271, 

272, 314, 527, 657, 680, 693, 696, 

700, 715). Fr. A regrator, or 

retail dealer, 
reie (516), reye (516). Fr. A net. 

See Ree^ and Rey, 
reigne. Fr. A queen. (693.) 
rejoyere (449), rejoier (420). To 

enjoy. See the Glossary to Liber 

Custum. p, 757, *. v, Reioier, 
relesser. Fr. To withdraw, to 

takeoff. {2^2,) 

VOL. III. 



religioun. Fr. (377.) Apparently, 
a house of religion, monastery, or 
convent. See Religio. 

remeindre. Fr. A remainder. (495, 
496.) 

remeist. Fr. (110.) The third 
person singular imperfect sub- 
junctive of the verb * remener' 
or * remeyndre,' to remain. 

remenaunt. Fr. The remnant, the 
remainder. (381.) 

remever (509, 5S5, 592), remoever 

(457, 592). Fr. To remove, 
remuement. Fr. Removal. (379.) 
renit. Fr. (378.) Apparently, the 
j>ast participle of the verb ^ re- 

* neier,* to renounce, employed 
substantively, as meaning ^ a 

* cheat.' See Burguy, Gram' 
maire de la Langue d^Oll, iii. 
p. 264. 

Renois, Renoys. See Vin Renois, 

reparairer. Fr. To i*esort to, to 

sojourn in. (282.) The word 

* reparairauntz,' in this instance, 
is not improbably an error for 
' repairaunte ;' in which case, it 
will be the present participle 
plural of the verb * repairer.' 

requere. Fr. To demand, to take 
up. (426.) 

resceant (31 1), resceaunt (293, 662, 
722). Fr. Resident, being, abid- 
ing, residing. Hence the old 
English *reciaunt,' in the same 
sense : see the Glastonbury Sur- 
vey^ temp. Henry VIIL^ as given 
in Hearne's Appendix to Lang- 
toft's Chronicle, p. 337, et passim. 
Sec Receant, and Resteaunt^ 

Z 



B^s'i 



354 



LIBER ALBTJS. 



resceiver (45, 222, 262, 266, 723), 

resceverire (419),resceyvre (687). 

Fr. To receive. See Eesus, 

rescett. Fr. Resort. (276.) 

rescous. Fr. Retired, obscured. 

(277, 580). Past participle of 

the verb * resconser/ See SolaiL 

rescous (472, 663), rescouz (472). 

Fr. Rescue, 
resplier. Fr. To make replication, 

to reply. (214.) 
ressette. Fr. Received. (721.) 
resteaunt (267), resteiantz, plur. 
(269). Fr. Residing. See Be- 
ceanty and Resceant 
restreinz. Fr. (267.) Past parti- 
ciple plural of the verb * re- 
' streindre/ to shrink, 
resus. Fr. (475.) Past participle 
plural of the verb ' resceiver,' to 
receive. See Resceiver, 
reteigner. Fr. To retain. (400.) 
retree. Fr. An ebb. (245.) 
retreit. Fr. (220.) Withdrawn. 
Past participle singular of the 
verb ' retrer,' to withdraw, g. v. 
retreour. Fr. A withholder, a 

withdrawer. (359.) 
retrer. Fr. refl. To withdraw 

one's self, (219.) See Retreit 
rettes. Fr. plur. Accused. (279.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum» p. 758, s. V. Retter. 
reugle. Fr. A rule. (528.) 
reuler. Fr. To rule. (494.) 
reulour. Fr. A ruler. (666,) 
revelacioun. Fr. (369.) Perhaps 
an error for ^ relevacioun,' I'elief. 
reversyon. Fr. Reversion ; or ra- 
ther, in this case (180), remainder. 
rew (336), rewe (259, 338, 382, 477, 



584, 585, 590, 647, 685, 688, 690, 

719, 729). Fr. A street. See 

Riewe, and Ruwe. 
rewler. Fr. To rule. (202.) 
rey (288, 518), reye (518), reys 

(577). Fr. A net. SeejRce, and 

Reie. 

reyne. Fr. A queen. (229.) 
Reynes (231), Reyns (225). The 
French cities of Rheims, in the 
department of Marne, and of 
Rennes, in Britanny, seem to 
have been both known in this 
country by the name of ' Rayne,' 
or * Reyns ;' thus, in Liber de 
Antiq. Legibus (Camd. Soc), 
p. 137, " apud Reyns — ^fuit in- 
*< unctus in Regem Francorum," 
.— ." was anointed King of the 
^' French at Rheims." The pas- 
sage in Sir Degore {Hist, Engl 
Poetry, ed. 1840), 
*• Your sheets shal be of cloths ot2iayne" 

is supposed by M. Michel (i?e- 
cherches sur les Etoffes de Sole, 
etc, n. p. 239) to bear reference 
to Rheims ; but Rennes is more 
probably the place meant, as the 
textile manufactures of Rheims 
owe their origin, it is said, to the 
minister Colbert (though certainly 
" serge de Reines *' is mentioned, 
5. a. 1270, in the Memoirs of the 
Sire De Joinville); while Rennes 
was celebrated in the Middle 
Ages, and still is, for its manu- 
factures of fine linen. So *' sherts 
" of Reyns," and " Rayns," are 
mentioned in the Wardrobe Ac- 
counts of 1483, and " schets of 
'' Reynes," " canapes of Reynes," 



EV* • 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



355 



and " pillow-beres (cases) of 
" E-eynes," in the Ceremonies and 
Services at Courts temp. Henry 
VII: see Anfig. Bepert i. pp. 37, 
38, 301, 333, 334, 336. « Bere 
** (or pillow-case) of cloth of 
" Eaynes," is mentioned in 1. 265 
of Chaucer's Dream* In 1. 3828 
of Horn, of the Rose, 

" Had levir in this caas 

" Have ben at Reines or Amias,** 

Eennes, and Amiens, in Picardy, 

are meant, 
reysin (224), reysyn (230). Fr. 

A raisin of the sun, 
Ribbil. The Kibble, a river of 

Lancashire and Yorkshire. (507.) 
riewe. Fr. A street. (58L) See 

Bew^ and Buwe. 
riotour. Fr. A rioter, or riotous 

person. (259.) See Byotour, 
Rive la Reigne. Queen-Hythe. 

(245.) See Qtienehethcy and Byve 

la Beigne, 
robous (579), robouse (579, 581)» 

Fr. Rubbish. Perhaps from the 

Latin * robur,' wood, 
roclie. Fr. A roach. (689») See 

the Glossary to Liber Custum, 

p. 823, s. «?. Bochus, 
Rochele (709, 711). "The Ruele 

" and the Rochel wyn," are men- 
tioned in Piers Plowman, temp, 

Edw. n. In the lines 

'* Both the Roche and the Reyn, 
** And the good Malvesyn,*' 

in the early Romance of Sir De- 
ffrevant,\i, 1414, 1415 (Thorn- 
ton Bomances, Camd. Soc), 
the Rochele wine is not impro- 
bably alluded to; unless indeed 
the red wine of Roche, on the 



a 



<i 



banks of the Loire, is meant. 
Under the name * Rochele,' pos- 
sibly the wine of Rocal, in the 
Lot and Garonne, is signified. 

Romeney (711). A kind of Malm- 
sey ; genuine wine under which 
name was imported from Napoli 
di Romania, in thjB Morea. — 
Malmasyes, Tires, and Rum- 
neys " are wines named in the 
early poem Colyn Blowbolles 
Testament, MS. Rawl. c. 86 
( Thornton Bomances, Camd. Soc. 
p. 301). Halliwell describes it 
(Diet. Arch. p. 691), to all ap- 
pearance inaccurately, as a Span- 
ish wine ; and quotes the line 
from Wright's Beliq. Antiq., 
" Blwet of AUmayne, romnay, and wyin,"— 

from which it would appear to have 
ranked above ordinary wine ; as 
a kind of liqueur probably. Her- 
bert also, in his History of the 
Twelve Livery Comp. ii. p. 629, 
incorrectly describes 'Rumney' 
as a sort of Spanish wine. See 
Malvezie. 

Ronemede (545). The plain of 
Runnemede, in the County of 
Surrey, between Windsor and 
Staines ; the " Charter of Runne- 
". mede " being the MtignaCharta 
of King John, which .was there 
signed. See Thomson's Hist. 
Essay on Magna Charta, 
p. 526. 

roskyn (279). See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum* p. 759. 

roundement. Fr. Roundly, around 
(459.) 



35G 



LIBER ALBUS. 



roygne (461), royne (692, 694, 696, 

698). Fr. A queen, 
rues realx. See Real. 
rumour. Fr. Tumult (462.) 
ruwe. Fr. A street. (265, 313, 

336.) See Rew^ and Riewe* 
ryche. Fr. Rich. (306.) 
ryefere. Fr. A river. (466.) * See 

Ryvere. 

rygliholt. Germ. Wood of Riga. 
(238.) 

ryot. Fr. Riot. (312.) 

ryotour. Fr. A rioter, or riotous, 
person. (337.) See Riotour. 

rys. Fr. Rice. (224, 230.) 

Ryve la Reigne (693), Ryve la 
Roygne (461), Ryve la Royne 
(692, 694, 696, 698), Ryver la 
Reyne (229.) Fr. Queen-Hythe, 
on the Thames ; so called from 
Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of 
Henry IL, to whom it was granted 
in dower ; on pretence whereof, 
King John seized its metage dues, 
and conferred them on his younger 
son, Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 
See Norton's ConstiL City of 
London^ pp. 410, 411 ; also. 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 755, 
s. V. Quenekethe* See Rive la 
Reigne^ 

ryvere. Fr. A river. (288.) See 
Rye/ere^ 

sadelere. Engl. A saddler. (392.) 
saille. Fr. A hall. (229.) See 

the Glossary to Liber Custum. 

p. 760, s, V, Sale. 

sak. Fr. A sack. (226, 227, 245, 
278.) 



salessoun (687), salisoun (382). Fr. 

A salting, 
salmoseux. Fr. plur, Salmon-fry. 

(507.) 
samounn. Fr. Salmon. (235.) 
sane. Fr. Blood. (642,644,667.) 

See Sank. 

sancz. Fr. Without. (184.) See 
SauneZy and Senz. 

Sandwiz. Sandwich, in the County 
of Kent. (248.) 

sank (204, 270, 281, 642, 643), 
sanke (475), saunke (476). Fr. 
Blood. See Sane. 

sauncz. Fr. Without. (214,368.) 
See SancZy and Senz. 

sauser (100). Perhaps an Anglo- 
Norman word, meaning a * sor- 
* cerer :' the individual in ques- 
tion being not unlikely to be re- 
puted as such. 

savacoun. Fr. A saving, salva- 
tion, (49.) 

save. Fi\ Save that. (186.) 
scaleoister. A scallop. (275.) 
Probably an early English name, 
from the A. S. peel, " a shell," in 
consequence of the superior regu- 
larity of its shell. It seems nofc 
improbable that this is the iish 
mentioned in Coleridge's Glos- 
sarial Indexy p. 70, under the 
name of * schuUe,' and in Wright's 
Vol. Vocab. p. 254, as "Haec testa, 
" A schylle." From the Siege of 
Karlaverohy where we learn that 
the arms of Robert de Scales 
were six escallop shells argent, 
we may reasonably conjecture 
that the name of that family was 



GLOSSARY or ANGLO -KORMAN, ETC. 



357 



fiom the A. S. ycel, as meaning 
this fish. See Skaloystre. 

scalters (229), Bcaltres (179, 229, 
234). Shelters, or bulwarks. 
The " nief de scalters," there can 
be no doubt, was the same as the 
< hocscip,* or high ship, mentioned 
in pp. 343 and 374, meaning a 
vessel with comparatively high 
sides or bulwarks. It is also 
clearly identical with the * scan- 
*dea/or "haute nef," mentioned in 
Du Cange, Glossar,(ed, Henschel), 
s. V, Scandea; and not impro- 
bably the same as the ' escauda' 
mentioned {s. t?.) in the same 
work. See Hocscip^ Ohsckip^ and 
Shaltre, 

scavegeour (38), scawageour (254, 
313, 333, 334, 336, 585), scowa- 
geour (333). EngL A scavager. 
See the following word, Scaw- 
age. As to the derivation of 
our present word * scavenger' 
from this word, see Rakyer ; as 
also, Introd. to Liber Aldus, p. 
xli. 

Scawage (225, 229), Scawange(234), 
Scawenge (223). Engl. Scavage, 
or Showage. A toll or duty paid 
for the oversight of certain offi- 
cials, upon the * showage,' or 
opening out, of imported goods j 
the same as the ' ostensio ' paid by 
foreign merchants in the Instituta 
Lundoni<B of Ethelred (Thorpe's 
Ancient Laws and Institutes of 
England, p. 127). Spelman, in 
his Glossary, would derive this 
word from an alleged A, S. word 
jeep an; but there can be little 



doubt that the A. S. jceapian, 
to look at, view, or search (the 
root of our word ' shew *) is the 
basis. In addition to the expla- 
nation of this word given in p. 
22Z of Liber Albus, the reader 
may consult with advantage Nor- 
ton's Cons fit. of the City of Lon- 
don, pp. 493,494. See Escawenge, 
and Rakyer. 

sceiver. Fr. To know. (282.) 

Schot et Loth. Scot and Lot. (128.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn. p. 812, s. vv. Loftum et 
Scottum. 

Scotale (130, 133, 138, 140, 149, 
155, 165, 258, 333, 659). Engl. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cms- 
turn. pp. 760, 761. 

scut (239). A scout, or vessel from 
the Low Countries. See Escout. 

seal. Fr. Salt. (274.) See p. 92 
of the present Volume, Note 2. 
See SeeL 

seaJle. Fr. A seal. (49.) 

secke. Fr. Dry. (724.) 

SecoUane. Sea Coal Lane, in the 
vicinity of the Fleet Kiver. (583, 
621, 713.) For early mention of 
this locality, see the Introd. to 
Liber Albus, p. xxxv. 

secre. Fr. Secret. " Secre Seal," 
the Privy Seal. (372, 373.) 

seel. Fr. Salt. (460.) See Seal, 

seen. Fr. Sense, wit. (311, 317, 
319.) 

sei. Fr. Himself. (112.) 

Sein (260), Seinteez, plur. (309), 
Seintez, plur. (311,314), Seintz, 
plur. (306, 307,308, 310, 312, 313, 
315,316,318,319). Fr. A Saint, 



358 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Saints. See the Glossary to 
Liber Cusfum. p. 763, s» v. Seins. 

sein. Fr. Wholesome, healthful. 
(309.) See Se^n. 

sein (119), seine (697). Fr. A 
bell. From the Latin ^ signum ;' 
and the basis, it is said, of the 
word * tocsin.* See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 763, s, v. 
Seyn, See Seyn. 

Selander (642). A Zealander, or 
native of Zealand, or Seland 
{sea-land), a province of Hol- 
land. 

selde. Fr. A seld, or shed. (704, 
732.) See Sende. 

sendal. Fr. Cendal, sendal, or 
sandel. (727.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. pp. 706, 
792, s, vv> Cendahy Cindatum, 
and Cindon, See Cendal, 

sende. Fr. A seld, shield, or shed 
(227, 2m, 285); used in the Mid- 
dle Ages for the weighing and 
stowage of goods. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 825, 
5. V, Selda, See Selde, 

senz. Fr. Without. (112.) See 
SancZy and Saunez, 

septysme. Fr. The seventh. (464.) 
See Setisme, 

sequestre. Fr. Sequestration. 
(202.) 

serchour. Fr. A searcher. (574.) 

sere. Fr. To sit. (367.) 

serjant (286), serjaunt (286)- Fr. 
A servant. 

servise. Fr. Service. (663.) 

servoise. Fr. Ale. (307, 360, 
361.) 

ses. Fr. For the pronoun *ces/ 



these. (279, 285, 289, 292.) See 
Cez, and Sez, 
sesse (463), sesze (516). Fr. Six- 
teen. 

setisme. Fr. The seventh. (110.) 

See Septysme, 
sette. Fr. An arrow. (515, 516.) 
seu. Fi\ Tallow, suet. (279, 713.) 

See Su, 

seurment. Fr. An oath. (463.) 
See Surement, 

seuretee (395), seurte (710), seurtee 
(387, 389). Fr. Surety, secu- 
rity. 

seute (449), seutees, plur. (306). 
Fr, Suit, suits. See Sewte, and 
Siute, 

seutier. Fr. A suitor. (475.) 
sewer. Fr. To sue. (571.) See 
Siure, Siwer, Suir, and Suyer. 

sewte, Fr. A suit, or cause. (471.) 
See Seute, and Siute, 

seyn, Fr. A bell. (698.) See Sein. 
seyn. Fr. Healthful, sound. (465.) 
See Sein, 

seynture. Fr. A girdle. (370.) 

See Ceynturer, 
sez. Fr, For the pronoun ^cez,* 

these. (426, 474.) See Cez, and 

Ses, 

shaltre (344, 376). See Scalters. 

Shartfort. Engl. (186.) The an- 
cient name of judgment of fore- 
closure ; also called ' Forshot,* 
or 'Forschoke.' From Izack^s 
Antiq, of Exeter, p. 48, we learn 
that this custom (attended with 
certain formalities) was there 
called * Shortford.' See Forshot, 
and Forsshard, 



GLOSSARY OP ANGLO-NOEMAN, ETC. 



359 



i 



♦ 



shether, Engl. A sheather, or maker 
of sheaths. (654, 736.) See Ta- 
ginarius. 

shofnet (577). Engl. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum, p. 711, s. v. 
ChofneU 

shope (205, 714), shoppe (381, 382). 
Engl. A shop. From the A. S. 
f ceop, or fceoppa. 

shotnet (577). Engl. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum, p. 711, s, v. 
Chotnet. See Cotnet, 

Sires. Fr. Lord. (424.) A title 
of honour. 

sis. Fr. Six. (182.) 

siure. Fr. To sue, to prosecute. 

(110.) See Sewer y Siwer, Suivy 

and Suyer. 
siute. Fr. Pursuit. (HI.) See 

SeutCy and Sewte, 
siwer. Fr, To sue, to prosecute. 

(110.) See Sewer, Siure, Suir, 

and Suyer, 

skaloystre (673). See Scaleoister, 
skinnere (396), skynnere (394). 

Engl. A skinner, 
skokkere (377). Evidently an error 

for ^stokkere,' a stockfishmonger. 

See Stokker. 

smelt. EngL plur. Smelts. (577, 
689, 691.) See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 763. 

Smythefeld (249, 272), Smythefelde 
(233, 541, 551, 588, 696, 714, 724), 
Smythfelde (233). Smithfield. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum. p. 764, s, V. Smethefeld, 

snyte. Engl. A snipe. (468.) 
secure. Fr. A helper, an assistant. 
(245.) 



socurere. Fr. To succour, to as- 
sist. (334.) 

soeffraunce. Fr. Sufferance, in- 
dulgence. (284.) 

soeffirer. Fr. To suffer, to allow 
of. (268.) 

soel. Engl. plur. Soles, (244.) 

soel. Fr. Soil. (338.) 

soffrable. Fr, Sufferable, allowable. 
(284.) 

sofre. Fr. Sulphur. (237.) See 
Suffre, 

solail rescous (580), solayl rescous 
(277). Fr. Sunset. Sqq Res- 
cous. 

solere. Fr, A solar or soUar, an 
upper room. (333.) For instances 
of the early use of this word in 
English, see Halliwell's Diet. 
Arch, p. 771, s.v. Soler; also, 
Introd. to Archdeacon Hale's 
Domesday of St. PauVs, p. xcix. 

soleyn. Fr. Private,^ sole, sepa- 
rate. (318.) 

soUempnement* Fr. Solemnly. 

(291.) 
solon (458), solonc (183, 268). Fr. 

According to. 

soltz. Fr. plur, Sols, or shillings 
(494). See Soultz. 

somme de chivalle. Fr. A sumpter- 
horse load, or seam. (235.) 

somonce (380), somons (520), so- 
monz (474), somounnce (267). 
Fr. A summons. 

somonder (182), somoundre (119). 
Fr. To summon. 

sor. Fr. Eed. (235). See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 765, 
s. V. Sor, and p. 827, s. v. Sornus. 



SCO 



LIBER ALBUS. 



sormulet (375), sormulett (234?)* 

Fr. Surmullet, 
sotil. Fr. Fine. " Sotils choses ," 

fine goods, or wares. (230.) See 

Res subtiles. 
sotilment. Fr. Subtly, adroitly. (368.) 
soubz* Fr. Under. (394.) See 

South, and Soutz, 
soultz. Fr. plur. Sols, or shillings. 

(587.) See Solfz. 
soun. Fr. A bell. (515.) See 

Sein^ and Seyn» 

souner. Fr. To ring. (515.) 
sousstablei'e. Fr. To substitute, 
to sub-establish. (425.) 

south (318), southe (332, 336). Fr. 
Under. The form ' south,' or 
' southe,* for ' sous,' under, is pro- 
bably of Walloon origin, and is 
frequently met with in the Anglo- 
French of the latter part of the 
fourteenth, and beginning of the 
fifteenth, centuries. From a remark 
in vol. II. p. 365, Gramm, de la 
Langue dHOtl^ this form would 
seem to be all but unknown to 
M. Burguy. See Soubz, and 
Soutz, 

Southevicountz, plur. (3 17), Southe- 
viscounte (45, 418). Fr. Under- 
sheriffs, Under-sheriff. See South. 

soutz. Fr. Under. (465.) See 
SoubZy and South, 

souvenerement. Fr. Often, often- 
times. (283.) 

sovener. Fr. Frequent. (379.) 
sovent-foitz. Fr. Oftentimies. (462, 
506, 509.) 

soveraigne (264, 290, 318), sove- 
reigne (290, 319), Fr. A supe- 



rior. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 765, s» v* Soveraine, 

soveraignement. Fr. In especial. 
(368.) 

soy (225, 727), soye (225). Fr, 
Silk. 

Spaigne. Fr. Spain. (230.) 

spicer. Engl. A dealer in spices. 
(123, 553). See Espicer, 

spicerie. Fr. Spicery, spices. (224.) 
See Espicery, 

spindeleresbot (374), spindeloresbot 
(343). It seems next to impos- 
sible to identify the vessel thus 
called. It may possibly be the 
'litoraria,' or tpohfcip (trough- 
ship), or coasting-boat, of Arch- 
bishop -^Ifric's Vocab, (p. 64 
Wright's Vol, Vocab,) ; or it may 
mean a trawling-boat, the net of 
which was drawn up by a wind- 
lass, called a * wyndylle ' in Pict, 
Vocab, of I5th Century (Wright's 
Vol, Vocab. p. 275). From the 
nature, however, of the fish with 
which it was freighted, it seems 
not improbable that this vessel 
was used for fishing in deep sea. 

sprottes. Engl. plur. (374.) Sprats. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus' 
turn. p. 827, 8, V, Sprottus, See 
Esprot, 

spud. Engl. (243.) An imple- 
ment used to answer the purpose 
of a wedge; in the present 
instance, for breaking asunder 
masses of salt. 

stallage. Fr. Stallage. (231,) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 702, s, V, BorghalpanyQy and 
p. 828, s, V, Stallagium, 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NOKMAN, ETC, 



361 



stanboghe (667), stanbowe (278). 
Engl. A petronel, stone -bow, or 
bow for casting stones. See^rc- 
a-perrsy and Arcus de petra, 

stalker. Engl. A peculiar kind 
of net so called, the use of which 
was illegal. (507.) 

Staningelane. (115.) Staining Lane, 
in Aldersgatc Ward, in the City. 
It is said to have taken its name 
from painters-stainers dwelling 
there ; but more probably, from 
the church of St. Mary there 
situate, which may have been 
originally built of stone {stane\ 
when others were of wood. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 766, s. V. Staningchirche* 

Staunforde. Stamford, in Lincoln- 
shire. (545.) 

staunce. Fr. Assurance (248): or 
perhaps an error for *fraunce,' 
as given in Liber Horn^ meaning, 
probably, clearance by frank- 
pledge. 

Stebenhuthe (91), Stevenhethe 
(232). Stebonheath, or Stepney, 
in Middlesex. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 766, s, v» 
Stebenhuthe. 

steynour. Engl. Astainer. (738.) 

stikelynge. (689.) Probably, a 
stickleback. In an English 
Vocal), of the \5th Century 
(Wright's Vol. Vocab. p. 189), 
the word ' sty tling ' is given as 
the equivalent of *scorpio,' a 
kind of fish ; and is identified by 
the Editor with the * stickleback ' 
of the present day. In the iVb- 
minale of the 15th Century (p. 



222 of the same Volume), the 
word *gamerus* is rendered a 
^ styklynge;' and in the Prompt* 
Parv. the * stykelynge ' is iden- 
tified with the * silurus ; ' though 
certainly not the ' silurus ' of 
Pliny, Hist. Nat. B. ix. c. 17. 
Cotgi*ave renders * espinoche ' 
(identical with the ^spinaticus' 
or ' ripillio ' of the Middle Ages), 
" a sharpling, shaftling, stickling, 
" bankstickle, or stickleback." 
Hence we may conclude it to be 
the *stanstikle' of Neckam De 
Utensilibus (Wright's Vol. Vocab. 
p. 98) ; the * tantickle ' of the 
Suffolk dialect of the present day. 

stokfisshe. Engl. (238, 712.) Stock- 
fish. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 766, s. v. Stokfishe. 

stokker. Engl. A stockfishmonger. 
(344.) See Skokkere. 

Stokkes (583, 685, 689, 712), 
Stokkis (713), Stokkys (583), le, 
les. The Stocks. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 766. 

strandage (235), straundage (234). 
Fr. Strandage; leave for vessels 
to take the ground at low water. 
See EstraundagCy and Stranda- 
gium. 

stronger. Engl. A stringer, or 
maker of bowstrings. (738.) 

strettez. Fr. plur. Narrow. (336.) 

streyin. Fr. Straw. (337.) See 
Estreiniy and Streym. 

streym. Fr. . Straw% (259.) From 
the Latin * stramen.' See Estreim^ 
and Streyin. 

strik (243), stryk (243). Engl. 
This implement, used for levelling 



362 



LIBER ALBUS. 



corn in the measure, has been 
known in England by various 
other names — "osorium, a stri- 
"kyle," Nominale of the IStk 
Century (Wright's Vol. Vocab. 
p. 233); and 'snitchel,' Halli- 
well's Diet. Arch, p. 766 ; such 
method of measuring being called 
**wood and wood/' in R. Holme's 
Academy f iii. p. 377. This mode 
of measuring was rigidly dis- 
tinguished from that by heaped 
or cantel measure: " Capiatur tol- 
^' netum per rasum, et nihil cum 
"cumulo vel cantallo," — Statu- 
turn de Pistoribus, of uncertain 
date (Stat. Realm, 1810, i. p. 
203). See Topham's Introduc- 
tion to Gough's Wardrobe Ac- 
counts of 28 Edward L The 
* strickle ' is so called in England 
at the present day, but in America, 
according to Webster, the word 
^strike' is used. It seems not 
improbable that from the use of 
this implement a bushel came to be 
called originally a * strike /though 
at a later period a strike sometimes 
meant four bushels, and sometimes 
two. According to Carpentier, 
however (Add. to Du Cange, 
Glossar,)y the bushel was thus 
named from an old German word 
^strick,* See Stricum, 

sturioun. Fr. A sturgeon. (382, 
687.) See Sturio. 

su (245), sue (237). Fr. Tal- 
low, suet ; hence, probably, the 
latter word. 

suetz. Fr. plur. (522.) Apparently 
this means * customary fees.' 



suffi-e. Fr. Sulphur. (230,246.) 

See Sofre, 
suir. Fr. To sue. (522.) See 

Sewer, Siure, Siwer, and Suyer, 

surannez. Fr. plur. Superannuated, 

full-grown. (233.) 
surdauntz. Fr. (514.) Present 

participle plural of the verb * sur- 

* dre,' to arise, 
surement. Fr. An oath. (400.) 

See Seurment* 
suronder. Fr. To beset. (510.) 

surseier (219), surseoir (184, 210). 
Fr. To stay temporarily, to 
surcease. 

surveer (510, 585), surveere (314, 
317), surveier (511, 723), sur- 
veiere. (309.) Fr, To survey, 
to oversee. 

surveour. Fr. A surveyor, over- 
seer, (705.) 

surveu. Fr. Survey, inspection, 
supervision. (511, 512, 521.) 

susrendre. Fi\ To surrender. 
(201.) 

Suthewerk (273, 572), Suthwerk 

(572.) Southwark, in Surrey, 
suwette. Fr. Surety. (524.) 

suyer (182), suyr (184). Fr. To 
sue. See Sewer, Siure, Siwer, 
and Suir, 

suys. Fr. Under. (514.) 

suys et juys. Fr. Up and down, 
(282.) 

suyt (369), suyte (264, 317, 389). 
Fr. Suit. 

sy. Fr. So. (585.) 

symak. Fr. Sumach, or shumac. 
(224, 230.) A plant of the 
genus Rhus, of many specieSj 



£ 



GliOSSABY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



863 



used in dyeing and tanning, and 
for medicinal purposes. 
sys. Fr, Six. (463.) 

taille. Fr. A tally, in proof of a 
debt. (294, 669). See Tallia. 

taller, Fr. To cut. (459.) 

talwode. Engl. (730.) Tall 
wood; firewood cut into long bil- 
lets ; called * talgwood ' and * tal- 
' shide' in the Statutes 34 and 35 
Henry VIII. c. 3; 7 Edw. 6. c. 7; 
and 43 Eliz. c. 14. 

tandele (345, 381, 384), tandelle 
(236), tandle (343, 375, 688), 
tandlee (374, 375). Engl. A 
measure, the dimensions of which 
are, perhaps, now unknown. Five 
tandles of shellfish seem to have 
made an ordinary boatload. This 
word is spelt 'tendell' in Liber 
Horn, 

tane (723). See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 768, 5. v, 
Taune. 

tapicer. Fr. A tapiser, or maker 
of tapestry and carpets. (533, 
723, 726, 735, 738.) See Tapi- 
cerius, 

tassemaker. Engl. (737.) A 
maker of tasses ; i.e, leathern 
purses or pouches. See Pouche" 
maker, 

taster. Fr. To taste, to examine 
or test by tasting. (316, 359.) 

taunt dementiers. Fr. In the mean- 
while. (110.) 

tawyer. Engl. A currier, one who 
taws, or cun-ies, hides. (720, 737.) 

teUe {225\ teille (589, 725). Fr. 
gioth, 



teintre. Fr. To dye, (288.) See 
Teyndre, 

teise. Fr. A toise. (731.) See 
TesBy and Teyse, 

tele. Engl. A teal. (468.) See 
the Glossary to Liher Custum, 
p. 768, s. V, TerceL 

tenseresse. Fr. A scold. (332, 
336, 459.) See Contenderesse, 
and Tenteresse, 

tensurere. Fr. A brawler, or 
wrangler. (459.) 

tenteresse. Fr. A scold. (259.) 
Perhaps the reading here should 
be * tenseresse' or *tenceresse.* 
See Tenseresse, 

tenure. Fr. Tenor, purport. (373.) 

termier. Fr. A termor, a holder 
for a term. (293.) 

terraile (259), terraiUe (313, 333), 
terrayle (337). Fr* An open 
fire-hearth, a reredos. For early 
instances of the mention of the 
reredos, see Parker's Glossary of 
Gothic Architecture^ i. pp. 384, 
385, and Halliwell's Diet* Arch, 
p. 678. 

tese. Fr. A toise. (278.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 770, s, V, Toyse^ See Teise^ 
and Teyse, 

tesmoigne. Fr. Testimony, witness. 
(426.) 

test (458), neste (459). Fr. The 
head. 

tenler. Fr. A tiler, or bricklayer. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus^ 
turn. p. 769. See Tielle^ Tiel- 
lere, Tylere, and Tyulour, 

texter. Fr. To weave. (725.) 
See Tister^ and Tystre, 



364 



LIBER ALBUS. 



teyndrc. Fr. To dye- (724,725.) 
See Teintre. 

teyntour. Fr. A dyer. (723,724). 

teyse. Fr. A toise. (728.) See Teise^ 
and Tese. 

thewe. Engl. (458,459,602,603). 
The thew was a kind of pillory 
used expressly for females ; 
though in a document, temp. 
Henry VII., cited by Mr. Way 
in a Note to Prompt. Farv» p. 
282, the *ihewe' is apparently 
explained as being " scabellum, 
*^ vocatum * a cucking stool.* " It 
is on this authority, probably, that 
it is identified with the cucking- 
stool in Brand's Popular Antiq, 
III. p. 103 (ed. Ellis). However, 
we learn from Letter-Book H. 
ff. 21 and 115, that the thewe 
was a pillory (^collistrigiura*) 
used expressly for women ; con- 
sequently, the assertion in the 
Penny Encyclopedia^ xviii. p. 
159, that in the Middle Ages 
" women were exempted, on ac- 
" count of their sex, from the 
" pillory," is incorrect. This word 
has been said to owe its origin to 
the A. S* ]>eop, a 'slave,' as having 
been especially devoted originally 
to the punishment of that class 
of persons ; but this assertion is 
no more than a mere turmise. 

thoUes. Engl. (235.) Tholes, or 

. thole-pins, used for rowing a boat. 
Such boats in former times were 
evidently of smaller dimensions 
than those rowed with rowlocks. 
See Orloky and Tliollce. 

thresslie. Engl. A thrush. (466.) 



tie. Fr. (279.) A tier, or breadth, 
containing a certain number of 
skins sewed to one another. The 
more usual forms of this word are 
'timbre' and Hire ;' but a more 
common meaning of the latter 
word, as pointed out by M. Michel 
in his Recherches sur les Etoffes 
de Soie^ etc. ii. pp. 3, 4, is a piece 
of rich cloth; though in some of 
the instances cited by him it may 
possibly mean a * length,' and no 
more. According to the Assisa 
dePond, etMensur. {Stat.Eealm^ 
1810, p. 205), the * tymbre,' or 
'senellio,' of coney-skins and 
'gris,' contained 10 or 40 skins, 
the reading being uncertain. 
* Tymbres ' of furs are mentioned 
in the Wardrobe Accounts of 
1483, Antiq, Bepert, i. p. 29, et 
passim. See also Halliwell, Diet. 
Arch* p. 875, s. v. Timber. See 
Tire, and Tye, 

tielle (334), tieule (278), tile (334, 
731), tille (337). Fr. A tile, or 
brick. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 769, s. v. Teuler, and 
p. 830, s. V. Tegula. See Tyle. 

tiellere (338), tiller (334). Fr. A 
tiler, or bricklayer. See Teuler, 
and Tyulour^ 

Tierce. Fr. The canonical hour of 
Tierce, nine in the morning. (271.) 

tile (333), tilx, plur. (333, 367, 
371, 372). . Fr. Such. 

tire. Fr. A tier. (280.) See Tie, 
and Tye. 

tister. Fr. To weave. (273.) See 
Textery and Tystre. 

tixtwriter. Enffl. A writer of 



GLOSSAKY OF ANGLO-NORMAX, ETC. 



365 



texts, a copyist of manuscripts, 
(715.) 

teler. Fr. To toll, to withdraw. 
(248.) 

toncer. Fr. (723.) A tonser; a 
shearman, or shearer of the nap 
of cloth. See Toundour^ and 
Tonsor, 

tonel (526), tonelle (267, 526). Fr. 
A tun, a brewer's vat. 

Tonelle, Fr. (275, 459, 460.) 
The Tun, a prison for dissolute 
persons and nightwalkers, situate 
upon Cornhill. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 831, s, v, 
Tonellum, 

torcenouse. Fr. Tortious, extor- 
tionate. (245, 526.) 

torcenousement. Fr. Tortiously, 
unrighteously. (316, 361, 524.) 

tortenousment. Fr. Tortiously, 
extortionately, (470.) 

totes voies. Fr. Always. (291.) 
See Tout voys. 

toundour. Fr. A shearman, one 
who shears the nap of cloth. 
(724.) See Toncer^ and Tonsor. 

tourbout. Fr» A turbot. (375.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus^ 
turn. p. 823, s. V. Rombus^ and 
p. 832, s. V. Turbo, 

Tourhille. Tower Hill. (555, 585.) 

tourt (265), tourte (259, 265, 338, 
704). Engl. Tourte bi'ead, made 
of unbolted meal ; in the Assisa 
Panis, preserved at Guildhall, it 
is explained as " panis integer." 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 833, s. V. Turtarius,* 

tourt-pestour. Fr. A tourte-baker, 
or baker of coarse bread. (705.) 



toutdis (463), toutdiz (228), toutdys 
(49, 520, 522). Fr. Always. 

toutefoitz (463), toutfoithes (197), 
toutfoitz (472, 520, 521), tout 
foith (400), toutz-foithes (183), 
toutz-foitz (518). Fr. Always. 
See Touz voies, 

tout voys. Fr. Always, (286.) 

See Totes voies, 
touz voies (293), touz voiez (281, 

295, 368). Fr. Always. See 

Toutefoitz, 

towen. Engl. Tow, flax. (459.) 
traine. Fr. A series. (295.) 
traventer. Fr. One who lets carts 

on hire. (565.) 
trefalde. Engl. Threefold, three 

times over. (111.) 

treier. Fr. To try. (295.) 
treinekes. (346.) See the Glossary 

to Liber Custum, p. 770. See 

Trt/inltes, 

tresory. Fr. A treasury. (566.) 
trespace. Fr. An offence. (517.) 
trespacer. Fr. To offend, to tres- 
pass. (332.) 
tresze. Fr. Thirteen. (236.) 
treuz. Fr. Truce, treaty. (420.) 
treyre. Fr. To draw. (667.) 
tronage. Fr. (226,245.) Tronage; 
a customary duty, or toll, payable 
on the weighing of goods by the 
King's ti'on. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 832, s, v. 
Trona, 

trone. Fr. (246.) A tron, balance, 
or beam, for weighing wool and 
heavy goods. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 832, s, v, 
Trona, 



366 



LIBER ALBUS. 



tronkes. Fr. plur. Rubbish, chips 
of wood. (260.) See Truncs^ 
and TruncL 

truncs (288), trunkes (584, 585). 
Fr. plur. Rubbish, chips of 
wood. See Tronkes^ andTr?mci. 

trusselle. Fr. A trussel, or package. 
(237, 246.) 

trjinkes (456, 514, 515, 577, 608), 
tryinkys (530). Engl. Trinks; 
nets, or wears, so called. See the 
Glossary to Liher Custum, p. 770, 
s. V. Treinekes, See Tryinkus. 

turne. Fi% (238.) An earthen ves- 
sel, perhaps a tureen. 

tut le meyns. Fr. The very least. 
(271.) 

tye (719), tyer (719). Fr. A tier, 
or row. See Tie, and Tire, 

tyle (259), tyle, plur. (730, 731). 
Fr. A tile, or brick. See Tielle, 

tylere. Fr. A tiler, or bricklayer. 
(729.) See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 769, s, «?. Teuler, and 
p. 830, $, V, Tegula, See Tielle, 
Tiellere^ Teuler, and Tyulour. 

tystre. Fr. To weave. (723.) See 
Texter, and Tister. 

tyulour. Fr, A tiler, or bricklayer. 
{^^*) See TiellerCy and Teuler. 

umbraunce. Fr. Shelter. (276, 
282.) 

uncquore (212, 213, 221), unncqore 
(218). Fr. Still, nevertheless. 

Upchirche (100). The original 
name of the Parish church of St. 
Mary, in Candlewick Ward, in 
the City ; at a later period cor- 
rupted into ' Abchurch.' The 
present is not improbably the 



earliest existing mention of this 
church. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 693, s, v. Abbe- 
chirche. 

Upeland (693), Upelande (695). 
Engl. Upland, country places. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 772, s, V, Uplaund, 

usier. Fr. Use, maintenance. (271.) 

ustilment. Fr. An utensil. (261.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 773, s> V, Ustilemenz, 

utlarie (190). Outlawry, loss of 
the King's protection. A French 
adaptation of an English word. 

vadlete (388), vadlette (45, 422, 
567). Fr. A vadlet, valect, 
groom, or serving-man. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 834, 
s, V, Valettus, See Vallet, 

valatil, Fr. (238.) The meaning 
of this word is doubtful, but it 
not improbably signifies articles of 
earthenware formedby the potter's 
wheel. In a document temp. 
Henry VIIL, marked * Alde- 
' boron,* and preserved in the 
Public Record Office, this word 
is translated " wild fowl," in the 
present instance ; the translator 
having evidently confounded it 
with the Fr. * volatil.' The con- 
text, however, will shew that that 
cannot possibly be the meaning* 
See Caboche, and Nounper, 

vallet. Fr. A journeyman, or 
workman for hire. (723.) See 
Vadlete, 

vaquer. Fr. To find time, or lei- 
sure. (516.) 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-KORMAN, ETC. 



367 



vee. Fr. Hindrance. (290.) 
veigle. Fr. (44, 45, 389, 390.) A 

vigil or eve, a watch, 
veignir (186), veignire (186), veiner 

(201). Fr* To come. See Ve- 

nere. 
veisin (571, 643, 731), veisyn (337). 

Fr. A neighbour, neighbouring. 

See Veysin, 
vele. Fr. A calf. (712.) Seethe 

Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 773, 

s, i?. VeL 
Venderdy (464), Vendredy (464), 

Fr. Friday, 
venere. Fr. To come. (474.) See 

Veignir, 
veniaunce. Fr. Vengeance. (640.) 
verge. Fr, A rod, or standard 

yard. (278.) As to the King's 

standard of measurement, see 

Liber Custum, p. 117, Note, 
verisemblablement. Fr. Likely, pro- 
bably. (337.) 
vermaille. See Vyn Vermaille. 
vermiloun. Fr. Vermilion. (224, 

230.) 
Vernage. Fr. (711.) Wine of 

Vernaccia, a red Tuscan wine, 

mentioned by Gower, MS. Soc. 

Antiq. 134, f. 178. For other 

early mention of this wine, see 

Crete. 
verres. Fr. plur. Glaziers. (736.) 

Probably, for ' verrers.' 
verray (316), verraye (387). Fr. 

True, real. See the Glossary to 

Liber Custum. p. 773, s. v, Ver- 

raie. 
verroiement. Fr. Truly. (368.) 
Vert Cire. Fr. The Green Wax. 

(318). It was the custom to de- 



liver estreats out of the Exche- 
quer, for fines and amercements, 
under the seal of that Court, made 
in green wax ; and the Clerk of 
the Pipe, by virtue of his office, 
charged the Sheriifs of Counties 
with these summonses, and saw 
that they answered for the pro- 
ceeds thereof in their accounts. 
The " Green Wax 'Ms mentioned 
in Stat. 42 Edw. HI. c. 7. s. 9 ; 
and in documents of the reigns 
of Edward I. and II., in Madox, 
Hist. Exeheq, i. p. 354, and ir. 
p. 293. The oppressiveness of 
the demands made under the 
Green Wax is thus alluded to in 

a song of the reign of Edw. I. : — 

"Tet Cometh budeles, with full muche 

boste, 
"Greythe me selver to the grene wax; 
** Thou art writen y my writ, that thou 

wel wost.** 

and — 

"Thar the grene wai us greveth under 
gore, 

*' That me us honteth ase houtid doth the 
hare/* 

Wright's Political Songs (Camd. 
Soc), pp. 151, 152. 

vewe. Fr. View, inspection. (188, 
383.) See Vieu. 

vewer. Fr. To view. (267.) 

veyl. Fr. Old. (279.) 

veysin (477), veysyn (313). Fr. A 
neighbour. See Veisin. 

viaund. Fr. Provisions, viands. 
(270.) See Vyaunde, 

viduer. Fr. A widower. (112.) 

vieu (571), view (182, 185, 270, 584, 
585, 687). Fr. View, sight, per- 
sonal inspection by a jury of the 
land or thing claimed, and in con- 
troversy. Where a real action 



368 



LIBER ALBUS. 



was brought, and the tenant did 
not known for certain what was 
in demand, in former times he 
might pray that the jury might 
view it. In Stat. Westm. ii. sec. 
13 {Stat Realm, 1810, i. p. 95), 
provision is made in what cases a 
view of land (visus terrae) is 
grantable. See Vewe. 

vile. Fr. A town, or city. (307.) 

vilenye. Fr. Filth. (335.) 

ville juggement. Fr. A low, or 
disparaging, estimate. (272.) 

Via Blanc de Gascoigne. Fi\ (709, 
711.) White Wine of Gascoigne. 
" White wyn of Oseye (Alsace ?) 
" and of Gascogne," is mentioned 
in Piers Plowman, temp, Edward 
II. White Wine of Gascoigne is 
also named in the Northumber- 
land Household Book (date 1512); 
see Antiq, Repert rv. p. 32. Un- 
der this name were known the 
white wines of Preignac, Barsac, 
and Graves, a gravelly district in 
the vicinity of Bordeaux. 

Vin Douce. Fr. Sweet wine (707, 
708.) Under this head were 
classed Malvezie or Malmsey, a 
Greek wine, Vernage or Vernac- 
cia, a red Tuscan wine, Crete, 
Candle (probably a variety of 
Crete), Provence, Romeney, Tru- 
bidiane, Mountross, Greek, and 
Claire. 

Vin Renois (708), Renoys (709, 710, 
711). Fr. Rhenish wine. "Wyne 
" de Ryne " is mentioned in Colin 
Blowholles Testament, an early 
poem, MS, RawL c. SQ ; see the 



Thornton Romances (Camd. Soc.) 
p. 301. 

vinter. Fr. A vintner, or seller 
of wine. (708.) * 

Vinterye (463). Vintry Ward, in the 
City ; so called from the fact of 
the Bordeaux merchants formerly 
landing and (after the 28th of 
Edward I.) cellaring their wines 
there. 

vintz. Fr. Twenty. (463.) See 
Vynt, 

Viscount. Fr. {4iZ, 4:^, et passim.) 
A SherijBT. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 835, s. v. Vice- 
comes, 

visere. Fr. A visor, or mask. 
(644, 645, 673.) 

visynee. Fr. A vicinage, visnet, 
venue, or neighbourhood. (185.) 

vitalle (308), vitayle (527). Fr. 
Victuals, provisions. 

vivers. Fr. Victuals. (421.) 

voidaunce. Fr. Avoidance, nulli- 
fication. (210.) 

voies, voiez. See Touz voies. 

voirdit (211, 222), voirdoit (458). 
Fr. A verdict, a statement as to 
the truth. 

volatile (716), volatilie (465). 
Game. Fr. This word was 
adopted into early English, as 
meaning wild fowl, — "And be he 
" sovereyn to the fischis of the sea, 
*^ and to the volatils of hevene," 
MS. BodL 277, — quoted by Hal- 
liwell, Diet, Arch. p. 911. See 
Valatil, 

volue. Fr. Value. (496.) 

voluyme. Fr. A volume. (45.) 

vouche (183, 292). Fr. One vouched, 



GLOSSATIY OF ANGLO-NORMAN, ETC. 



369 



or called to warranty, in a writ 
of right ; a vouchee, 

voucher (183, 186, 292), vouchier 
(185, 198). Fr. To vouch, to call 
to warranty in a Writ of Right. 

vowaunt. Fr. An avowant, one who 
avows or admits a thing. (188.) 
See Avowevy and Avowry e, 

vyaunde. Fr. Provisions, viands, 

(270.) See Viaund. 
vye. Fr. Life. (332, 336, 495.) 
vyn (246, 247, 248, 263, 267, 272, 
276, 419, 421, 422, 526, 709), 
vyne {526), Fr. Wine. 

Vyn Vermaille. Fr. Eed wine. 
(711.) The "Rede wyne of Gas- 
"coigne" is mentioned in the 
Northumberland Household Booh 
(date 1512) ; see Antiq. Repert 
IV. p. 32. The red wines of the 
Palus, or district on the hanks of 
the Garonne and Dordogne, are 
probably meant. See Redding 
On Wines (3rd edit.), pp. 159- 
162, 

vynt. Fr. Twenty- (506.) See 
Viniz, 

wadmal. Engl. (225, 230.) A 
thick, coarse, kind of woollen 
cloth. According to Halliweil, 
Diet. Arch, p. 912, coarse tow, 
used by veterinary surgeons for 
cattle, is still so called. 

wakerere. Fr. To wander about, 
to act the vagrant. (259, 338.) 

wakerant (387, 590, 721), waker- 
aunt (275, 639, 640, 641, 642, 
643, 645). Fr. Wandering, va- 
grant. Present participle of the 
Vol. III. 



preceding verb. Hence, probably, 
our word ' vagrant.' 

Walbrok (250, 271, 582, 583), 
Walbroke (463), Walebroke (57, 
104, 105, 110). Wallbrook; the 
watercourse that ran from Fins- 
bury Moor to the Thames, so 
called from its running, during 
part of its course, in the vicinity 
of London Wall. 

walet. Fr. A wallet. (549.) 

wardein. Fr. A warden. (246.) 

Wardone (338). Warden, in Bed- 
fordshire, where a Cistercian 
Abbey was situate. 

wast (184, 186), waste (180), Engl. 
The legal name given to spoil or 
damage made in houses, woods, 
lands, or other tenements, by the 
tenant for life or years, to the 
prejudice of the heir, or of him in 
reversion or remainder. Here- 
upon, the ^ Writ of Waste ' was 
issued for recovery of the thing 
wasted, and triple damages. See 
Fitzherbert's New Natara Bre- 
viuniy — * Writ of Waste.^ This 
Writ was abolished by 3 & 4 
William IV. c. 27, s. 36. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum,^ p. 
782, s. vv. Annus, dies, etvasfum, 

wastel (704, 705). Wastel bread. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn, p. 837, s, V* Wastellus, 

waude. Fr. Woad. (422.) See 
Wede, Weyde, Wisde, and Wysde, 

wayte. Engl, (646,) A wait ; 
meaning, in this instance, a 
watchman, subordinate to each 
Serjeant of the City Gates. See 
Gaytey Geit^ and Geytes. 

A A 



B*'i 



370 



LIBER ALBTJS. 



wede. Fr. Woad, {226, 228.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn. p. 776, s. V. Weydes. See 
Waude, Weyde, Wisde, and 
Wt/sde. 

welkbot (343), welkebot (344, 377). 
Engl. A whelk-boat, or boat for 
the taking and carriage of welks. 

welkes (179, 244, 245, 275, 377, 
381, 689), welkys (687). Engl, 
plur. Whelks. 

Were, A. S. (Ill, 115, 129.) The 
established price or fine for homi- 
cide ; paid partly to the King for 
the loss of a subject, partly to the 
lord whose vassal the person slain 
was, and partly to the next of kin 
of the party slain. The Were was 
an institution of Anglo-Saxon 
origin; and, as seen in page 111, 
the price of a man's life in London, 
in the 13th century,when not slain 
from malice prepense, was 100 
shillings. See Thorpe's Ancient 
Laws and Ins fit. of England, 
Glossary, s, v. Wer ; also, Nor- 
ton's Constit City of London, p. 
370. 

Weschepe (356), Westchepe (233). 
West Cheap, the present Cheap- 
side. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 775, 5. v. Westchep, 

Westfistrete. West Fish Street. 
(380.) Old Fish Street, in the 
vicinity of the present Doctors' 
Commons, is meant. The other 
Fish Street was a continuation 
of Bridge Street, near London 
Bridge, the present Fish Street 
Hill, Lower Thames Street. See 
Eldefistrate, sisidOldefisshestrete. 



wexchaundeler. Engl. (737.) A 
wax-chandler, or wax-candle 
maker. 

weyde (179, 228, 233, 273, 288, 725), 
weydes, plur. (418, 420). Fr. 
Woad. See the Glossary to Li- 
ber Custum. p. 776, s. v. Weydes, 
and p. 838, s, v, Wesda, See 
Waude, Wede, Wisde, and Wysde, 

weynscotte. Engl. (238.) Boards 
of fir or deal, now known as 
^ wainscot.' This word has been 
said to have been borrowed from 
the early Dutch. In Du Cange, 
Glossar, (s, v. Waynscots), it is 
derived from the old German 
^ wand,* a wall, and * schotten,' to 
protect. 

weyverie. Fr. (190.) Waivery ; 
the outlawry of a female, or ra- 
ther, what was equivalent to out- 
lawry. A female, with the Anglo- 
Saxons, having no legal status of 
her own, upon disobeying a sum- 
mons to appear in a court of jus- 
tice, was deprived of legal pro- 
tection, and was then said to be 
waived or left derelict. See 
Wayveria, 

wisde. Fr. Woad. (228,723.) See 
Waude, Wede, Weyde, and Wysde. 

wodegor (335). If read as one 
word, this may possibly memi 
sawdust, or refuse wood. If, on 
the other hand, it is read as two 
distinct words, reftise woad 
(wode) may be meant, and mud, 
formerly known as *gor,' from 
the A. S. jop (see Prompt. Parv. 
p. 203) ; or possibly ' gorse,' or 
furze (Prompt. Parv, pp. 162, 



GLOSSARY OF ANGLO-NORMCAN, ETC. 



371 



204), used in a dried state for 
fuel. 

wodemonger. Engl. A wood- 
monger, or seller of wood. (533, 
728.) 

Wolchercbliaw (583), Wolchirchaw 
(246), WooUechirchawe (246). 
Woolchurch Haw ; the church- 
yard of St. Mary Woolchurch, 
where a wool-market was held. 
See the Grlossary to Liher Custum* 
p. 776, s, V. Wolchirchawe. 

Wolchirche. Woolchurch. (689.) 
See the Glossary to Liher Cus- 
turn, p. 776, 5. V, Wolchirchawe^ 
and p. 814, s* vv. Marice de New- 
cherche, 

Wolewiche. Woolwich, in Kent. 
(516.) See Wulwiche, 

Wolkey (580). Wool Quay, Lower 
Thames Street; still known by 
that name. In p. 730 it is called 
* Wolwharf.' By Stow {Survey) 
it is also called " Wool Wharf,*' or 
"Customers Key;" i.e, the quay 
where the Custom-House officers 
collected the customs. See 
Wolwharf, 

Wolsiesgate (242), Wolsyesgate 
(697). Wolsey's (Jate, situate in 
the Eopery, near the church of 
Allhallows the Great, in Thames 
Street. It is called « Wolfe's 
" Gate" by Stow {Survey, p. 16, 
ed. Thorns), and " of later time 
" Wolfes Lane, but now out of 
" use ; for the lower part was 
" built on by the Earle of Shrews- 
" burie, and the other part was 
" stopped up and built on by the 
" Chamberlain of London." 



Wolwharf. Wool Wharf. (730.) 
See Wolkey. 

Wulwiche. Woolwich, in Kent. 
(515.) See Wolewiche. 

Wympler (97). Engl. A surname 
derived from an occupation ; a 
maker of wimples, or coverings 
for the neck and bosom, coming 
up to the chin, worn by females, 
nuns more especially. 

wyn. Fr. Wine. (226.) 

W^yncestre. Fr. The city of Win- 
chester, (228.) 

wyndrawer {^26y 533, 706, 711, 
735, 736), wynedrawer (706). 
Engl. A winedrawer; one whose 
occupation it was to cart tuns and 
pipes of wines at the wharf, and 
convey them to the cellars in 
various parts of the City. See 
p. 526. 

Wyre (507). The Wyre, a river 
rising in the borders of York- 
shire, east of Lancaster, and fall- 
ing into Lancaster Bay. 

wysde. Fr. Woad. (723, 724, 
725 .) See Waude, Wede, Weyde, 
and Wisde, 

Wythername (188). The Writ of 
Withernam ; so called from two 
A. S. words, pi^ep and naam, 
seizure on the other hand. Where 
a distress was driven out of the 
County, and the Sheriff, upon a 
replevin, could not make deliver- 
ance to the party distrained, the 
Writ of Withernam was directed 
to the Sheriff, for the taking of 
as many of the cattle or goods of 
the person so distraining, until 

A A 2 



1 



372 



LIBER ALBUS. 



be should make restitution of the 
first distress. See Witherna" 
mium, 

ydounkes. Fr, Then. (110.) 
ycy, Fr. Here. (514.) 
Yenlande (501), Yantlet Creek. 

See Zenlade. 
Yeresgeve (659), Yeresgyve (138, 

140). See the Glossary to Liber 

Custum, p. 777, s. v. Yeresgive, 

See Jeresgive. 
yssynt. Fr. So. (180.) 
Yve, Seint. Fr. Saint Ives, in 

Huntingdonshire. (228.) See 

the Glossary to Liber Custum* 

p. 778. 
y voire. Fr. Ivory. (224,230.) 

Zenlade, la (244). Yenlade ; now 
known as Yantlet Creek, uniting 
the Thames and the Med- 
way ; the Eastern limit of the 
then civic jurisdiction on the 



Thames. See the Glossary to 

Liber Custum, p. 777, s. v. Van- 

lade. See Yenlande, 

zucre. Fr. Sugar. (224.) "In 

' a Charter of 1380, * seucarum,' 

* or ^sucharum,' is called *caa- 

* *didum,' * white ;' and in a 
' Computus of the Dauphin Hum- 
' bert, A.D. 1333, mention is 

* made of * sucre blanc ;' by both 
' which terms is meant^wc sugar. 

* It was so scarce an article as to 

* be rarely used, except medi- 
^ cinally. Eustace Deschamps, a 
' poet, who died about 1420, 
' reckons it among the expen- 

* sive articles of housekeeping to 

* married men. This fine sugar 
' came from the East, by way of 
' Alexandria, and was principally 

* imported into Europe by the 
' Italians, who had the command 
' of the Mediterranean.** — ^Le 

Grand d'Aussy, Vie Frivee des 
Francois^ 11,, pp. 182, 183. 



;a 



LIBER ALBUS. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIiEVAL LATIN. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL LATIN. 



abbrocator (493), abrocator (249, 
347, 401, 402, 636), abroccator 
(679), abroctator (143, 152, 158). 
A broker. See Abrocarius, and 
Brocarius. 

abj udicatio. Deprivation by j udicial 
sentence. (575.) 

abradicare. To pull down. (432.) 

abrocagium. Brokerage. (706.) See 
Brocagium, 

abrocarius. A broker, {250,etpas- 
sim») See Ahbrocatory and Bro- 
carius, 

abstructio. Obstruction. (70.) 

abstruere. To bar, to obstruct. 
(70.) 

acceptabiliter. Reasonably, accept- 
ably. (31.) 

Aeon, SanctuB Thomas de (6, 7). 
Saint Thomas a Becket was thus 
called ; from the belief that Aeon, 
or Acre, in Syria, was captured 
by the Christians (temp, Richard 
I.) through his miraculous inter- 
vention. The church here men- 
tioned was situate on the North 
of Cheapside, on the site now 
occupied by Mercers' Hall. See 
Acres, 

acquietancia. An acquittance. 
(301, et passim.) 

acquietare. To acquit. (595.) 



Acres, Sanctus Thomas de. Saint 
Thomas of Acre. (7.) See Aeon. 

ad incisionem. By retail. (674.) 
See Particulariter. 

admittere. To assume, to undertake. 
(30.) 

advisamentum. Advice. (162). 
See Avisamentum, 

advocare. To avow, to acknowledge 
as one's own. (343, 374, 681.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 781. 

afforare. To affeer, to assess the 
price of, to set a value upon. (341, 
356, 600, 601.) See Affoerer. 

afforciare. To force, to compel. (244.) 

aflfraium (391, 644, 682, 703), 
affrayum (605, 627). An affray. 

ala. A hall, (393.) An error, 
probably, for ' aula.' 

aldermanneria (107, 562, 563), 
aldermannerium (102), alder- 
manria (576). An aldermanry, 
or ward as governed by an alder- 
man. 

alienigenus. An alien, one of 
foreign birth. (660, 738.) 

allecia. Sing, collective. Herrings. 
(240.) 

alligatio. Alliance. (648.) 

allocatio. Allocation, allowance. 
(161, et passim.) 



n^'n 



376 



LIBER ALBUS. 



almerium. An almeiy, aumbry, or 
cupboard. (326.) See Parker's 
Glossary of Gothic Architecture ^ 
I. pp. 10-12. See Arcus. 

aluta. Leather tawed, or dressed, 
with alum. (550, 603). Classical. 

alutarius. A tawyer of leather, a 
shoemaker. (533, 620, 646, 654, 
732, 733, 735.) See Megucarius. 

amerciare. To amerce. {562, 660.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 694, s, V. Amerciement 

Andreae, Vicus Sancti (94). St. 
Andrew's Street; probably, the 
locality now known as St. An- 
drew's Hill, Doctors' Commons. 

anelacius (85). An anelace ; a knife, 
or dagger, worn in the girdle at 
the side. The word * anelace ' is 
used by Chaucer, and we learn 
from Matthew Paris that priests 
were forbidden to wear it. In 
the present instance, we find a 
vicar of St. Paul's slaying a 
deacon with such a weapon. 

angelus (29). An acolyte, or other 
official of the church, arrayed as 
an angel. This censing by an 
angel from aloft was a not 
uncommon practice on great 
occasions ; for example, on the 
visit of Henry V. to St. Paul's 
after the battle of Agincourt, 
described by Ehnham in his Liber 
Metricus {Memorials of Henry 

r.),p. 129,— 

" Angelus a celso thurificando venit.*' 

antecessor. An ancestor. (448.) 
For a more unusual meaning of 
this word, see the Glossaiy to 
Liber Custum. p. 782. 



Antonii, Ecclesia Sancti (242). The 
church of St. Antony, or 
Antonine, now Antholin, Budge 
Row, in the City. See Antonini, 

Antonii, Hospitale Sancti (591). The 
Hospital of St. Antony, Thread- 
needle Street. As to the immu- 
nities here referred to, as enjoyed 
by the swine of this hospital, or of 
those who rented the privilege of 
keeping them, see the Introduction 
to Liber Albus, p. xlii., and Stow's 
Survey. 

Antonini, Ecclesia Sancti. The 
church of St. Antony, or Antonine. 
(697.) See Antoniiy Ecclesia 
Sancti* 

appenticium. A penthouse, or 
pentice. (69, 252y 259, 271, 288, 
336, 348, 432, 531, 584.) See 
AppenticCy Pentis, and Penticium. 

appreciare (121, 188, 407, 656\ 
appretiare (491, 492). To ap- 
praise, to set a price on. 

appreciator. An appraiser. (76, 121, 
348, 407, 408, 656.) 

apprenticialitas. An apprenticeship. 
(665, 666.) 

apprenticius. SoeLegis apprenticius. 

arcus (322). An arch in a partition 
wall; in this case, used as an 
almery, aumbry, or cupboard. 
See Almeriumy and Assidere. 

arcus de petra. A petronel, or 
stone-bow. (251.) See Arc-a- 
perre and Stanboghe. 

arestare. To seize, to arrest. (160, 
415, 417, 501, 615, 636, 651.) 
See Arrester, 

arestatio. Arrest. (416.) See 
Arrestum. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIiEVAL LATIN. 



377 



armatura (630, 653), armaturae, plur. 
(625). Armour* 

armilausa (609). A cloak ; in general, 
as worn by military men, but in 
the present instance, as worn by 
the aldermen. Classical. 

armurarius. An armourer. (533, 
653, 654, 733, 735.) 

arraiamentum. Array, or arrange- 
ment. (37.) 

arraiare. To array, to put in order, 
to prepare. (647, 651.) 

arraniare (444). To proffer. It 
seems not improbable, however, 
that *arramare' is the correct 
reading. 

arreragium. Arrears. (468, 469.) 

artificium. A handicraft. (734.) 

asiamentum. Easement. (393.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 781, s, V. Aisiamentum, 

assaium. Assay, trial. (340, 351, 
352, 353, 358, 362, 723.) 

assaltus propensatus. Assault pre- 
pense, or of aforethought. (114.) 

assidere (322). To set ; as ap- 
plied to an arch in a wall. See 
Arcus. 

assignamentum. An assignment. 
(592.) 

assignatio. A meeting by appoint- 
ment, a conventicle. (641.) 

assoniare. (326.) To essoign ; Le, 
to put in a legal excuse for non- 
attendance. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum^ p. 723, s, v. Es- 
soyne* 

attachiamentum. Attachment. (406.) 

attachiare (82, et passim). To 
attach. Persons attached on sus- 
picion were allowed to go at 



large during the interval before 
trial, upon surety or bail. On 
commission of a murder by a per- 
son unknown, it was the usage to 
attach all persons in the imme« 
diate neighbourhood, as a matter 
of course. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 697, s, v. 
Attacker^ 

attincta. Attaint. (349, 438, 441, 
442, 443, mS.:) 

attinctus. Attainted. (174.) 

atya. Spite, hatred. (103.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 783, 5. V, AtyicB, 

Audomarus, Sanctus. Saint Omer, 
in Picardy. (535.) 

Aula Teontonicorum (243). The 
Guildhall of the Teutonics, or 
Hanse Merchants, in Dowgate. 
See Herbert's Hist, of the Twelve 
Livery Companies^ i. pp. 10-15 j 
also. Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 807, 5. V. Hansa, 

aurum Reginae. Queen's gold. 
(620, 623, 62S.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 784. 

auxionator. An auctioneer. (38.) 

aventuras quasrere. (629.) To go 
in quest of adventures j Le, to 
frequent jousts, tilts, and tourna- 
ments. 

avisamentum. Advice. (173, 392.) 
See Advisamentum, 

bajulatio. A carrying, or bearing. 

(629.) 
ballium. BaU. (92, 94.) 
balneare. To bathe. (579.) 
bannire. To put under a ban, to 

banish. (632.) 



''m 



378 



LIBEB ALBUS. 



banum. A bane, or cause of death. 
(98.) From the A. S, bana. 

barbitonsor. A barber, a dresser 
of the beard. (250, 533, 654, 
714, 735.) 

bareUus. A barrel. (334, 532, 
698, 702.) 

barganeum (396, 397, 398, 399). 
A bargain. 

bai'gea (652, 653), bargia (636). 
A barge. 

Baro. A Baron. (15, 33, 51, 53, 
54, 55, 77, 81, 82.) As to the 
application of this term to the 
Aldermen and more opulent citi- 
zens of London, see the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 785, *. v. 
Barones, 

Barra Novi Templi. The Bar of 
the New Temple. (300.) The 
locality now known as " Temple 
" Bar," separating the liberties of 
the City from the County. 

Barrae Suburbiorum. The Bars of 
the Suburbs. (697.) Possibly, those 
in Holborn and Smithfield, and 
the Bar of the New Temple, may 
be meant. 

Barrum Suburbii. The Bar of the 
Suburb. (242.) Under this name 
the Bar of the New Temple is 
probably meant. 

baselardus. (607.) A baselard ; a 
long dagger, or short sword, sus- 
pended from the girdle, and worn 
by civilians, and even priests ; 
which later fact is alluded to, in 
terms of reprehension, in Piers 
Plowman. See Prompt. Parv, 
p. 25, and Way's Note; also, 
Halliweirs Diet Arch. p. 147. 



basena. Bazen, or basil, sheepskin 
prepared as leather. (550.) 

batella. A boat. (251.) See J5a- 
tellus. 

batellarius. A boatman, (251, 277.) 

batellus (415, 416, 578), battellus 
(375, 578). A boat. See jBa- 
tella. 

bativa. Battery, beating. (98.) 

batura. Battery, assault by beat- 
ing. (56, 91, 103, 104.) 

Bellum (96). Probably, Battle in 
Sussex. 

Beverlacum (77). Beverley, in 
the East Riding of Yorkshire. 
The " Provost of Beverley " was 
superior of the College, or Monas- 
tery, of St. John the Baptist there. 

bigamus. A bigamist. (543.) For 
the Statute " De Bigamis " here 
mentioned, see the Stat Eealm 
(1810), I. pp. 42, 43. 

biletus (569). A billet, or small 
note. The word is still used 
in the same sense, in reference to 
providing quarters for those en- 
gaged in the public service. 

bissus. Brown. (350, 356.) Ap- 
plied to bread, this means (ac- 
cording to a Note in the Asdsa 
PaniSy temp. Edward I., pre- 
served at Guildhall) bread of 
' trait,' or ' trete,' made wholly of 
meal; while Hourte bread' was 
made of unbolted meal, or meal 
mixed with flour. See Bis. 

bladarius. A corndealer, or blader. 
(250, 270, 454, 460, 532, 692, 
693, 694, 734.) See Blader. 

bladum. Corn, wheat. (432, et 
passim.) 



GLOSSARY OF MEDiaSVAL LATIN. 



379 






botellarius. A bottle-maker. (737.) 
botellus. A botel, or bundle. (721.) 
Botliulphi (551), Botulphi (405, 

551), Nundinae Sancti. The Fair 

of St. Botolph's Town, or Boston, 

in Lincolnshire. See the Grlos- 

sary to Liher Custum, p. 734, 

s» V, Hoilonde* 
braciare. To brew. (702.) 
braciator (38, 242, 249, 251, 266, 

276, 342, 355, 692, 699, 700, 701, 

702), brasiator (532, 607, 698, 

701). A brewer, 
braciatrix. A brewster ; a female 

who brews and sells ale. (341, 

342, 355.) 
bracinea. See Domus bracinea, 
bracium (454), braseum (601, 604, 

629, 693), brasium (178, 179, 

348, 460, 532, 692, 693, 698, 700, 

702, 734). Barley for malting, 
'= malt, 
braelli. Breeches, (600), See 

Braeller, 
brasilium, Brasil. (674). SeeBrasiL 
Brigidae Sanctae, Eeclesia (96, 634, 

635), Parochia (34). The church, 

and Parish, of Saint Brigid, or 

Bride, in the liberties of the City 

of London, 
brocagium. Brokerage. (401, 402.) 

See Abrocagium» 
brocarius. A broker. (396, 397, 

399.) ^QQ Abhrocator^ VbTiA Abro- 

carius. 
bultellus. A bultel, boulter, or 

boulting-sieve, for meal. (353). 

See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 

turn, p. 789, 
bunda. A boundary, or limit. (243, 

244,682.) 



burdeare. To tilt, to engage in mock 

combat. (629.) 
Burdegalia (632), Burdegallia (540). 

Bordeaux, 
burellarius (724, 726, 738). A 

bureller. See the Glossary to 

Liber Custum» p, 789. 
burgagium (191, 193), Burgage ; 

tenure of houses in cities or 

boroughs by a rent certain ; a 

species of tenure in socage, 
burgaria (35, 562^ 634). Burglary, 
bui'gimagister. A burgomaster, 

or chief of a borough. (616). 
bursa (600), bursum (602, 605). 

A purse, or pouch, 
bursarius. A pouch-maker, (737.) 

See Pouchemaker, and Tasse- 

maker. 
bussellus (242, 243, 468, 619, 688, 

697), busshellus (243, 244). A 

bushel. 

calcarius. A spurrier. (654, 737.) 

calcetum. Lime. (729). 

caldo. The entrails, or chaudron. 
(375.) See Chaundoun. 

Calesia. Calais. (616, e2Sy 649, 
651.) 

calumnia (347, 567, 666^ 674, 683), 
calumnium (569). A claim, chal- 
lenge. 

calumniatio. Right of claim, or 
challenge. (407.) 

cambiator. An exchanger. (575.) 

cambium. An exchange (574, 575). 
Exchange (616). 

Campania. Champagne. (551.) 

cancella. A chancel. (582.) 

candelarius. A chandler, or candle- 
maker. (736.) 



S80 



LIBEB ALBUS. 



caiielius. The kennel of a street. 
(249.) See Canele^ and Chanel* 

canevacea {^'2>^\ canevacium (615, 
726). Canvas. 

cantaria, A chantry. (446, 450, 451, 
530, 662, 553, 619.) 

Cape (292, 668). Procedure at 
common law by the ancient Writ 
oi Ca'pe advalentiam. See Graunt 
CapCy and Petit Cape* 

Capella super Pontem (373). The 
Chapel on the Bridge ; meaning 
that dedicated to St. Thomas on 
London Bridge. See the Intro- 
duction to Liber Custum, pp. cii., 
cm. 

capellanus. A chaplain. (552.) 

capias (199, 202). A Writ or pro- 
cess of two kinds, one of which is 
the ** Capias ad respondendum," be- 
fore judgment, for the purpose of 
taking the defendant, and making 
him answer the plantiff; the 
other, a Writ of execution, after 
judgment, being of divers kinds, 
as "Capias ad satisfaciendum," 
" Capias utlagatum," etc, 

capo. A capon. (601.) See Caupo* 

cappa. A cap. (56, 607.) 

cappus. A cap. (610). 

captor. A taker, or collector, of 
dues in the King's behalf. (161, 
169, 620, 621.) 

carbonarius. A coalman. (533, 728.) 

carcare. To load. (239, 710.) 

cardo (615, 622). A thistle, used 
for carding wool. They are ex- 
tensively grown for this purpose 
in some parts of England and in 
Belgium ; the cards of iron used 
for the purpose being found less 



advantageous. According to Stow 
{Survey\ a large piece of land in 
Bishopsgate, called "Tasel Close," 
was planted with the thistles, 
known as * tassels * (or teasels), for 
the use of the clothworkers. See 
Cardmakers, 
carecta (239, et passim), carectus 
(376, 732). A cart. See Karecta. 
cariagium (697), carriagium (600). 

Cartage, 
cariare. To carry. (243, 490, 631.) 
caristare. To make dear, to enhance 

the price of. (601, 622.) 
caristia. Deamess, highness of price. 

(600, 631, 698.) 
carpentura. Carpenters' work. (334.) 
Cathalonia, Catalonia, in Spain. 

(540.) 
Caturcinium. Quercy, in the South 

of France. (540.) 
caupo. A capon. (606.) See Capo* 
cedere. To tend to. (620.) 
cementarius. A mason. (532, 654, 

685, 731.) See Cimentarius, 
cepa (736). Tallow ; perhaps, soap, 
cereum. A wax candle. (737.) 
cerura. A fastening. (569.) See 

Serura, 
Cessavit (184). The name of a 
Writ which lay (by Stat. Glou- • 
cester, 6 Edward I. c. 4, and 
2 Westm. 13 Edw. I. cc. 21, 41), 
when a man who held land by 
rent or other services, ceased to 
perform his services for two 
years together ; or where a 
religious house neglected to 
perform some spiritual service 
incumbent upon it as holding 
certain lands. See Fitzherbert^s 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL LATIN. 



SSI 



New Natura Brevium. This 
Writ was abolished by 3 & 4 
William IV. c. 27, s. 36. 

chalones, plur. (600). Shalloons, 
used as counterpanes ; so called 
from Chalons sur Marne, See 
Chalons. 

charettarius. A carter. (735.) See 
Charetter, 

chevancia (371, 396, 397, 636, 683), 
chevantia (343). A business 
transaction, contract, accommoda- 
tion, loan granted. 'Chevancia 
* mala.' (683). Extortion. See 
ChevancCy and Mala chevajicia, 

chevisare. To obtain by agreement. 
(396.) See Chevisance. 

cimentarius. A mason. (252, 257). 
See Cementarius, 

cipha (238, 239, 244), ciphe (244). 
A ciphe, or measure containing 
five quarters. In a somewhat 
similar passage in Liber Horn 
this word is rendered * sife ;' the 
origin, perhaps, of our present 
word ' sieve,' as meaning a mea- 
sure. As to the possible origin of 
the word, which is perhaps allied 
with the words 'cifatum' and 
'cilfata' (Du Cange, Glossar.\ 
see the G-lossary to Liber Cus' 
turn. p. 792, s. V. Civeria, 

cirotecge. plur. Gloves. (600.) 

cirotecarius. A glover. (737.) 

^* Circumspecte agatis " (547). " Act 
" circumspectly," about the Bishop 
of Norwich and his clergy. The 
title of an Ordinance, admitting 
that the King's prohibition does 
not lie in matters spiritual. See 
the Stat Realm (1810), vol. i. 



cissor. A tailor. (533, 536, 727, 

735.) 
claa (703), claia (355), claya (162, 

249, 691, 703). A hurdle. See 

Claie^ and Cleya. 
clamivus. An accuser, (75, 113, 

115.) 

clamor. Challenge. (358.) 

clausula, licet (163, 165, 170, 537, 
660). A clause of licet; meaning 
a clause by virtue whereof rights 
were saved, although the party 
might theretofore have neglected 
fully to use or enjoy the same. 

clausura. Enclosure, a charge levied 
for enclosing land. (541.) 

claviger {2^y 2^y A mace-bearer. 
By Charter granted 28th Ed- 
ward III., it was allowed that 
the Serjeants- at-mace of the City 
of London might thenceforth bear 
maces of gold or silver, or plated 
with silver, garnished with the 
royal, or other, arms. See Com- 
munis Serviens ad clavam^ and 
Serviens ad clavam, 

cleya (579). A hurdle ; probably, 
a number of stakes fastened to- 
gether, and sunk in the bed of the 
river. See Claicy and Claa, 

cloca. A cloak. (609, 680.) 
coctio. A baking, (353.) 
cognitio. A recognizance. (339.) 
cognoscere. To admit, to acknow- 
ledge. (101, 108, 469, Qm, 670.) 

Cokettus (569). A cocket. See 
Cokety and Kokettus. 

coUecta. A collection. (123.) 
coUistrigium. A stretch-neck, or 
pillory. (600, 601, 602, 603, 606, 



382 



LIBER AliBUS, 



607, 608, 703, 711, 715.) See 
Thewe. 

Colonenses. The people of Cologne. 
(241, 535). 

Colonia. The City of Cologne. 
(627.) 

communiarius. A commoner, (658, 
664, 673, 680, 683.) 

Communis Bancus. (25.) The Com- 
mon Bench, or Bank. The for- 
mer name of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. 

Communis Narrator. The Common 
Counter, or Pleader. (254, 310.) 
See the Glossary to Liher Cus- 
turn, p. 714, 5. V, Countour. 

Communis Serviens ad arma. (254, 
310.) The Common Serjeant-at- 
arms ; identical with the Com- 
mon Crier, of the City. See Liber 
Albus, p. 49. 

communis serviens ad clavam. A 
common serjeant-at-mace. (563.) 
See Clavigevy and Serviens ad 
clavam, 

comparticeps. A fellow-partner. 
(476.) 

compistor. A fellow-baker. (358.) 

Completorium (28). Complin, or 
complines, also known as " Second 
'* Vespers," the last of the canoni- 
cal hours for common prayer ; 
from 7 to 9 in the evening. 

computabilis. Relating to account. 
(638.) 

Computatorium. A Sheriff's Comp- 
ter, or Counter, (174, 177, 178, 
678.) See Countour, 

concernere. To concern. (386.) 

confortare. To comfort. (638.) 

conqusestor. A conqueror. (13.) 



consilium. Counsel. (114.) A tech- 
nical name for the time given to 
the accused for preparing hiS/ 
defence. 

contraiare. To oppose, to be in arms 
against. (613, 648, 649.) 

contrarotulus. A counter-roll. (253.) 

contrarotulator. A controller. (638.) 

controfactor. A counterfeiter. (609.) 

controfactus. Counterfeit. (573, 
604, 605, 609, 711, 715.) 

copia. A copy. (81.) 

corbellus. A corbel. (256, 325, 326.) 

corda arcua. A bowstring. (608.) 

Corderia (242), The Ropery, situate 
in the Parish of AUhallows the 
Great, Thames Street, in the 
City, 

coriarius. A currier. (533, 719, 
720.) 

cornarius. A horner ; a maker of 
articles of horn. (738.) 

corporaliter jurare (125, 126). To 
make corporal oath : which is 
commonly explained as being an 
oath made while touching the cor- 
porale, or cloth that covered the 
sacred elements. In Du Cange, 
however ( Glossar, $. v. Juramen' 
tum)y a corporal oath is said to be 
an oath made while touching, or 
looking upon, the Holy Gospels, 
the emblem of the Cross, or the 
relics of Saints. 

correctarius. A corrector, or li- 
censed broker. (396, 397, 399, 
589.) See Correcter, 

costagium. Cost. {pSSy 568.) See 
Custagium, 

costera (578). The water-side. The 
locality in Southwark here men- 



GLOSSARY OF MEDI^VAIi LATIN. 



383 



tioned is still known as the ^Bank- 

' side.' 
coster a maris. The sea-coast. (500.) 
covina. Covin, companionship. (605, 

646, 648.) 
creancia (341, 357). Credit. The 

Fr. word ^ creance ' was employed 

in this sense in early English. — 

"— — general acquytaunce 

" To every penytent in ful creance." 

Bom, of the Monk^ Sion Coll, 
MS., as quoted by Halliwell, Diet 
Arch, p. 278. 

crocardus. A crocard. (573.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
715, s. V, Crocard. 

Grucis Sanctae Fratres (556), The 
Brethren of the Holy Cross. The 
house of the Crossed, or Crouched 
(Crutched)Friars, formerly situate 
in Aldgate, is here alluded to ; 
founded about A.D. 1298. See 
Newcourt's Eepertoriuniy i. p. 
328. See Fratres SancUB Crucis, 

crudus. Undyed. (603.) 

cultellarius. A cutler. (654, 735.) 

cuppebondi (609). Cup-bonds, or 
cup- bands ; braces made of metal 
on which masers and handled 
cups were strung. In the present 
instance, they were of plated cop- 
per, sold as genuine silver. 

custagium. Cost. (595.) See CoS' 
tagium, 

custodia. A wardship. (634.) 

custuma. Custom, duty, (141, et 
passim, 

custumare. To pay custom. (550, 
624, 691.) 

custumarius. A customer, or col- 
lector of the customs. (531, 617, 
638.) 



custus. Cost, expenses. (321, 322, 
327, 647.) 

De Angulo (87). A surname, pro- 
bably the same as in old English 
" atte Cornere," and in old French 
« del Angle." 

de bene esse. For what it may be 
worth, without prejudice. (1 i.) 

de male veniendo (41 1). For illness 
on the way ; the name of the 
commonest essoin, or legal excuse 
on j)art of the defendant for non- 
attendance. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 723, s, v, Es- 
soyne, 

De Mortuo Mari (624). De Morte- 
mer ; the surname of a once 
powerful family, dei*ived from the 
" Morte Mer," or Dead Sea, a 
small lake in Normandy. 

de Participatione facienda (184, 
189). The name of the Writ of 
Partition ; that lay for those y* lo 
held lands or tenements undivi- 
dedly, for the purpose of allotting 
to each his distinct part. See 
Fitzherbert's New Natura Bre- 
vium. This Writ was abolished 
by 3 & 4 William IV. c. 27. s. 36. 

de Servitiis et Consuetudinibus 
(62), A Writ of Services and 
Customs ; being a Writ of right 
close, which lay against a tenanj; 
who had deforced his lord of the 
rent or service due to him. See 
Fitzherbert's New Natura Bre- 
vium. This Writ was abolished by 
3 & 4 William IV. c. 27. s. Z6: 

deaforestare. To disafforest, deaffo- 
rest, or discharge from the opera- 



S84. 



LIBER ALBUS. 



tion of the Forest Laws, (136, 
140, 149.) 

dearestare. To liberate from sei- 
zure, or arrest. (541, 634.) 

debata (651), debatura (391, 392, 
649). Debate, dispute, strife. 

deducere. To treat, to deal with. 
(161, 168, 662.) 

defendere. In former legal parlance, 
to defend, i.e, to deny. (94, 98, 
106, 107, 300, 304, 430, 437.) 

defensio. A prohibition. (489.) 

deforcians (109). A disseisor or 
intruder, known in ancient law as 
a * deforceor,' or ' deforciant.' 

depauperatio* Impoverishment. 
(491.) 

dictum. An award. (545.) 

dimissor. A lessor. (178.) 

Dimidia Prima. (693). Half Prime ; 
probably half-past six in the 
morning ; or, if Prime is consi- 
dered to extend to nine o^clock, 
half-past seven. 

discarcare. To discharge, to un- 
load. (580.) 

disponere de statu suo (31). This 
probably means, "to make ar- 
"rangements as to his private 
« affairs." 

disrationare (103, et passim), dis- 
rationare se (129, et passim). To 
deraign. Seethe Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 798. See Derener, 

disrobbare. To rob, to spoil, to 
plunder. (620, 628, 671.) 

disseisire. To disseise, to dispos- 
sess. (114, 447, 448.) 

disseisitor. A disseisor, one who 
dispossesses another of land. (75, 
114.) 



districtio. Distraint, distress. (542.) 

dominicum. A demesne. (679.) 

dominions. See Panis dominicus, 

domus (323, 556, 557). An upper 

room or rooms, as distinguished 

from the rooms below ; the same 

as the * solarium,' of page 323. 

In pp. 556, 557, the upper rooms 

above the Gates of Cripplegate 

and Ludgate are meant. See 

further as to this meaning of the 

word ^ domus,' in the Glossary to 

Liber Custum. p. 799. 

domus bracinea. Abrewhouse. (11.) 

dorserium. A dosser, or dorser. See 

Dosser, and Dossarium, 
dossarium (689), dosserium (689), 
dossorium (343, 375.) A dorser, 
or basket adapted for carriage on 
the back ; hence, formerly called 
a * dosser.' In the Ordinances 
and Regulations of the Royal 
Household (1790), p. 143, a 
• dorser ' is explained, as in the 
present instances, to be a fish- 
basket. See Dosser, 
Duiacum. Douay, in France. (534, 

535.) 
Dunewicum. Dunwich, in Suffolk. 

(538.) 
duodena. The twelve-men, a name 
given to a jury. (672.) 

Egidii Sancti Hospitale (542). The 
Hospital of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, 
founded by Matilda, queen of 
Henry I., about A.D. 1117, for 
the reception of Lepers. See 
Newcourt's Repertorium^i, p.61L 
ejectio. Jettison. (490,491,656.) 
Elegit. " He has chosen." (610.) 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL LATIN, 



385 



A Writ of execution, so called as 
chosen by the plaintiff, directing 
the Sheriff to make execution in 
a certain manner. 

Elense Sanctas [Prioratus]. The 
Priory of Saint Helen's, Bishops- 
gate. {555») This was a house 
of Black Nuns, founded probably 
about A.D. 1212. See New- 
court's Repertoriumy i. p. 364. 

escaetor. An escheator. (160, et 
passim,) See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 800, s. v. Es^ 
caeta. For the Statute " of Es- 
" cheators," mentioned in p. 544, 
see the Stat Realm (1810), i. 
pp. 142, 143. 

escaetria. The office of escheator, 
an escheatorship. (6, 145, 168.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cue- 
tum, p. 800, s. V. Escaeta, 

escapium. Escape. (160, 661.) 

essonia. An essoin, a legal excuse 
proffered by the defendant for 
non-attendance in court. (546, 
670.) See the Glossary to Liber 
Cttstum, p. 723, s. v. Essoyne. 

essoniabilis. Liable to be essoined, 
or excused from further atten- 
dance. (92.) 

essoniator(63, 64, 68, 530, 570, 571)- 
An essoiner ; one who makes le- 
gal excuse or essoin for non- 
attendance of the defendant, and 
supports it in Court. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 697, 
s. V, Assoignour^ and p. 723, s, v. 
Essoyne, 

Estsexia. Essex. (30.) 

Estsexiensis. A native of Essex. 
(645.) 
VOL. III. 



ethimologizacio (7), ethimologizatio 
(32). Etymology. 

e versus aquae. A water-course. 
(455, 473.) 

Ex Gravi Querela (184). The Writ 
of " Grievous Complaint/' which 
lay where a man was seised of 
lands or tenements in any city or 
borough ; such lands being de- 
visable by will, time out of mind. 
If one having lands or tenements 
there, devised those lands or tene- 
ments to another in fee simple, or 
in fee tail, he to whom the devise 
was made, had this Writ to en- 
force execution of the devise. 

Excommunicatio Major (125), Ma- 
jor Excommunication ; Le» sever- 
ance from aU communication with 
the faithful, and from participa- 
tion in the Sacraments of the 
Church. 

executio. Executorship. (204.) 
exennium. A gift. (593, 595, 596. 
597, 616.) 

exigendsB (614), exigendum (85, 
173). Exigent ; summons to ap- 
pear in answer to an accusation. 
See the Glossary to Liber CuS' 
turn, p. 801, s. V, Eocigenda, 

exitus. Issues. (485.) 

extenta. Extent, or valuation of 
real property. (546.) See Ex* 
tent, 

extractio. Estreat. {6S5,) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 801, s. V. Extracta, 

extricare. To narrow, to restrict. 
(255, 322.) 

B B 



386 



LIBER ALBTJS. 



factum. A deed, or written instru- 
ment. (8, 339.) 

feodi firma (191, 193), feodum fir- 
mae (572). Fee farm. See the 
Glossary to Liher Custum» p. 802, 
s, V, Firma, 

feodum. A fee, payment, or remu- 
neration. (10, 11, 47, 236, 559, 
563, 564, 620.) A tenement. 
(252.) 

feoffatus (545). One enfeoffed, a 
feoffee, a tenant. For the Statute 
" De Conjunctim Feoffatis " here 
mentioned, see the Stat. Realm 
(1810), I. pp. 145-147, 

feoffator. A feoffor, one who enfeoffs. 
(447, 448.) 

ferramentum. An iron tire, or strake 
for wheels. (729.) See Strika. 

ferratus. Shod, or fitted, with iron. 
(729.) 

ferreus (732). Shod with iron. 

ferronarius. An ironmonger, or 
blacksmith. (554.) 

feugera(341), feugeria(356). Fern. 

Fidis Sanctae Parochia (6^^). The 
Parish of St. Faith in Cryptis, in 
the Crypt under the Choir of St. 
Paul's ; or, as it was commonly 
called, " in the Crowds." After the 
G-reat Fire of London, the Parish 
of St. Faith was annexed by Act 
of Parliament to that of St. 
Austin. See Newcourt's Beper- 
torium, i. p. 349. 

finem facere. To make fine ; i»e, 
to pay a fine, (399.) 

finis. A final agreement. (487.) 

firmaculum. A buckle. (299,602.) 

firmarius. A fermor, farmer, or 
renter. (670, 696.) 



Fleta. The Fleet Kiver. (583.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum. p. 726, s, V, Flete, 

Folkesmotum. TheFolkmote. (86, 
118.) See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 726, s, «. Folkesmot, 

forestallamentum. Forestalment 
(193.) ^ee Foristalria^ Forstal- 
lagium^ and Forstallafio. 

forinseca acquietancia (209). An 
acquittance made in a foreign 
county ; i,e. elsewhere than in 
the City. 

forinsecum attachiamentum (175, 
207), Foreign attachment; i.e. 
seizure, or attachment, of debts 
due to a person from third parties, 
strangers to the suit. 

forinsecus. A foreigner ; Le, one 
not a citizen, or freeman of the 
City. (63.) 

foristalria. Forestalment. (250.) 
See Forestallamentum, Forstal- 
lagium, and Forstallatio, 

forstallagium. Forestalment. (533, 
706.) See Forestallamentum, 
Foristalria, and Forstallatio, 

forstallare (576, 693), forstallare 
forum (344), forstalliare (717). 
To forestal, to forestal the market. 

forstallatio. Forstalment. (600.) See 
Forestallamentum, Foristalria, 
and Forstallagium, 

forstallator. A forestaUer. (249, 
263, 545, 688, 692, 717.) 

forstallor. A forestaller. (600, 617.) 

fortunium (54). A lucky event, a 
good hap ; the converse of infor- 
tunium, 

fossatum (530, et passim}, fossatus 
(616). A foss, or ditch. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIiEVAL LATIK. 



387 



31 



fraellatus. Packed in frails, or bas- 
kets. (240.) SeeFreelle. 

Francigenis. A Frenchman. (649.) 

francum bancum (68, 347, 393, 671, 
680). Free bench ; the estate in 
copyhold lauds which the wife 
has for dower on the death of her 
husband, according to the eastern 
of the manor. 

francum pleggium (73), francum 
plegium (38, ef passim), francus 
plegius (99). Frankpledge. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
727, s, V. Frawikeplegge. For the 
Statute "Visus Franci Plegii," 
mentioned in p. 545, see the Stat 
Realm (1810), i. pp. 146, 147. 

Fratres Minores (698). The Con- 
vent of the Friars Minors, or 
Franciscan Friars, on the site of 
the present Christ's Hospital and 
Christ Church, Newgate Street. 

Fratres Militiae Templi Salamonis. 
The Brethren of the Knighthood 
of the Temple of Solomon ; the 
Knights Templars. (535.) 

Fratres Poenitentiae (534). The 
Brethren of the Penance — of Jesus 
Christ ; also known as " Fratres 
" de Sacco," or " Fratres Saccati." 
They were a body of Friars, an 
offshoot of the Augustinians, who 
abstained from wine and flesh, 
and, according to Matthew Paris, 
were introduced into England in 
the year 1257. The Order was sup- 
pressed by the General Council of 
Lyons, of 1274, all the other Men- 
dicant Orders being similarly sup- 
pressed, except four ; but this 
order was not acted upon in Eng- 



land until A.D. 1307. For fur- 
ther particulars as to this Order, 
and its houses in various parts of 
England, the reader may consult 
articles in Notes and Queries, 2nd 
Ser. X. pp. 68, 131 ; also, New- 
court's Repertorium, l. pp. 515, 
516. 

Fratres Prasdicatores. The Friars 
Preachers, Dominicans, or Black 
Friars. (76, 127, 554,619,622, 
713.) In the last four instances 
the locality now known as " Black 
" Friars " is meant. See Frere 
Prechours, 

Fratres Sanctae Crucis (628). The 
Brethren of the Holy Cross ; i.e. 
the Crutched Friars ; their house 
being situate in the locality now 

. known by that name, in Aldgate. 
See Crucis Sanctce Fratres, 

fretta (491, 492), frettum (656). 
Freight, money paid for the car- 
riage of goods. 

frisca forcia. Fresh-force. (569.) 
See Fresskeforce, and Novel 
Disseisine, 

Friscobaldi (541, 618), A wealthy 
company of merchants so called, 
established at Florence, See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
728, *. V. Friscomhaud, 

fugare. To drive, as a cart. (349, 
453.) 

fuUare (723), fuUire (723, 738). To 

full cloths, 
furinare (356). To heat an oven. 

Query if not ' furniare/ 
furratura. A trimming of fur. (35.) 
furratus. Trimmed with fur. (609.) 
furratus. Coated with bran, made in 

B B 2 



388 



UBER ALBUS. 



part of bran. (341,356,702.) See j 
Furre. 

furrura. Fur. (533, 603, 604, 719, 
720.) 

fustotinctus (674), ^pannus' under- 
stood. Cloth djed with (young) 
fustic. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 728, «, v, Fustat/n, 

Gaivelettum. Gavelet. (172.) See 
Gavelettum. 

galeya. A galley. (592.) 

garbelagium (736). The garbelage 
of groceries and other commodi- 
ties. The duty of the Garbler was 
to see that all drugs and groceries 
were duly garbled (i.e. picked) 
and cleansed before sale. 

garcio (II, 72, 73, 89, 97, 98, 254, 
319), garco (319). A serving 
man, lad, or groom. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
803. See Garson. 

Garderoba. The Wardrobe. (616.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 804. 

gardianus. A warden. (253.) 

Gardemotum. A Wai'dmote. (251.) 

gardinum. A garden. (554, S55y 
556, 558.) 

garlandus. (600). A crown, circlet 
or chaplet, for the head, made of 
gold or silver. As to the garlands 
worn by the Masters and Wardens 
of the City Companies, see the 
Introduction to Liber Custuma- 
rum, p. liv. 

garrulatrix. A scold. (257.) 
gaugeare. To gauge. (707,709,710, 

711.) 
gaugeatio. A gauging. (533, 706.) 



gaugetum. Gauget, custom levied 
for the gauging of wine. (627.) 
The place or office of gauger. 
(710.) 

Gavelettum (468, 544), Gaveletum 
(64, 468), Gaverletum (62). The 
Writ of Gavelet. For the Statute 
"De Gaveletto," mentioned in 
p. 544, see the Stat. Realm 
(1810) I. p. 222. See Gavelett. 

Gernemuta. Yarmouth, in Norfolk. 
(376.) See Gememue, and Jerne- 
muta. 

geticium (584), getticium (250, 531, 
584). A jetee. In page 252, 
' gettis ' is probably an error for 
* getticiis.' See Gete. 

Gihalda. . A Guildhall. (19, 399, 
445.) See GildaAultty Gildaula^ 
Guihalda^Gyaulay and Gyhalda. 

Gilda Aula. A Guildhall. (300.) 
See Gihalda. 

Gilda Telaria. The Weavers' Guild. 
(134.) As to this passage, see 
the Introduction to Liber Custti- 
maruMy pp. Ixii., Ixiii. 

Gildaula. A Guildhall. (350, 436, 
437.) See Gihalda. 

Gippewicum. Ipswich, in Suffolk. 
(535, 539.) 

grocerius (736), grossarius (686, 
736). A grocer. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 730, 
s. V. Grossour, 

grossus. Large. (651, 713.) 
gubernacula. plur. Rigging. (491.) 
guerra. (78, et passim.) War, war- 
fare. In p. 78 that of King John 
with the Barons is alluded to. 
See Gwerra. 



GLOSSAKY OF MEDIiEVAL LATIN. 



O 



89 



guerrinus. Of, or pertaining to, 

wai% (532, 646, 653.) 
Guihalda (173, 361,461), Guyhalda 

(6, et passim\ Guyhalde (468). 

A Guildhall. See Gihalda, 
gurges. A wear. (503.) 
gurgitum. A weai\ (503.) 
guttera. A gutter, a water-course. 

(241, 252, 288, 531, 584.) 
Guyhalda Colonensium (241). 

The Guildhall of the Cologne 

Merchants. See the Glossary to 

Liher Custum. s. vv. Gihalda 

Colonensium^ and Introduction 

to Liber Custum, p. xli. See 

Deneis. 
gwerra. War. (592.) See Guerra. 
Gyaula. A Guildhall. (404.) See 

Gihalda, 
Gyhalda. A Guildhall. (20, 338, 

446, 458, 490.) See Gihalda. 
Gylda. A Guild. (529, 535.) See 

the Glossary to Liber Custum. 

p. 804, s, V. Gilda. 

haddocus. A haddock. (376.) 
Halimotum (343, 344, 356, 373, 

376, 690), Hahnotum (344, 

373, 374, 704). A Hallmote. 

See Halimot, 
Hansa (456, et passim). A 

Hanse. See the Glossary to 

Liber Custum. p. 807. 
heremitagium. A hermitage, or cell. 

(552, 554, 555.) 
Herfordia (648, 649). Hereford. 

Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 

Hereford, is the personage here 

alluded to, 
hernesiare. To harness, decorate, 

or set off. (604.) 



Iiernesium. Harness, armour for 
man and horse. (303.) As to 
the signification of the word 
* hernays,* see Hearne's Glossary 
to Langtoft*s Chronicle, p. 585, 

heura (607). A hure, or rough, 
shaggy, cap. See Hurarius. 

hobelarius {^5), A hobeler ; a 
light-armed soldier, who rode a 
horse called a * hobby.' 

honestus. Proper for the occasion, 
becoming. (35.) 

Honor Pevrel. (118.) The Honour 
of Pevrel ; a name given to cer- 
tain lands in various parts of the 
kingdom, which had once be- 
longed to the noble family of 
Peverel, and had escheated to 
the crown. 

honorifice. As a mark of honour. 
(29.) 

Hosebundria (546). Husbandry. 
The name of a book on that sub- 
ject; supposed by some to have 
been written by Robert Grosteste, 
Bishop of Lincoln. It is to be 
found in if. 158-174 of Liber 
Horn, 

hospes. A host, or hosteler. (720.) 
A guest. (720, 722, 735.) 

hospitare. To build. (255, 321, 
322, 323, 329, 331.) To provide 
lodgings for, to entertain as a 
guest, to harbour, house, or stow 
away. (303, 345, 376, 481, 635, 
712, 720, 721.) 

hospitator. A hosteler, herber- 
geour, or lodging-house keeper, 
(143, 158, 455, 476, 720.) 

hospitatio. A harbouring. (487.) 

hostellarius (38, 267), hostillarius. 



390 



LIBE:^ ALBU& 



(249, 250, 346, 533, 673, 722, 
735). A hosteler, or keeper of 
a tostel or inn. See Hostelle^ 

hostiarius. An usher. (670.) 

hurarius. A hurer, hurrer, or 
maker of hures, rough, shaggy, 
caps, so called. (533, 654, 727, 
735.) See Hurer^ and Heura, 

hurdicium. A hoard, or enclosure 
of boards or other materials. 
(455.) See Hurdis* 

huseria. A doorway. (255, 322.) 

ignitegium. The curfew-bell. (251, 
600, 641.) See Coverfeu. 

illuminator (714, 735). A limner, 
or illuminator of manuscripts. 
See Lymnour. 

imaginarius (84). An image- 
maker. From the works of John 
of Salisbury and Peter of Blois, 
we learn that certain persons who 
were supposed to make images 
for magical purposes were thus 
called. 

in grosso. In gross, wholesale. 
(249, 721.) 

in misericordia (79, 96, 343, 373, 
377, 413, 496). At the mercy of; 
i.e. liable to an arbitrary mulct, 
or amercement, of a less severe 
nature than a fine. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 694, «. v, 
Amerdement* See Misericordia. 

inbreviare. To put in writing, to 
brief. (404.) 

infortunium. Misadventure, in law. 
(1 1, et passim.) See Foriunium. 

ingenium. An engine. (504.) 

Inga (100, 101). Possibly, this 
name may be *Juga/ and not 



^ Inga;' as the same manuscriptal 
characters stand for either, 
ingrossator. An engrosser, or dealer 

in gross or wholesale. (631.) 
intendens. Obedient to. (560.) 
interesse. A duty incumbent on 
(9); apparently, an unusual mean- 
ing of the word, 
interessens. Being present, (9.) 
intratio. Entry, enrolment. (402.) 
intromissio. Litervention. (397.) 
intromittere se. (77, 397.) To in- 
terfere, to intermeddle. A similar 
mode of expression was employed 
,in early English. — "No foreyn 
" shall entermet hym in the for- 
« said Cite."— Old Translation of 
the Charter of Richard III, to the 
Fishmongers' Company^ Herbert's 
Hist Twelve Livery Companies, 
II. p. 22. 
inutilis. Harmful. (503.) 
Isolda (100, 101). From a com- 
parison of these two pages, it 
would seem that * Isolda ' and 
' Isabella ' were different forms of 
the same name. It may also be 
added that, from the Liber de 
Antiq. Legibus (CsbVid. Soc), p. 
18, we learn that Isolda de 
Tateshale, here mentioned, at a 
succeeding Iter made her law, or, 
in other words, underwent her 
trial, with 36 jurors or compur- 
gators, and was acquitted. 

Janua. Genoa, (627, 630.) 
Januensis. A native of Genoa, 

Genoese. (540, 627> 630, 633, 

637.) 
Jernemuta. Yarmouth, in Norfolk. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDI-ffiVAL LATIN. 



391 



(490.) See Gernemue, and Gcr- 

nemufa, 
jocalia. Jewels, valuables. (574, 

597.) 
Joceus (99, 100), Josceus(101, 107, 

108). Joce, or Josce, the media) val 

form of the name ' Joseph.' 
Judaismus (99\ A Judaeism, or 

Jewry. See the Grlossary to 

Liber Custum, p. 810, 5. v- 

Jud(Bismus» 
jurata. A jury, (304, et passim,) 
jurgatrix. A common scold. (603,) 
justa (629), justea (626). A joust, 

or jousting ; a single combat in a 

tournament, 
justiciare (76, 656), justisare (641). 

To render amenable to justice. 

Kalendarium (24). In this instance, 

probably the Martyrology is 

meant, 
kaium. A quay. (555.) See Kay a, 
Kancia. Kent. (545, 649.) 
Kanciani. Natives of Kent. (645.) 
karecta. A cart, (376.) See 

Carecta. 
Karliolensis. Of Carlisle, (547.) 

For the Statute here mentioned, 

see the Statutes of the Bealm 

(1810), vol. I. 
kaya (344, 709), kayum (373, 377, 

553, 554, 666, 669, 6S2, 621). A 

quay. See Kaium, 
Kayum Jordani. Jordan's Quay, 

(373.) SeeKoi/, 
Kayum Sancti Botulphi, Saint 

Botolph's Wharf, (553,554,555.) 

See Botulfy Wharf de Seynt. 
kidellus (131, e^ passim), kydellus 

(497, et passim), A kidel. See 



the Glossary to Liber Custum, 

p. 810, s, V, KidelluSy and p. 811, 

s, V, Kydellus, 
knipulus (86); knypulus (93, 95, 

99). A knife. 
Knuto. King Cnut, or Canute. 

(546.) 
kokettus. A cocket, or seal, (76, 

121). See Cokety and Cokettus, 

labilitas. Fallibility, instability. (3.) 
laborarius, A labourer. (334, 547.) 
laborator. A labourer, (735.) 
lacum (118). Lack ; the sum in 
which the taxes were found to 
be deficient when weighed in the 
Exchequer. See Madox, Hist, 
Excheq, i, pp, 281, 283, 288. 
lagemannus (8, 33). A lawman, or 
judge. See Du Cange, Glossar, 
s, V, Lagamannus, and the Glos- 
sary to Thorpe's Ancient Laws 
and Jnstit, of England, s, vv, 
Lahman, — Lagemannus, 
Laghelmotus. A Law Hallmote. 
(373). See Lagekalimotz, and 
Lawehalymoz, 

Lamburga. Limburg, or Limbourg, 

in Holland. (612.) See Lem- 

bourk, 
lanlordus, A landlord. (220.) See 

Landlorde, 
lardinarius. A larderer, or keeper 

of the larder. (620.) 
lastagium (130, 659). Lastage. See 

Lestagium, 

lathamus (533), lathomus (728, 735), 
latomus (320, 455). A stone" 
mason, 

legare. To bequeath, to devise. 



392 



LIBER ALBUS. 



(108, 552, 583, 630, 661, 684, 
685.) 
legator. A devisor. (450.) 
legatum. A bequest or legacy, a 
devise. (108, 450, 530, 532, 552.) 
legem facere (58, 203). To make 
one's law ; e. e. to undergo trial 
by oath of compurgators or jurors, 
a panel of whom was called * lex,' 
a law ; which name was also 
given to this mode of trial or 
purgation. The Magna Lex, or 
** Great Law," with 36 compurga- 
tors, is described in page 57 ; the 
Lex Media, or " Middle Law/' with 
18 compurgators, in page 58 ; and 
the Lex Tertia, or " Third Law," 
with six compurgators, in pp. 58, 
59. See Lex, 

legis apprenticius (38, 42). Alearner- 
at-law, or apprentice-at-law ; a 
barrister under sixteen years' 
standing. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 696, s» v, Ap- 
prentiz, and p. 714, s, v. Countour, 

lestagiura. Lastage. (129.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
812. See Lastagium, 

leuca. A mile. (147, 162.) 

levatio. Levy. (531.) 

lex (92, 104, 105). The law ; a 
technical name given to a set of 
jurors or compurgators, who were 
to pronounce on oath as to the 
innocence of the accused ; 36, 18, 
or 6 in number, as the case might 
]je. See Legem facere, Manus, 
and Purgatio. 

liber (24). The Book of the Evan- 
gelists, or Gospels is probably 
alluded to. 



libera petra. Freestone. (322.) 

liberata. Livery. (8, 26, 27, 28.) 
So called from its being * de- 
livered,' or given out, to the 
retainers of the great. 

liberatio. A livery, or delivery, of 
a thing. (164, 305, 485.) 

libertas (137, 165). Liberty ; 
meaning the privilege of Soke, or 
exclusive jurisdiction, preserved 
by royal favour to the Dean and 
Chapter of St. Paul's. 

liberum foraneum (76, 116). A 
liberty out of the jurisdiction ; to 
all appearance, another name for 
a Soke. In no other instance, 
perhaps, is this tei*m to be met 
with. 

iibei'um maritagium (684). Free 
marriage ; property given " in free 
" marriage " went to the husband 
or wife, whichever might be the 
survivor, with full right of dispo- 
sal thereof. 

librata. A librate, one pound in 
value. (191, 192.) 

licet. See Clausulay licet 

ligeantia. Breach of allegiance. 
(644.) 

ligeus. A liege subject. (467.) 

linea tela. Linen cloth. (726.) See 
Lienge teille, 

lineatus (43). Lined, probably with 
silk, though linen might be meant. 
Indeed, it is from the early usage 
of covering the inside of garments 
with linen that our term ^ lining ' 
is derived. 

littera curialis. Court-hand. (533. 
714, 735.) 

loquenda3. Points to be discussed. 



GLOSSAliy OF MEDIAEVAL LATIN. 



393 



(291.) The technical name for 
points reserved by the Court for 
future consideration. See Lo- 
quendes. 
lorimarius. A lorimer. (736.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
739, s^ vv. Lorein and Lormerie^ 
and p. 812, s, v. Lorimarius, 

Lotheria. Lorraine. (614.) 
Lotrica. Lorraine. (612.) 
Lottum et Scottum (142, ef passim). 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 812. See Schot et Loth. 

Luca (539), Luka (539). Lucca, 

in Italy. 
Lucani. The people of Lucca, the 

Lucchese. (637.) 

macuellus. A club, or mace. (640.) 
See Massuellus, 

madera. Madder. (171.) 

maBremium. Timber. (618.) See 
Meremium, 

mahemium {^^)' Mayhem; the 
maiming of a limb necessary for 
defence in fight. See Mahay m. 

mala chevancia. Malchevance, ex- 
tortion. (532, 604.) See Che- 
vancia, 

male credere. To hold in suspicion. 
(83, 86, 89, 102.) 

mallium. The mesh of a net. (385, 
386.) 

Mandatum Apostolicum (124). Al- 
lusion is probably made to the 
Bull issued by Pope Clement V. 
against the Templars, August 
1308. 

mantargium. A towel. (358.) 

manucapere (173, et passim). To 



give mainprise, or security. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum., 
p. 813. 

manucaptio ( 1 57, c^ passim). Main - 
prise. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 813. 

manucaptor. A mainpernor, or bail ; 
one who gives mainprise. (174, 
et passim,) See Mainpernour, 

manuopus {66^^ 670). A mainour ; 
i.e, a thing stolen and found in 
the hand of the thief, or * hand- 
* habende.' See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 813, 5. v, Manu- 
opera, 

manus(91, 112). A hand; a tech- 
nical name given to a juror or 
compurgator, brought into Court 
to make oath as to the innocence 
of the accused. See Mayrty Legem 
facere, and Lex, 

manutentor. A maintainer of liti- 
gation. (346, 605, 682.) Seethe 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 81 3, 
s, vv, Manutenere and Manuten-- 
tor, 

marescallus. A farrier, or shoeing 
smith. (533, 733, 735.) 

Mariae Beataj extra Bysshoppesgate, 
Hospitale (728). The hospital of 
St. Mary of Bethlehem (corrupted 
in the 14th century to * Bedlem ') 
in Moorfields ; founded by Simon 
FitzMary, one of the Sheriffs of 
London, A.D. 1246. See New- 
court's Repertoriumy p. 464, and 
Dugdale's Monasticon, ii. p. 381. 
See Bedleem, Bethdelem, and 
JVovum Hospitale, etc, 

marinarius. A mai'iner, or sailor. 
(656.) 



394 



LIBER ALBUS. 



marinas. A mariner, or sailor. 
(651, 653.) 

maserus, A mazer, or cup of maslin 
or mixed metal. (604.) See 
Halliwell DicL Arch. p. 543, 
s, V. Maselin. See Mazerus* 

massuellus, A club, or mace. (703.) 
See Masuele, and Macuellus. 

Matutinum (715). The canonical 
time of Matins. Matin prayers 
were read at three in the morning; 
but the period of Matins extended 
from midnight to three o'clock. 

mazerus. A mazer. (606.) See 
Maserus. 

Medelanensis. A native of Milan, 
(637.) 

megucarius (737). Awhite tawyer; 
one who taws, or tans, skins with 
alum. The " White Tawyers " are 
alluded to in the Statuta WallicB^ 
12 Edward I. c. 4. {Stat. Realmy 
1810, 1, p. 57). " De Whitauwariis, 
" scilicet qui coria hovina et 
" equina albificant.'* See Alu- 
tarius. 

melleta. Medley; an aifray without 
malice prepense. (69.) 

memoriter. By way of memorial. 
(55.) 

mendicus (608) . A proctor, or col- 
lector of alms; in the present in- 
stance, for the Hospital of St. 
Mary of Bethlehem. 

mensurarius. A meter, or measurer. 
(243, 244, 589.) 

mensurator. A meter, or measurer. 
(242, 243, 244.) 

mercatorium^ A market. (353.) 

mercerius (589, 686), mercerus 
(621). A mercer. 



meremium. Timber. (432, 555.) 
See M<sremium, 

merlingus. A merling, or whiting. 
(374.) See Merling, 

mesterum. A trade, or mystery 
(391.) See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 815, s, v, Mestera, 
See Mistera. 

Michael ad Bladum, Sanctus (30), 
Michaelis atte Come, Parochia 
Sancti (431). The church and 
Parish of St. Michael le Quern, 
at the Western entrance of 
Cheapside. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. p. 815. 

miles. A Knight, in contradistinc- 
tion to an Esquire. (38, 190, 191, 
192.) 

milwellus. A melwel. (240.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 816, s. V. Mulvellus. See 
Melvelle, and MulveL 

Minorissae. (554.) The Minoresses, 
Cordeliers, or Nuns of St. Clare ; 
whose Abbey here alluded to, as 
being situate without Aidgate, 
was founded by Edmund, Earl of 
Lancaster, brother of Edward I., 
in the year 1293. From it the 
present Minories has its name. 

misa. Charge, outlay. (568.) 

miscuatus. Mixed. (711.) 

misericordia (133), misericordia pe- 
cuniae (133, 135, 139). An 
amercement in money. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 694, 
s. V. Amerciement. See In mise^ 
ricordia, 

mistera (344, et passtm\ misterum 
{^^^ y et passim). A trade, or mys- 
tery. See the Glossary to Liber 



GLOSSARY OF MEDXiBVAL LATIN. 



395 



Cmtum. p. 815, s, v. Mestera, 

See Mesterum. 
molatio. Multure, payment for 

grinding corn, (340, 341, 354, 

69L) 
monetarius. A moneyer. (301, et 

passim.) See the Glossary to 

Liber Custum. p. 815. 
monialis. A nun. (611.) 
Monasterium, Munster, the capital 

of Westphalia. (486.) 
Mora (553, 554, 555, 558). The 

Moor, of Finsbury ; from which 

the present Moorfields has its 

name. See More, le, 
Morori (540). A society of Italian 

merchants, so called. 
Mortis Antecessoris placitum (404). 

A plea of Mort d' Ancestor. See 

Mort dauncestre, 
mulvellus. A melwel. (241, 343, 

374, 375, 376.) See the Glossary 

to Liber Custum. p. 816. See 

Melvelle, Mulvel, and Milwellus. 
muragium. Murage. (141, et pas- 
sim,) See the Glossary to Liber 

Custum. p. 816. 
murdrum. A tax levied on a vill 

or hundred, for the escape of a 

murderer therefrom. (128, etpas^ 

sim.) See the Glossary to Liber 

Custum. p. 816. 

namium. A naam, or distress. (131, 
et passim.) See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum^ p. 816. See 
NaymeSy and Neyme. 

narrator. A pleader, or counter. 
(21, 22, 530, 570, 571.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 714. 
s. V. Countour» 



nativus. A serf, or bondman. (452, 

610, 681.) 
navata. A boatload. (721.) 
Nicholai Sancti Monasterium. 
(100.) The Monastery of Saint 
Nicholas. It seems most pro- 
bable that the Monastery of the 
Grey Friars, near the Church of 
St. Nicholas, Aldersgate, at the 
Flesh-shambles, is meant. See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 817. 
nodulus. A button. (604.) 
Nona, (718, 719.) None, from 
about 3 P.M. to Vespers, about 

4 P.M. 

Nova Disseisina. Novel Disseisiu- 
(173, 195, 347, 404, 677.) See 
Fressheforce, Novel Disseisine, 
and Frisca forcia. 

Novum Hospitale extra Bisshopis- 
gate (582). This « New Hos- 
" pital without Bishopsgate " is 
probably the same as that of St. 
Mary Bethlehem or * Bedlem.' 
See Bedleem, Bethdelem, and 
MaricB Beatce etc. 

objectum. A charge. {55.) 

obligatio. A bond. {11^ , et passim.) 
" Obligatio de duplo." A bond with 
a double penalty. (175.) *^ Obligatio 
" simplex," A bond in the single, 
i.e. with a single penalty. (175.) 
See Obligacioun etc. 

Octabae. The Octave, or Octaves. 
(104, 365, 412, 439, 567.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 843. 

occasionare. To molest, or hai*ass, 
by legal proceedings. (60, 161, 
169.) 



896 



LIBER ALBUS. 



ofticium. A trade. (495.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 817. 

officialis. (85, 88.) An official ; in 
this instance, the official of the 
Archdeacon of London. This 
name was given to a lawyer 
whom the Archdeacon substi- 
tuted for himself in the execution 
of his jurisdiction, and who acted 
as judge of the Archdeacon's 
Court. 

onerare. To charge, to enjoin. 
(25.) 

operabilia. Handicrafts. (495.) 

operarius. A workman, a labourer. 
(244, 320, 621, 731.) 

Ordinationes (125). Reference is 
here made to the Ordinances for 
the better government of the 
realm, exacted by the nobles from 
Edward II. As to these Ordi- 
nances and the Ordainers, see 
Liber Custum, pp. 200, 202, 682- 
690. 

Ordinationes de Itinere. Ordinances 
of the Eyre, or Iter. (60.) The 
ancient title of a book, of the 
time of Edward I. or 11., now 
known as ^' Liber OrdinationunC^ 
at Guildhall, where it is pre- 
served. 

ordolaium. Ordeal. (546.) 

Ostensio. Scavage, or Showage. 
(547.) See Scawage, 

ossamenta. Bones. (JSS2y 558.) 

ostiarius (53, 77). An usher, or 
doorkeeper ; the form of the word 
in the original being * hostiarius.' 



Paganus (83). The mediaeval 
Christian name, ' Pay en,* 

panellare (398). To empanel ; to 
put in writing the names of jurors. 

panellum (431, 442). A panel; e.c. 
a paper (or perhaps originally, a 
board), on which the names of 
jurors were written. 

panerium. (455, 467, 468), panerius 
(688). A basket, in the present 
instances, for the carriage of fish. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum. J). 818, 5. V, Panerius, See 
Panier, 

panis bissus (350, 356). Brown 
bread. See the Assisa Panisy of 
the time of Edward L, preserved 
at Guildhall, in initio. See 

Bissus, 

* 

panis dominicus (353, 703). Pain 
demesne, or bread of our Lord ; 
so called from the figure of our 
Saviour imprinted upon it ; the 
same as the bread called * artoco- 
' pus,' which, in the Assisa Panis, 
preserved at Guildhall, is identi- 
fied with simnel bread. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 
782, s. vv, Artocopi panis, 

panis equinus. Horse bread, (533.) 
See Payn pur chivalx, 

panis levatus (350). Light-bread. 
In the Assisa Panis, preserved at 
Guildhall, this is identified with 
cocket bread, which was inferior to 
wastel bread. It cannot be the 
same as the "panis levis" of p. 353, 
French, or puiF, bread, which, 
in quality, is there mentioned 
as being equal to wastel bread. 



OLOSSARY OF MEDIi^SVAL LATIN. 



S97 



See the Glossary to Liher Cus- 
ttmi, p, 793, s, viK Cokettus, pa?iis, 

paiina (322, 326, 327). Squared 
timber ; meaning, in this instance, 
either the joists for flooring, or 
the wood /or the superstructure 
and roof. 

pannarius (194, et passim). A 
draper, or clothier. As to the 
indiscriminate use of these terms 
in early times, see Herbert^s Hist, 
of the Twelve Livery Companies, 
1. p. 394. 

pars. A party to a suit. (404, 410, 
431, 448.) 

particular iter. By retail. (671.) See 
Ad incisionem. 

partior. To leave. (5.) 

Parva Hengham (546). A treatise 
by Ralph de Hengham, Chief Jus- 
tice temp, Edward I. ; who wrote 
the Summa Magna and Summa 
Parva, treating of Essoins and 
Defaults in Writs of Bight, As- 
size, Dower, etc. 

passagium (650,651). A passing over, 

passagium. Passage. (129,541.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Cusfum. p. 
819. 

pastellarius. A pasteler, or pie- 
baker. (533, 715, 735.) See Pas- 
teler, 

pastura. Dough. (162, 602.) 

patria (398). The country ; i.e. a 
jury, as representing the country, 

pausa (258). A barrel, or other vessel, 
for holding water. See Koove. 

pavagium (141, et passim). Pavage. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn. p. 819. 



pavare. To pave. (729.) 

pavator. A pavior. (251, 729.) 

Pavimentum (349). The Pavement, 
near the church of St. Michael le 
Quern, at the West end of Cheap ; 
where a corn-market was held. 

pecia (558), pecium (630). A piece. 

peletarius. A pelterer, or preparer 
of pelts or skins. (433.) See Pele- 
ter. 

pellis lanuta. A woolfel. (251, 636.) 

penticium. A pentice, or penthouse. 
{^^^.) See Appentice, Pentis, 
and Appenticium. 

penulatus. Edged, or trimmed, with 
fur. (43.) 

Per quse Servitia (684). A judicial 
Writ which lay for the cognisee of 
a manor, seigniory, chief rent, or 
other services, to compel him who 
was tenant of the land, at the time 
of the note of the fine levied, to 
attorn to him. This Writ was 
abolished by 3 & 4 William IV. 
c. 27. s. 36. 

perdonare sectam. To waive one's 
trial. (96.) 

perdonatio. Pardon. (538, 562, 619, 
620, 638.) 

peregrinus. A pilgrim. (629, 630, 
631.) 

persona. A parson. (583, 685.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Ciistum. p. 
819. 

pertica. (349, 453). An ale-stake, or 
ale-pole ; a pole projecting from 
the side of an inn or tavern. See 
Perche. 

Peruchia. Perugia, in Italy. (539.) 

Petri de Westchepe, Ecclesia Sancti 
(558). The church of St. Peter, 



398 



LIBER ALBUS. 



West Cheap. See the Glossary 

to Liber Custum. p. 819. 
pica. A peck, in measure. (601.) 
pilare. To pile, to drive piles into. 

(580.) 
piiloria (604, 607, 609, 715), piloria 

(715). The pillory, 
pillorium (599, 601, 602, 603, 604, 

605, 606, 607, 608), pilorium 

(608). The pillory, 
pilus. A stake. (579.) 
pinaculum. A pinnacle, turret, or 

elevated wing of a building. (686.) 
piperarius. A pepperer. (589, 736.) 

See the Glossary to Liher Cus' 

turn, p. 819. 
Piscenaria. Old Fish Street. (376.) 

See Eldefistrate, 
pistare. To bake. (349, 350.) 
placea. A place ; meaning, a piece 

or plot of ground. (469, 470, 553, 

554, 557, 558, 654, 713.) "Placea 

" terrse." Apiece, or plot, of ground. 

(538, 542, 554, 565, 556, 713.) 
placia. A castle, or fortified place. 

(127.) 
placitator. A pleader. (455.) 
pleggagium (52), plegiagium (113, 

677). Suretyship, 
pleggius (358), plegius (116, 326, 

405, 567, 677). A pledge, or surety, 
plegiatio. Suretyship. (76, 115.) 
plegium. Suretyship. (89.) 
plumbum. An article made of lead. 

(680.) 
poletria. Poultry. (250.) See Pulle- 

fria, 
pollardus. A pollard. (573, 574, 

575.) See the Glossary to Liber 

Custum. pp. 751, 752, s»v. Pollard. 
ponderatio. Pesage. (226.) See the 



Glossary io Liber Custum, p. 819, 
s* V. Pesagium, See Peisage. 

pondus. A pound for cattle. (355.) 

pontagium. Pontage. {\^\,et pas- 
sim.) See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 820. 

portagium. Porterage. (179,697.) 

portator. A porter. (532.) See Por- 
titor. 

Portegalensis. A native of Portugal. 
(720.) 

portegravius (4), portgravius (13). 
A portreve, or principal man of a 
city ; from the A,S. popt, ' city,' 
and jepepa ' principal officer,' or 
* reve.' 

portitor. A porter. (377, 692, 708, 
734.) Classical. See Portator. 

Portsocha (132), Portsoka (130, et 
passim). The Portsoken. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 821, 
s. V, Portesoka. 

potellus. A pottle. (601, 699.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum. p. 821. 

pottarius (738). A potter ; in this 
instance, a maker of metal pots 
and cups for drinking. 

praepositus. A provost. (77.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 821. 

prassentamentum. A presentment. 
(573, 628, 696.) 

praesentator. A presenter; one vrho 
makes presentment. (54, 60.) 

praestitum. A loan, (592.) 

Prima. The canonical hour of Prime. 
(250y 716.) See P^^me. 

prisa. Prise, or prisage. (138, et 
passim.) For the Statute "De 
«* Prisis " mentioned in p. 545, see 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL LATIN. 



399 



the Statutes of the Realm (1810), 
I. pp. 154-156. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custunu p. 821. 
See Prys» 

prisona. A prisoner. (614.) 

proficium. Profit. (41.) 

pronoba ('257, 454), pronuba (332, 
454, 608). In classical Latin 
the word " pronuba " signifies a 
" bridesmaid ;" but in mediaeval 
language it has degenerated to 
the meaning of " procuress." In 
the Nominale of the 1 5th Centura/ 
(Wright's Vol Vocab. p. 217) 
this word is translated " a bawds- 
" trott " (i.e. a woman who trots 
about on bawds' errands) ; and it 
is similarly rendered " a baudes- 
" trot " and " bawdetrot " in the 
Eoyal MSS. (French) 521 and 
7692. In the Pictorial Vocab. of 
the 1 5th Century (Wright, p. 269) 
this is corrupted into "a baw- 
" strop," the writer evidently not 
understanding the word. In old 
English, an old woman was called 
" a trot," contemptuously, 

** TMs lere I learned of a beldame trotJ^ 

— Affectionate Shepherd, 1594. 

prorogatio temporis. Lapse of time. 
(362.) 

prothonotator. A prothonotary, or 
chief notary of proceedings in a 
Court of Justice. (53.) 

providentiae. plur. Provisions, 
victuals. (615, 634.) 

puletarius (620, 621), puUetarius 
(252, 455, 533, 715, 735). A 
poulterer. 

puUetria (533, 455, 602, 715, 717), 



pultria (600). Poultry. See 

Poletria, 
purgatio (91). Trial, purgation, or 

the clearing one's self from an 

accusation by the oath of jurors 

or compurgators. See Legem 

facere, and Lex. 
purgator. A compurgator on oath, 

or juror. (92.) 
purprestura. A purpresture. (117, 

et passim.) See the Glossary to 

Liber Custum. p. 822. 

Quare ejecit [intra terminum] (293). 
A Writ which lay where the 
wrongdoer or ejector was not him- 
self in possession of the lands, 
but another claiming under him ; 
as where a man leased lands to 
another for years, and then en- 
tered and made a feofiment in fee 
of the same lands to a stranger, 
or for life. See Fitzherbert's 
New Natura Brevium, 
quarta (602), quartus (699). A 

quart measure, 
quassatus. Crushed. (104.) 
Quid j uris clamat ( 1 84). The name 
of a judicial Writ which lay, be- 
fore a fine was engrossed, for the 
grantee of a reversion or remain- 
der, where the particular tenant 
refused to attorn. This Writ has 
been disused since 4 & 5 Anne, c. 
16. s. 9. 
quieta-clamantia. Quit-claim. (299.) 
quietus. Acquitted. {S7,et passim.) 
quindena. A quinzisme, or quin- 
zaine. (63, 257, 327, 328, 330.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 822. 



400 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Quo Warranto (544, 670). See the 
Glossary to Liber Cnstum. p. 822. 

rastrator. A raker. (258.) See 
Rakyer, 

rayus. A ray, the fish so called. 
(375.) See Raie. 

rebelliare. To rebel against. (605.) 

receptamen turn. A harbouring. (90.) 

receptator. A harbourer, or receiver. 
(118.) 

Recepti Officiarus (35). Official of 
the Receipts ; probably, Receiver 
of the Fines, or Receiver of the 
King's Rents. 

recognitio. A recognizance. (92, 
€f passim.) 

recognoscere. To make recogni- 
zance. (437.) 

Record ator. A Recorder. (43.) 

Recordatorium (61). From the 
words " Legum," or else " Regum 
" Antiq." faintly interlined (see p. 
61, Note 3) this vp'ould seem to be 
the same work, a portion of which 
is now bound up with the Guild- 
hall Liber Custumarum; another 
portion being contained in the 
Cottonian Manuscript, Claudius 
T>, II., in the British Museum. 
See the Introduction to the printed 
Liber Custum, p. 11 ef seq. 

rectai-e. To charge, to accuse. (90, 
113, 677.) See the Glossary to 
lAher Custum, p. 758, s. v, Retter. 
See Rettare. 

regratarius. A regrator, or retail 
dealer, (715.) See Regratier» 

regraterissa. A regratress, or fe- 
male retail dealer. (341, 342, 357, 
358.) See Regrateresce, 



regrator. A regrator, or retail 

dealer. (249, et passim.) 
relaxatio. A release. (209, 535.) 
relevium (547). A relief; a sum of 
money certain, which the tenant, 
holding by knight-service, grand 
serjeanty, or other tenure, and 
being at full age at the death of 
his ancestor, paid to his lord on 
his entrance. 

religio. An order of religion. (124.) 
Renesia. The wine country ad- 
joining the river Rhine. (711.) 

Replegiare (184, 213, 214). The 
Writ of Replevin, or re-delivery 
of pledges, brought by one whose 
chattels are distrained by another 
person, on surety given to the 
Sheriff to prosecute or answer 
the action at law. See Fitzher- 
bert's New Natura Brevium. — 
*' Writde Replegiare de Averiis.^^ 

replegiatio. Bail by sureties. (75, 

113.) 
res subtiles. Fine goods. (224.) 

See SoiiL 

rescussus. Rescue. (638.) See 
Rescous, 

rescussus. Rescued. (619.) 
respecta (89), respectus (161, 
665). Respite. "Ponereinre- 
" specta" (89)— "in respectu." 
(665). To defer, to postpone, to 
put in respite. 

resummonere. To re- summon. (413.) 
retallia. Retail. (344, 493, 636, 
679.) 

retallum. Retail. (250.) 
retondarius, A clipper of the coin. 
(118.) 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIJSVAL LATIN. 



40] 



retonsor. A clipper of the coin. 

(80.) _ _ 
retornabilis. Returnable. (365.) 
retornare (347, 365, 438, 442, 679), 

retournare (404). To return. 

rettare. To accuse, (112.) See 

Rectare, 
retornum (404), returnum (189, 

et passim). A return. 

roberia (114), roberium (632). 

Robbery. 
Roffa. The city of Rochester. (618.) 
Roffenses. The people of Rochester. 

(539.) 

saisina. Seisin, absolute possession 
of land. {Q^*) 

Salopia. Salop, or Shrewsbury. 
(548.) 

salsarium (601). A salser ; a dry 
measure, the capacity of which 
seems to be now unknown. Not 
improbably, it was so called from 
being originally used for salt. 

Salvator Sanctus. The church of 
Saint Saviour, otherwise Saint 
Mary Overy, in Southwark. (99.) 

Scabinus. An Echevin, or superior 
officer of a city in France and 
Flanders. (615, 616.) See Es- 
kevyn^ 

scantilo. Scantling, pattern, dimen- 
sions. (729.) See Escantilon, 

Scawanga (223), Scawangia (178, 
179,230), Scawynga (241). Sca- 
vage. See Scawage. 

schopa. A shop. (322.) 

Scire facias (172, et passim), A 
judicial Writ calling on the de- 
fendant to make known whv 
VOL. IIL 



execution of judgment passed 
shall not be made, 
scutifer. A shield-bearer, or esquire. 
(35.) 

secta (8, 27, 28, 561, 562). secta 
vestium (29). Suit of dress. 
Originally applied to liveries 
worn by retainers of the great ; 
all the habiliments being of the 
colour adopted by the superior, 
and so * suiting ' or * following ' 
one another in that respect. 

secta (397,469). Suit: explained 
in p. 469 as meaning a set of wit- 
nesses in favour of a party to a 
suit. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 825. 

sedilium. A seat. (59.) 

selda. A seld, or shed, for the 
storing of merchandize. (53, 241.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Ctis- 
turn, p. 825. See Selde^ and 
Sevtde. 

Senensis. A Sienese, or native of 
Siena, in Tuscany. (637.) 

Senescallus (145, et passim), Senes- 
challus (301). A Seneschal, or 
steward. See the Glossary to 
Liber Custurn. p. 826, s. v, Senes- 
calcia. 

sequestrum. Sequestration. (76^ 
202, 407, 600, 666.) 

sequi versus. To prosecute, to fol- 
low suit against. (90.) 

serjantia (79), A seijeanty ; Le. 
a tenure imder the sovereign by 
performance of certain services. 

serura. A fastening, by lock or bolt. 
(120, 121, 366, 407.) See Ce- 
rura. 

C C 



402 



LIBER ALBUS. 



serviens ad arma. A serjeant-at- 
arms. (26.) 

serviens ad clavam. A serjeant-at- 
mace. (563). As to this office, see 
Norton's ConstiL City of London, 
pp. 433, 434, 471, 472. See 
Claviger, and Communis SeV" 
viens ad Clavam, 

serviens hospitator (303). A ser- 
jeant-harbinger, or harbourer ; 
servant to the Marshal, as pro- 
vider of lodgings for the royal 
household. 

servitium {62, 64). Eent service ; 
the service to the superior lord 
implied by the payment of rent. 

severunda (255, 327, 329), seve- 
rundge (323). The eaves of a 
house. It is translated, * eveses ' 
in the Treatise of Walter de 
Bihbleswortk (p. 166 Wright's 
VoL VocabJ), Hence the word 
'serundel,' of like meaning, in 
early English. 

sigillarius. A sealer ; an officer 
whose duty it is to affix the seal. 
(7250 

signum. A stamp, or seal. (38.) 

singulus. Single, not lined. (680.) 

sirurgicus. A surgeon, (654.) 

skirima. Fencing. (250.) See 
JEshermerye, 

soca (72, 85, 374), socnum (64). 
A soke, manor, or place of inde- 
pendent jurisdiction. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
467, s, V, Sokne. See Soka^ 

socagium. Socage tenure. (547.) 

socnum. See Soca, 

soka (129, 240, 241, 468, 679), 
sokna (64). A soke. See Soca, 



aokemannus. A sokereve. (69.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn, p. 764, s, V, Sokeman. See 
Sokerevtis, 

sokerevus (64, 531, 610), soke- 
revvus (468). A sokereve, or 
collector of rents for the supe- 
rior lor4 of a soke ; the same as 
the * sokeman ' of Liber Custum, 
p. 150, See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum, p. 764, s, v. Soke- 
man, See Sokemannus, 

solemnis {52), It is difficult to say 
whether this word, as applied to 
an individual, means merely re- 
spectable, or of serious habits. 

solium. A solar, or upper storey, of 
a house (53.) 

sortilegium. Soothsaying, divina- 
tion by drawing lots, (606.) 

sotularia. plur. Shoes. (550, 
602, 603, 733.) A corruption of 
the more nearly classical * sub- 
* talaria.' 

Speculum (61). The Mirror; the 
name of a book formerly in the 
possession of the City of Lon- 
don. It is probably the same 
that is mentioned in the wiU of 
Andrew Horn under the name 
of " Speculum JusticJ* — * Mirror 
of 'Justices,' as being left by him 
to the City ; see Introduction to 
Liber Custumarum, p. x. The 
only MS. copy of this work of 
Horn now known to exist, is in 
the Parker Collection, at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. 

sprottus. A sprat. (374.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 827. 



>«a 



glossahy of mebi^eval latin. 



403 



stagium. A storey of a house. 
(470, 618, 632, 667.) 

stagneria. A stannary. (587.) 

stalla (553, 556, 558, 690), stallum 

(258, 531, 671, 689), stallus 

(584). A stall. 

stapula. A staple, or market. (547, 
611, 613, 614, 618, 622, 629, 632, 
636.) See Norton's Constit City 
of London^ pp. 242, 244. 

statio. A stall. (557.) 

Statuti Mercatoris Sigillum (24), 
Statutum Mercatorium (610, 
611). By the Statutes Merchant 
{Acton Burnel, 11 Edw. I. and 
Stat, de Mercatoribus, 13 Edw. I. 
Stat. 3) it was enacted that the 
merchant shall cause his debtor 
to appear before the Mayor of 
London or other city or town, 
and there acknowledge the debt 
by recognizance, which is to be 
enrolled ; the roll to be in dupli- 
cate, one part to remain with the 
Mayor, the other with the clerk 
appointed by the King ; the 
bond or obligation being sealed 
with the debtor's seal and that 
of the King, which is to remain in 
the custody of the Mayor. 

Statutum StapulaB (611). A Statute 
Staple ; a bond of record, acknow- 
ledged before the Mayor of the 
Staple, whether at Calais, Ant- 
werp, and other places abroad, or 
at London, Westminster Hall, and 
elsewhere in England. 

stillatio. A fall, or dropping, of 
water. (257.) 

stillicidium. A rain-gutter. (257, 



320, 321, 322, 323, 327, 329,331, 
332, 531, 584.) 

strandagium. Strandage ; money 
paid for liberty to take the ground 
at low water. (240.) See Es- 
traundage^ and Strandage, 

stricum (242), strikum (697). A 
strike, or strickle. See Strik, 

strika. The strake, or tire, of a 
wheel. (729. ) See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 829, s, v. 
Stracus, See Ferramentum, 

sturio. A sturgeon. (345.) See 
Sturioun. 

subalternus. Subordinate. (12.) In 
the use of this word in the present 
instance, allusion is probably made 
to some few occasions, when a War- 
den was appointed by the King to 
govern the City,without the Mayor 
being deposed from his office. 

subdue tura (35). It seems diffi- 
cult to say whether this means 
a lining throughout, or a mere 
trimming at the edge ; most pro- 
bably, the latter, 

Subvicecomes. An Under-Sheriff. 
(530, 577.) 

summonire. To summon. (601.) 

Super Ossamenta Mortuorum (552, 
558). The name of a Chapel built 
"on the Bones of the Dead," 
adjoining the Cloisters, in St. 
Paul's Churchyard. 

Supersedeas. A Writ enjoining a 
surcease, or stay, of proceedings, 
(650.) 

supersedere. To surcease. (408.) 

supertunica (56). A surcoat ; pro- 
bably, a kind of tabard. 

sursumredditio. A surrender. (557.) 

c c 2 



404 



LIBER ALBUS. 



syrografum. A chirograph. (488.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 792, s, v» Chirographum. 

tabellionatus. The office of notary 
public. (616.) 

tabernarius. A taverner, or keeper 
of a tavern. (453, 706, 707, 710, 
711.) 

tailliator. A tailor. (105.) 

tallagium (531, 540, 575, 594, 595), 
talliagium (575, 593, 594). Tal- 
lage. See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 829. 

tallia. A tally, for keeping accounts. 

(214, 253.) See Taille. 
talliare. To tax, or tallage. (593, 

671,679.) 

tannare. To tan, (602, 604.) 
tapicerium. Tapestry. (603.) 
tapicerius. A tapiser. (654.) See 
Tapicer, 

tegulator. A tiler, or bricklayer. 
(252, 258, 629, 731.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 769, 
s. V. Teuler. See Teuler, 

telarius. A webster, or weaver. 
(533, et passim.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum, pp. 830, 
831. 

terminarius. A termor. (678.) 

Teontonici (243), Teutonic! (542), 
Theotonici (535, 542, 614), Theu- 
thonici (614). Teutonics, or Ger- 
mans. / See the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 830, s,v, Teotonici, 

theoloneum (132, et passim)^ theo- 
lonium (129, et passim). Toll. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 831. 



thesauria (35). A treasury. On 
the occasion here alluded to, Wal- 
ter de Wenlock, Abbot of "West- 
minster, with eighty of the monks, 
was committed to the Tower, 
on the charge of stealing the 
King's property, to the amount of 
£100,000. Twelve of them were 
kept in prison for two years with- 
out trial, but were at last released. 
See the Croniques de London 
(Camd. Soc), p. 29. 

thoUse (375), thollia (239). Thole- 
pins for a boat. See Tkolles, 

tollagium. ToUage; illegal toll ex- 
torted by violence. (115.) 

tolta (56). Rapine, extortion, a 
wrongful taking away of property; 
also known in ancient law as 
* maltolt.' 

tonellus. A brewer's vat. (699.) 
Tonellus. The Tun, on Cornhill. 
(162, 601, 603, 655, 715.) See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. 
p. 831. 
tonsor. A tonser, or shearman ; one 
who shears the nap of cloth. (533, 
725, 726.) See Toncer, and 
Tou?idour, 

torchea. A torch ; a twisted candle, 
or taper, of wax, usually of large 
dimensions. (601, 737.) 

torneamentum (544). A tourna- 
ment. For the Statute '* of Arms in 
" Tournaments " here mentioned, 
see the Stat. Realm (1810), i. 
pp. 230, 231. See Turneamen' 
turn. 

tourneare. To tourney, or hold a 
tournament. (629.) 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL LATIN. 



405 



tractus. (243.) A haul ; from the 
vessel, probably, that lay at the 
wharf, laden with salt. 

treugsB. A truce. (532, 639, 644, 
645, 646.) 

triare (398). To select. Said in 
reference to jurors. 

Trinovantum (497). London. A 
name first mentioned by Beda as 
given to a city near the Thames, 
supposed to be London. See 
Luddesden. 

trona (138, 586, 588, 634). A tron, 
balance, or beam. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 832. 

tronagium (178). Tronage ; pay- 
ment made for the weighing of 
wool or other coarse goods, by 
the King's tron, or beam. See 
Tronage. 

tronator (588, 633). A keeper of 
the tron. 

trunci. Chips, rubbish. (584.) See 
Tronkes, and Truncs, 

tryinkus. A trink, a net or wear 
so called. (497, 577.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 
770, s. V. Treinekes. See Tryinkes. 

tumarius. A turner. (735.) 

turneamentum. A tournament. 
(625.) See Torneamentum, 

turtus. Tourte bread, or bread of 
unbolted meal. (532, 702, 703.) 
See TourU 

tyna. (582.) A large tub ; iden- 
tified with a * cowle,' in Prompt. 
Parv. p. 97, which formerly 
meant (and still does in Essex, 
according to Mr. Way) a large 
tub. Kennett (^Glossary) sup- 
poses the word ^ cowle' to be de- 



rived from* cucula,' a vessel shaped 
like a boat. Li a MS. Diet., 
A.D. 1540, quoted by Halliwell, 
Diet. Arch. p. 700, a " saa or 
" tebbe " (tub) is rendered ' tina.' 
According to Roquefort {Glos- 
saire dela L. Romaine, n, p. 21), 
a large wooden tub is still called 
* tine ' in Picardy and Burgundy. 
The ' tina,' no doubt, was a some- 
what similar vessel to the ^ tank- 
' ard ' used at the London Conduits 
in the 16th and 17th centuries ; 
holding about three gallons, 
hooped like a pail, and in form 
like the frustum of a cone. See 
Antiq. Repert. I. pp. 363, 364. 

ulnagium. Aulnage ; the assize of 
cloths measured by the aulne, or 
ell. (550, 587, 588, 615, 625, 
726.) See Aunage. 

ulneator. An aulnager. (638.) See 
Aunage. 

unctum, A grease-spot. (1.) 

Unde nihil habet (184, 185). The 
name of a Writ of Dower. If a 
husband, after his marriage, was 
solely seised in fee simple, or fee 
tail, of lands or tenements, so that 
the issue begotten of the marriage 
might inherit the same, then, if 
the husband aliened the same, or 
died seised thereof, or was dis- 
seised thereof and died, his wife 
had this Writ of Dower as to the 
laud, *' of which she has no party* 
against the tenant of the freehold. 
See Fitzherbert's New Natura. 
Brevium. This Writ is rctjiined 
by 3 & 4 William IV. c. 27, s. 36. 



m 



406 



LIBER ALBUS. 



universitas. A community. (55.) 
utesium* Hue, cry raised. (103.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Custum, 
p. 809, s. V. Hutesium, See Heu, 
and Huwe. 
utensilia. plur. Tackle. (491.) 
utlagatus. An outlaw. (80, 532, 
624, 681, 682,) See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum. p. 833, s, t?. 
Utlagare. 

vadia. plur. Wages. (592,647.) 
vadiare. To wage, to give surety 

for. (73, 74, 91, 104, 107, 174, 

175, 194, 253, 568.) 
vadium. A pledge, or surety. (76, 

325, 407, 416, 549, 550, 677.) 

vaginarius. A sheather, or maker 
of sheaths. (654, 735, 736.) See 
Skether, 

valentia. Value. (^6^,) 

valettus. A journeyman, or appren- 
tice. (727.) See the Glossary 
to Liber Cv^stum. p. 834. See 
VadletCy and ValleL 

vallare. To face with a wall. (324, 
331.) 

vallettus. A youth of high birth. 
(79, 117.) See the Glossary to 
Liber Custum. pp. 798, 834, s, vv. 
Domicellus, Valettus, and Val- 
lecfus» 

Vasconia. Gascoigne, or Gascony. 
(158, 710.) 

vastum. Waste. (172). See the 

Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 782, 

s. vv, AnnuSy diesy et vastum, 

vasum. A boat, or vessel. (578.) 

Venator Communis. (564.) The 

huntsman of the community ; for- 



merly known in the City as the 
* Common Hunt.* 

veredictum. A verdict. (94, 98, 
103, 104, 106, 107.) See Voirdit. 

Vetus Cambium (30). The Old 
Change. From a map of London 
of the time of Elizabeth, it ap- 
pears that its locality was on the 
North-East side of St. PauFs Ca- 
thedral. 

Vicus Pontis (374, 376). Bridge 
Street; the street leading from 
London Bridge. See Brigges" 
trete, 

vinae (375), vinnse (375). plur. 
The fins of a fish. 

vinetarius. A vintner. (95, et paS" 
sim.) 

virga. The verge of the King's 
Court. (301, 303, 481.) See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum, p. 836, 

visceralia. Entrails. (713.) 

visnetum. A visnet, or venue. (59, 

et passim,) See the Glossary to 

Liber Custum, p. 836. 

vitallarius (455), vitellarius (171, et 
passim), A victualler. 

walda. Weald, or woodland. (729.) 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum, p. 836. 
walla. A wall. (581, 683.) 
warda. A wardship. (547.) 
Wardemotum. A Wardmote, or 
meeting of the inhabitants of a 
Ward. (8, 36, 37, 38, 39, 654, 
674.) As to the incorrect asser- 
tion in page 8, that the Ward- 
mote was identical with the Folk- 
mote, see the Glossary to Liber 
Custum, p. 726, s, v Folkesmot 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL LATIN. 



407 



waranna (614), warenna (136, et 
passim). Warren. See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 837. 

warantizare. To warrant. (339.) 
wastellus. Wastel bread. (350, 

353). See the Glossary to Liber 

Cusium, p. 837. 

wayvare. To waive, forego, or post- 
pone. (66.) 

wayveria. Waivery, or banishment 
of a female ; tantamount to out- 
lawry of a male. (624.) See 
Wet/verie. 

welcomare. To welcome. (53.) An 
English word Latinized. See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 838. 

welki. plur. Whelks. (344, 377.) 

wharvagium. Wharfage. (530, 549.) 

wisda. Woad. (239, 588, 589), See 
the Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 



838, s. V. Wesda. See Weyde, 
and Wysda. 

wisdarius. A woad-merchant, or 
seller of woad. (723). See the 
Glossary to Liber Custum. p. 838, 
s. V. Wesdarii. 

Withernamium. The Writ of Wi- 
thernam. (619, 670, 678.) See 
Wythername. 

wysda. Woad. (615,630,723,725.) 
See Weyde, and Wisda. 

Zakariae, Vicus Sancti Johannis 
(102). The Street in Aldersgate 
Ward, in which the church of 
St. John Zachary was situate. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum. p. 838. 

zonarius. A girdler, or maker of 
belts or girdles. (533, et passim.) 
Classical. See Ceynturer. 



m 



V 



APPENDIX. 



^Sii^ 



APPENDIX I. 



Extracts from the AssiSA Panis, 21 Ebward i- 
16 Henry vi, preserved at Guildhall. 



^NoTA, quod panis cohet (^i. panis levatus), de eodem ^.s-a. 
blado et eodem bultello, ponderalbit plus quam was- kmdrof^"* 

iTi ^ ..o-|.-i i.iiij • • >••! bread, #ejw«. 

tellus per u ^solidos, et de blado mmoris pretii plus Edward l 
per V soMos. 

Item, panis artocopi (1. smienel) ponderabit minus 
wastello per duos solidos. 

Item, panis * integer (i. turta) de quadrants ponde- 
rabit cohet et dimidium. 

Item, panis de trait (i. panis bissus) ponderabit 
duos wastellos. 

Item, panis de quolibet genere bladi ponderabit duos 
cokettos. 



? 



Panis levatus Willelmi de Stratforde et Willelmi le F.66.b. 
Bole, pistorum tenentium similiter quoddam furnum in weight in 
Bredstrate et in lucro et perditione participantiuni, cap- cocket/ 
tus ftdt et adjudicatus coram Hamone de Chigewelle, 
Majore, Eoberto de Swalclyve, Ricardo de Gloucestria, 
Eicardo Costantyn, Hugone de Gartone, Rogero le 
Palmere, Johanne Coam, Simone de Parys, et Elia de 



* Repeated also in fol. 53 b. 
^ Meaning * id esV 
^ The * solidus/ or shilling- weight, 
was at this period f ths of an ounce. 



^ See page 365 a»fe, s, v. * Tourt;^ 
and page 396, s. vv, ^^ Panis domini- 



** CMS." 



n^ ^i^ 



412 APPENDIX L 

Suffolke, Aldermannis, die Lunae in crastino Sanctse 
Trinitatis, anno Regis Edwardi, filii Regis Edwardi, 
quartodecimo ; coram quibus venerunt Gilbertns de 
Mordone at Robertus de Berkwey, bladarii, qui jurati 
pro veritate dicenda qnaliter frumentum vendebatur die 
Veneris proximo praeterito, — dicunt super sacramen- 
tum suum, quod quarterium boni frumenti vendebatur 
pro viii solidis die Veneris prseterito; quibus additis 
xii denariis pro expensis pistorum et aliis necessariis 
circa pistacionem factis, valet quarterium cum expensis 
ix solidos. Et sic ponderabit panis levatus de obolo, 
Doniai of ut patct pcr assavum, xliii s. iii d. quart. Et prse- 

co-partner- r r j ^ -x r 

shin in the fatus WiUclmus le Bole venit, et dicit quod panis 

vending ' ^ r 

thereof. prsedictus non est suus, nee aliquam partem inde 
habet ; et petit quod hoc inquiratur. 

Ideo dictum est WiUelmo Prodhomme, Vicecomiti, 
quod custodiat corpus suum usque diem Mercurii prox- 
ime sequentem; et pr?eceptum est Joceo, servienti 
Camerse, quod venire faciat hie ad eundem diem xii"^ 
de probioribus hominibus Wardse de Bredstrate et aliis 
Wardis propinquioribus, etc. 

Ad quern diem venit prsefatus WiUelmus sub custo- 
dia dicti Vicecomitis, et alii probi homines dictse Wards© 
et aliarum Wardarum propinquiorum, per Hugonem 
de Asshebume, Ricardum Coterel, Johannem de Wyn- 
tonia, Ricardimi de Ailesbiria, Johannem de Cornubia, 
Hamonem Cocum, Walterum le Barbour, Alexandrum 
de Morpathe, Adam de Bredstrete, Robertum de Nor- 
hamptone, Willelmum le Brasour, et Willelmum Joye : — 
qui jurati dicunt super sacramentum suum, quod prsa- 
fatus WiUehnus le Bole et prsefatus WiUelmus de 
Stratforde, pistores, sunt socii ad lucrum et perditi- 
onem, participantes inter se quicquid de lucro causa 
pistacionis lucrari possunt. Et panis ponderatus fuit et 
ponderavit xxxixs. iiiid. oboL, et deficiebat iii s. xd. obol. 
Puj^s^ment Et quia prsefatus WiUelmus le Bole prime dedicebat 
tUe,forde- praedictum panem, et inde posuit se in Inquisitionem, 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ASSISA PANIS. 



413 



et compertum est per Inquisitionem quod particeps esfcniaioftho 
illms pams, habeat judicium claiae, nunc primo. ship. 

Panis Walter! de Messyndone, pistoris, qui alias ab- ^^^^'^' *' 
juravit officium in Civitate, captus fuit et adjudicatus f ^^w in 
coram Hamone de Chigewelle; Majore, Roberto de ^^^''^ 
Swalclyve, Ricardo ^ Costantyn, Johanne Poyntel, 
Rogero le Palmere, Hugone de Gartone, et Ricardo 
Costantyn, Aldermannis, die Veneris proximo ante 
Festum Nativitatis Sancti Johannis Baptistse [24 July], 
anno xiii° ; coram quibus venerunt Robertus le 
Huchereve et WiUelmus de Cheiham, bladarii; qui 
jurati dicunt, quod quarterium frumenti vendebatur die 
Mercurii proxime prseterito apud Billyngesgate pro 
viii s. iiii d. ; apud Ripam Reginse pro ix s. ; et super 
Pavimentum pro vii s. ; et sic ponderabat panis turta de 
obolo Ixiiii s. vi d. quart. Et prsefatus Walterus dicit, Denial of 
quod prsefatus panis non est suus nee de pistacione ship?^^"^'^^ 
sua; et dicit similiter quod non tenet pistrinum.. sed 
quod quidam Walterus de Sabrichesworthe tenet illud 
pistrinum, et hoc petit quod inquiratur. 

Et super hoc venit dictus Walterus de Sabrichesworthe, Avowry by 
et advocavit panem. Et quia Curia vult ulterius cer- person, 
tiorari si prsefatus panis sit prsedicti Walteri de Mes- 
syndone an praedicti Walteri de Sabrichesworthe, capta 
fuit Inquisitio per GalMdum Maderman, Adam de 
Cardoil, Rogerum de Bristollia, Robertum le Barbour, 
Hugonem le Fruyter, Warinum le Seler, WiUelmum 
Maynard, Walterum de Euere, et Robertum de Glou- 
cestria, WiUelmum de Norhamptone, Johannem le 
Taillour, et ^Edgile Cordewanere, ad inquirendum super 
prsemissis. Qui dicunt super sacramentum suum, quod 
prsefatus Walterus de Messyndone tenet, et tenuit post- 



^ Probably a mistake for " de 
'* Gloucestria" 
* This name is somewhat indis- 



tinct ; it may possibly stand for 
^ Sgidium,^ * Giles,' 



^\ Ml 



:m 



414 APPENDIX 1. 

quam officium abjuravit, pistrinam praedictam ; et quod 

prsefatus Walterus de Sabrichesworthe in deceptionem 

populi panem prsedictum advocat. 

Punishment Quare consideratum fuit, quod prgedictus Walterus 

die for short de Messyudone habeat judicium elaise pro defectu dicti 

for false panis; et prsedictus Walteioia de Sabricheworthe pro 



avowry. 



falsa advocatione sua similiter. 



F.6o.b. Die Ijuusb proxima post Festum Sancti Michaelis, 

anao regni Eegis Edwardi, filii Regis Edwardi, quinto- 

decimo, tradita fuit Hamoni de Chiggewelle, Majori, 

quaedam billa in hsec verba: — 

Complaint " Au Maire de Loundres se pleignent les pestours 

bakers of " de payu blauuko de la Cite des pestours de turtes;— 

^^?the " qe come ordine est qe les turters ne dussent nul 

bakers. " payn blaunk faire ne furnire, et si trove qe il 

" fesoient, qe atonqe payereient au Roy et a ses bail- 

" lifs xl souldz pur le trespas ; ore venent les turters 

" toutz, forpris deux hommes, et fount bulter le 

faryn, et de ceo fount payn blaunke, et vendent le 

bren, par luy meismes, et le payn blaunke ensement. 

— Derechief se pleignent les pesters avaunditz, qe 

come le ordinaunce de la Cite est qe nul des pestors 

ne dussent vendre payn communement en la Cyte 

fors qe ii jours la semaigae, cest asavoir, le Samady 



it 
<{ 
<( 
t( 



" Unto the Mayor of London complain the bakers of white 
bread in the City of the bakers of tourte ; — that whereas it 
is ordered that the tourters shall neither make nor bake any 
** white bread, and that if it should be found that they do 
" so, they should then pay unto the King and to his bailiffs 
<< 40 shillings for the offence ; now come all the tourters, two 
" men excepted, and cause the meal to be boulted, and make 
" thereof white bread, and sell the bran, by themselves, and the 
" white bread also. — ^And further complain the bakers afore- 
" said, that whereas the ordinance of the City is that no one 
" of the bakers shall sell bread commonly in the City except 
" on two days in the week, that is to say, the Saturday and 









EXTRACTS FROM THE ASSISA PANIS. 41o 



u 



et le Meskerdy, et a les trunks; — ore veneut tres- 
" toutz les pesters, et vendent lour payu chescun 
" jour de la semaigne, a graunt damage de poeple 
" et encountre le ordinaunce de la Cyte. Dount il 
" prient, pur lamour de Dieu et pur ameudement de 
" poeple, qe il vous pleise ordiner quatre homiues del 
" mester, qe pussent survire qe lestatut seit tenuz 
" come il ad este use du temps dount memorie ne 
" curt. — Et fount ascuns des pesters de payn blaunk 
" turtes, auxibien come les turters/' 

Virtute cujus hilled electi faerunt et jurat! ad custo- Overseers 

1*1 /¥?• 'J 'TTi -r>* 1 Tx elected and 

diendum omcmm pistorum, videlicet ; — Kicardus Heyne, swom. 
Johannes de Wrotham, Ricardus de Arderne, Willel- 
mus de Stratford, Johannes de Londenestone, Gilbertus 
le Rede, 



Johannes de Strode, pistor, habuit judicium pilo- ^'^'^' 
rise die Veneris pro^ima post Festum Sancti Dunstani bypiuory 
[19 May], anno regni Regis Edwardi, filii Regis Ed-SI^ 
wardi, xvi^, eo quod panis praedicti Johannis erat cobwebs. 
nuUius generis bladi, sed coUectio domus in qua bul- 
tavit, quando domus erat mundata; et omnis putredo 
et spuria in ea coUecta, fuit in panes posita et pistata, 
ita quod in fractione panis nihil substantise panis ap- 
parebat, sed fila de eoppewebbes. 

Per quod adjudicatum fiiit per Nicholaum de Farn- 
done, Majorem, Robertum de Swalclife, Johannem de 



" the Wednesday, and that at the hutches ; — ^now come the 
'' whole of the bakers, and sell their bread every day of the 
" week, to the great damage of the people and against the 
** ordinance of the City, Wherefore they pray, for the love of 
" God and for the advantage of the people, that it may please 
*' you to ordain four men of the trade, who may oversee that 
** the statute is observed as it has been used to do from time 
" as to which memory does not run, — ^Also, some of the 
" bakers of white bread make tourte, m well as the tourters." 



416 APPENDIX I. 

Prestone, Ricardum de Gloucestria, Henricum de Sercli- 
ford, Joliannem Poyntel, Eeginaldum de Conductu, et 
alios Aldermannos, quod haberet judicium piloriae, etc. 
Et habuit, etc. 

F.79.b. Congregatio Ricardi de Betonia, Majoris, Johannis 

de Grantbam, Johannis de Caustone, Henrici de Combe- 

martyne, Reginaldi de Conductu, Johannis de Prestone, 

et Hugonis de Gartone, Aldermannorum, et Rogeri 

Chauntecler, unius Vicecomitum Londoniarutn, facta 

apud Gyhaldam die Jovis in ebdomada Pentecostes, 

videlicet iiii'° die Junii, anno Domini M.CCC.XXVII, et 

regni Regis Edwardi, Tertii post Conquaestum, primo. 

Charge of Johanncs Brid, 'pistor, attachiatus fiiit ad respon- 

douffhby dendum super quibusdam falsitate, malitia, et decep- 

holes in the tioue, per ipsum factis, ad nocumentum communis 

moulding- populi ; sccuudum quod datum fuit intelligi Majori, 

Aldermannis, et Vicecomitibus Civitatis, videlicet, quod 

idem Johannes, pro singular! commodo sibi ipsi falso 

et malitiose adquirendo, quoddam foramen super quam- 

dam tabulam suam, qu?e vocatur ' moldingborde,' ad 

pistiinam pertinentem, prudenter artificioseque fieri 

fecit, ad modum muscipulse in qua mures capiuntur, 

cum quodam wyketto caute proviso ad foramen illud 

obturaiidum et aperiendum. 

Et cum vicini sui et alii, qui ad furnum suum pa- 
nem solebant furniare, veniebant cum pasto suo vel 
materia ad panem inde faciendum apta, dictus Johannes 
illud pastum, sive illam materiam, super dictam tabu- 
lam vocatam * Tnoldingborde,' ut prsedictum est, et 
ultra foramen pr^enotatum, ponebat, ad panes exinde ad 
fui-niendum praeparandos ; et cum ille pastus, sive ma- 
teria, sic positus esset super tabulam prsedictam, habuit 
idem Johannes quemdam de familia sua, ad hoc assig- 



* See page 602 of Liber Albus ; where this curious narrative is al- 
luded to, but the reference omitted. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ASSISA PANIS, 417 

nafcum, sedentem occulte sub eadem tabula; qui qui- 
dem famulus suus, sub illo foramine sedens, illudque 
caute aperiens, particulatim et minutatim de pasto prae- 
dicto subtiliter extraxit, magnas quantitates de liujus- 
modi pasto frequenter coUigendo, false, nequiter, et 
raalitiose, ad magnum damnum omnium vicinorum et 
proximorum suorum, ac aliorum, cum tali pasto fur- 
niando ad se venientium, et in scandalum et dedecus 
totius Civitatis, et prsecipue Majoris et Ballivorum ad 
assisas Civitatis custodiendas assignatorum. Quod qui- 
dem foramen, in tabula sua prsedicta inventum, fiiit 
prudenter operatum ; et similiter, magna quantitas de 
hujusmodi pasto sub foramine prsedicto, et per illud 
foramen extracta, erat inventa, et per Willelmum de 
Hertynge, clavigerum, et Thomam de Morle, clericum 
Ricardi de Rothinge, unius Vicecomitum Civitatis prae- 
dictsB, juratos, qui materiam praedictam, sive pastum, 
sic in loco praedicto suspecto invenerunt, hie in Curia 
erat portata. 

Qui quidem Jobannes, hie praesens in Curia, quae- 
situs qualiter de fraude, malitia, et deceptione prse- 
dictis se velit acquietare, etc. ; idem Johannes per- 
sonaliter in Curia dicit, quod de fraude, malitia, et 
deceptione praedictis in nullo est culpabilis, et de hoc 
ponit se super patriam, etc. Ideo rei Veritas inde per 
patriam inquiratur, etc. 

Willelmus atte Sele, Johannes atte Barnette, Robertus 
de Bertone, Johannes de Polberowe, Robertus de 
Brokesbourne, Rogerus de Miltone, et Ricardus de 
Honesdone, pistores, et Alicia de Brightenoth et Lucia 
de Pykeringe, pistrices, in quorum domibus inventae 
fuerunt consimiles tabulae, quae dicuntur ^molding- 
' hordes,' cum consimilibus foraminibus et consimili pasto, 
ut praedictum est, fraudulenter et malitiose coUecto, 
attachiati fuerunt ad respondendum de * fraude, malitia, 

* "Written *frauude ' in the originaL 
VOL. III. D J) 



I. 



iigiH- 



418 APPENDIX I. 

et deceptione praedictis, sicut superius dictum est de 
prsefato Johaime, etc. Qui venerunt, et unusquisque 
e<5rum, per se ad rationem positus de prgetactis, dicit 
quod in nullo est culpabilis, et deponit se super 
patriam, etc. Ideo rei Veritas inde, etc. 

Et super hoc Ricardus le Mitere, Ricardus de 
Bitterle, Willelmus de Keyle, Adam de Bokelonde, 
Rogerus le Bere, Elyas Dycun, Galfridus de Holewelle, 
Willelmus Pope, Ricardus Frere, Johannes Thedmar, 
Johannes atte Wodehouse, et Adam de Walpole, in 
quibus dictus Johannes et omnes alii se posuerunt. Qui 
thereupon, jii^ati, ct supcr hoc habita inter eos locutione et consilio, 
veniunt; et dicunt super sacramentum suum, quod 
prsedictus Johannes et omnes alii de omnibus, videlicet 
foramine suspecto, pasto per illud foramen extracto, et 
aliis sibi impositis, sunt culpabiles ; et quod ad dictam 
falsitatem et deceptionem faciendam jam diu extiterunt 
consueti. Ideo consideratum est, quod prsedictus 
Johannes et omnes alii committantur Gaote de Neugate, 
etc. ; et quia ob defectum Aldermannorum Curia nunc 
est inconsulta ad judicium ulterius inde reddendum, 
datus est dies ad diem Sabbati proximo venturum, etc. ; 
et interim omnes Aldermanni, cum xii, viii, vel vi, 
de singulis Wardis, secundum quod Warda fuerit 
magna vel parva, summoneantur essendi hie ad eundem 
etc., ut tunc fiat inde quod de jure et secundum con- 
suetudinem Civitatis fuerit faciendum, etc. 

Postea, ad diem Sabbati praedictum venerunt praedic- 
tus Ricardus, Major, Hamo de Chigwelle, Nicholaus de 
Famdone, Reginaldus de Conductu, Hamo Godchepe, 
Johannes de Prestone, Johannes Priour, Thomas de 
Leyre, Ricardus Gostantyn, Johannes de Oxonia, Anke- 
tinus de Gysorcio, Henricus de Combemartyn, Ricar- 
dus de Hakeney, Johannes de Caustone, Hugo de 
Gartone, Johannes Poyntel, et Adam de Salesbury, 
Aldermanni, Rogerus Chauntecler et Ricardus de Roth- 
ynge, Vicecomites, et similiter de singulis Wardis certi 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ASSISA PANIS. 419 

homines summoniti, sicut patet in panello per Vice- 
comites retomato; et habito consilio et tractatu inter 
' Majorem et Aldermannos ad judicium super falsitate, p. so. a. 
malitia, et deceptione prsedictis formandum ; quia 
dictum factum est quasi qusedam species furti, sed non 
est aliquis qui versus illos, vel eorum aliquem, prose- 
quatur, nee est juri consonum aut Deo placabile, quod 
talis falsitas, deceptio, et malitia transeat impunitus ; 
prsecipue cum omnes illi qui ad dictos pistores, ad panem 
suum fumiendum, venerint, falso, nequiter, et malitiose, 
ipsis hoc ^penitus ignorantibus, fuerunt decepti, et 
damnum non modicum receperint ; concordatum est et 
ordinatum, quod omnes illi de prsedictis pistoribus sub 
quorum tabulis cum foraminibus pastum inventum fiiifc, 
ponantur super collistrigium, cum quadam quantitate 
illius pasti pendente circa collum suum ; et illi pistores 
in quorum domibus pastum sub tabulis autedictis inven- 
tum non fuit, ponantur super collistrigium sine pasto 
hserente circa coUa sua ; et quod morentur super coUi- 
sti*igium quousque Vesperse apud Sanctum Paulum Lon- 
doniarum percantentur. 

Et quoad prsedictas duas mulieres, quia allegant habere 
viros, dicta videlicet Alicia Willelmum de Brechenoke, 
virum suum, et prsedicta Lucia Hugonem de Pykerynge, 
virum suum, et hoc idem testatum est per vicinos 
earum ; cumque esedem Alicie et Lucia allegent dictum 
factum non esse factum earum, concordatum est et 
ordinatum, quod remittantur prisonjB de Neugate, 
ibidem moraturae quousque aliud de exs fuerit ordi- 
natum ; et quod omnes hujusmodi tabulae cum forami- 
nibus, ut prgedictum est, prosternentur et deleantur 
totaliter, et amodo fieri non patiantur; et quod si 
aliquis dictorum pistorum de csetero cum tali deceptione, 
falsitate, et malitia inveniatur, quod stet super colli- 
strigium per unum diem integrum, et postea abjuret 
civitatem, ita quod in posterum pro tempore tunc 
futuro non redeat. 

B D 2 



420 



APPENDIX I. 



panisiimcnt Et sciendum, quocl omnes dicti pistores inventi 
lory, with fueruiit ciim pastu, et habuerunt pastum circa colla 
suspended sua super coUistrmum ; prseterquam ^ Johannes Brid 

from cer- o ' x x 

tainoftho et liobertus de Brokesbonrne, cum quibus nullum 



fraudulent 

bakers' 

necks. 



pastum inventum fait. 

Et sciendum, quod praedictse mulieres remanserunt 
in dicta prisona de Neagate, in custodia Vicecomitum 
prsedictorum. 



p. 88. a. 
Thoft of tlio 
assay bread 
by two sei- 
vanta of tho 
assayoi'H. 



PnnishiKent 
of the pil- 
lory, two 
loaves hang- 
ing from tho 
offender's 
neck. 



Et sciendum, quod quidam Johannes le ^ Kyng' Page 
et Willelmus de Birlynge, valletti pistorum, assignati 
et jurati ad deserviendum prsedictis assaiatoribus et 
pistoribus assignatis ad assaium faciendum, convicti 
fuerunt coram Majore et Aldermannis, per eorum 
recognitionem, quod fiirati fuerunt et asportaverunt 
duas denaratas de pane assaii. 

Ideo attachiati fuerunt ; et Johannes evasit, et dictus 
Willelmus per judicium positus fuit super collistrigium, 
et per unam horam diei ibi stabat, cum duobus panibus 
de assaio pendentibus circa collum suum. 



p.89.b. Panis pistorum captus et dejudicatus coram Majore 
et Aldermannis die Lunse proxima ante Festum Sancti 
Thomge Apostoli [21 December], anno regni Regis 
Edwardi, Tertii post Conqusestum, quarto. 

Panis levatus Ricardi Heyne de obolo ponderat 
xxxis. oboL, deficit vis. obol. quart. Alius panis 
levatus ejusdem Ricardi de obolo ponderat xxxii s. i d. 
deficit iiii s. quart. : — ideo, adjudicatus clayae. 
whitebread Et Quia Quidam afllbus panis levatus de obolo 

fraudulent- l j x 

ly mixed ejusdcm Ricardi inventus fuit mixtus cum sablone, in 
deceptione populi ; considerabatur per Majorem [et] 



Short 
weight in 
light, or 
cocket, 
bread. 



1 This is contradicted by the pre- i " Page," a surname inherited from 
vious context I one who had held that office. 

^ Possibly meaning " Kynge's 



EXTRACTS FROM TPIE ASSISA PANIS. 



421 



Aldermannos prsedictos [quod] prsadictus Ricardus sit J*f"^Jj^^^'?]f"^ 
distractus usque Neugate ; et panis portatus super fei^car- 
lanceam coram eo, et proclametur causa, mixtura sab- tinf olfeiidcr 
lonis in pane. ouaianco. 

Et dictus Ricardus distractus fuit a Neugate 
usque coUistrigium, et ibidem positus fait, et ibidem 
^moretur per unam horam super coUistrigium, et ibi 
proclama[ban]tur causaB praedictse. 

Levatus de denario Ricardi de Hedesore, Shoutere de F-wi-a. 
Henle, captus fuit die Lunse proximo post Festum weij<htin 
Sancti Martini [11 November], anno prgedicto^ xviii°, 
etponderabat cxvs, Et quia deficiebat de justo pondere Three of 
per XX s. viii d., consideratum est i)er Majorem et Alder- loave^to ik5 

1 • • • t • 1 . . . sold for tu o 

mannos, quod ui eorundem panium vendantur pro n pence, 
denariis. 

Turta de denario Robert! Fair-and-Good captus p. 112. a. 
super ipsum die Sabbati in Festo Conversionis Sancti oftheim?^^* 
Pauli [25 January], anno^ xxxiiii incipiente, et ad- weight lu^^ 
judicata per prsedictos Majorem et Aldermannos, breaci 
Et quia ^ deficiebat de justo pondere xxix s. vi d. oboL, 
ideo habeat judicium clayse. 

Die Mercurii in Festo Cinerum, anno regni Regis pai2.a. 
Edwardi, Tertii post Conqusestum, tricesimo-quarto, 
Wille]mus Poggere, iaiolendinarius molendinse Willehni 
de Tudenham in Stratforde, attachiatus fuit ad 
respondendum Thomee Moritz, Communi Servient! ; qui 
pro communitate queritur de placito contemptus, 
transgressionis, et deceptionis. Et unde queritur quod Praud com- 
cum Thomas Whicherche, Hugo de Waltham, Johannes miiicr upon 
Gravele, Thomas de Thorneye, Johannes Hiltofte, or bread. 
Jacobus Andreu, Willehnus Essexe, et Henricus de 
Yerdelee, assiatores albi panis, die Mercurii proximo 



' An error for * morabatur,* 
2 Of Edward III. 



* This word is repeated by inad- 
vertence. 



422 APPENDIX I. 

post Festum Sancti MathisQ Apostoli [24 February], 
anno ^ xxxiiii supradicto, venerunt ad molendinam. prse- 
dictam, pro tribus quarteriis frumenti molandis ad 
faciendum assaium albi panis, per quod assaium pis- 
tores Londoniarum debuissent pistasse per totum 
annum supradictum, prsedictus Willelmus ita malitiose 
et deceptive obtemperavit molendinam prsedictam, 
quod prsedicti assaiatores non potuissent facere prse- 
dictum assaium secundum consuetudinem Civitatis ; 
in contemptum Domini Eegis et communitatis, ad 
damnum communitatis ejusdem c librarum, etc. 

Et praedictus Willelmus Poggere, prsesens coram 
Majori et Aldermannis et immensa communitate, cog- 
novit se fecisse deceptionem, transgre[ssionem], et con- 
temptum eodem modo quo prsedictus Thomas Moritz 
superius queritur. 
Punishment Idco cousidcratum est, quod prsedictus Willelmus 
dieawap. habcat ludicium clayge : sed prsedicti Major et Alder- 

ded;butthe .'' ^ ./ .,.n ^rni i • 

offender ex- mamu, propter semlem setatem eiusdem Willelmi, con- 

cused on ao» ♦ . . 

count of old donant judicium prsedictum, etc. 

age. 

F.ii3.b. Ricardus le Tonge, hostyUe7*, die Martis proximo 

post Festum Conversionis Sancti Pauli [25 January], 

anno regni Regis Edwardi, Tertii post Conqusestum, 

tricesmo-nono, attachiatus fuit coram Adam de Bury, 

selling Maiore, et Aldermannis, quare ipse vendidit panem 

horse-bread , . , ... . , , , . 

without the equinum m nospitio suo non sismatum de meta pis- 

bsikers' x x o x 

mark. torum Civitatis, contra statutum inde editum, etc. 

Qui bene cognovit quod ipse de quadam. muliere 

ignota emit panem equinum, videlicet, xiiii panes pro 
and of short xii, etc. Et quia deficiebant de uno pane de obolo, cum 
>^«^s ; prgefato E-icardo invento, de justo pondere xxxvi s. vi d. ; 

et etiam qusedam falsa mensura inventa fuit in domo 
aisoof pos- ipsius Eicardi, vocata 'pecJce/ non sigillata, etc. ; et dictus 
S^pA Eicardus vendidit falsum panem, et injusti ponderis, in 



measure. 



1 Of King Edward III. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ASSISA PANIS. 423 

deceptionem communis populi, contra ordinationem Punishment 
inde factam; — ideo habeat judicium claise, etc., primo, etc. die. 

Die Sabbati proxima post Festum Sanctarum Per- F.i2o.b. 
petuse et Felicitatis [7 March], anno regni Kegis 
Edwardi, Tertii post Conquaestum, xlvt^, Isabella uxor 
Alani Botelstone, pisfcoris, ducta fuit coram Johanne 
Bernes, Majore Londoniarum, Willelmo Haldene, Eecor- 
datore, Jolianne Wrothe, Willelmo Welde, Johanne Pyel, short 
et Willelmo Walworthe, Aldermannis, cum uno paneulMbr^, 
albo, vocato ' hvbnne^ de obolo, undo deficiebant de justo 'L^.* 
pondere xis. vd. oboL 

Quge panem ' ipsam advocavit esse suum, et per ipsam 
factum ad vendendum, etc. 

Ideo consideratum est, quod ipsa habeat iiidicium Pxmisimient 

_ _ .11 -I , 1 ofthethewe 

^ ml thewey super lUud moratura per unam horam inflicted on 

. a female. 

diei, etc. 

Die Veneris proximo post Festum Sancti Martini, P.i22.b. 
anno^ supradicto, Simon Puddynglane, pistor turtarius, weight in 
ductus fait coram Majore^ supradicto, Willelmo de bread. 
Haldene, Recordatore, Jolianne Pyel, Willelmo Wale- 
worthe, Ada Stable, Johanne Haddele, Johanne North- 
amptone, Johanne Little, Johanne Aubrey, et Johanne 
Maryns, Aldermannis, ciun uno pane turto de denario, 
quern advocat esse suum. Qui quidem panis deficit de 
justo pondere viii s. iiid. 

Ideo consideratum est per eosdem Majorem et Al- Punishment 
dermannos, quod idem Simon habeat judicium clayse, ciie. 
nunc primo. 

Die Sabbati in Vigilia Sanctse Trinitatis, anno regni p. 123, a. 
Regis Edwardi, Tertii post Oonqusestum, quinquage- weight in a 
simo, Reginaldus Hiklce, pistor panis Francisci, dTictuscaUcI 

' wygge' 



^ So in the original. 
2 49th of Edward III. 



^ John Warde. 



424 



APPENDIX I. 



fuit coram Johanne Warde, Majore, Willelmo Haldene, 
Roberto Hatfelde, Adam Stable, Johanne Maryns, 
Johanne Hadele, Aldermannis, cum nno pane de obolo, 
vocato ^"wygge,^ ponderante minus de justo pondere de 
viiis. iid., quern advocat esse suum. 
PuniHiunoiit xdeo consideratum est per eosdem Majorem et Al- 
dermannos, quod habeat judicium clayae, nunc primo. 



of tho 
liurdlc. 



F.i23.a. 1 Eisdem die et anno, Eadulphus atte Sele, turtarius, 
weiffht ia ductus fult coram eisdem Maiore et Aldermannis, cum 

loa.v«s or • -i i -i 

horso-bread. uno pane cquino de obolo, quem advocat esse suum ; 
de quo deficit de justo pondere vs. xid. ; et cum uno 
altero pane equino de obolo, de quo deficit de justo 
pondere vii s. ii d. ; et cum tertio pane equino de obolo, 
de quo deficit de justo pondere viii s. vii d. obol. ; 
quos etiam advocat esse sues. 

Piin|siiment Ideo cousideratum est, quod habeat judicium claya?, 

hurdle. nuuc primo. 

F.124.. Sexto die Maii, anno regni Eegis Kicardi, Secundi a 

Conquaestu, primo, prsedictus Willehnus Plot ductus 

fuit coram ^prgedictis Majore et Eecordatore, Johanne 

Pyel, Johanne Haddele, Johanne Vyne, Johanne 

Hoo, Johanne Estone, Galfrido Neutone, Roberto 

Launde, Roberto Warbeltone, Nicholao Twyford, Johanne 

Short Rote, et Thoma Reynham, Aldermannis, uno pane de 

light bread, levato de obolo, unde deficiebantur de justo pondere 

and in a loaf vis. viii d. ; et etiam cum uno ^ 'paynd&mayn, unde de- 

mSjn^ ^ ficiebantur de justo pondere ii s, ii d. ; quos advocavit 

esse suos. 
S«i?"^^^* Ideo habeat judicium clayae, nunc secundo. 

hurdle. 



F.124.b, 



Vicesimo-sexto die Januarii, anno regni Regis Ricardi 
Secundi secundo, Willelmus Chestre, forinsecus manens 



^ 3 July, 50th Edward III. 
^ Nicholas Brembre and William 
Cheyne. 



^ See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
ium, page 782, s, vv, 'Artocopipanis.* 



^iM 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ASSISA PANIS. 425 

excra Templebarre, ductus fuit hie coram Johanne 
Phelipot, Majore, Willelmo Chejme, Recordatore, Nicho- 
]ao Brembre, Ada Stable, Roberto Launde, Johanne 
Organ, Johanne Rote, Johanne Estone, Johanne Hoo, 
Ada de Sancto Ivone, Johanne Kirketone, Aldermannis, 
et Thoma Cornwaleys, uno Vicecomitum, cum tribus shorf. 

wci"'Iit in 

panibus equinis, unde de uno eorum deficit de justo iiom3-broad, 
pondere xxxii s. vi d. ; de alio, xxxiiis. iiiid. ; et de tertio, foixife-rier. 
XXXV s.; quos panes advocat esse suos, etc. 

Ideo habeat judicium clayse, et ducatur a Guyhalda Punishmcut 
per Chepe, et deinde usque Barram Veterls Templidie; the 

T !• i*i*i««tii I offender to 

Londonaarum, et ibi dimittatur, etc. be drawn 

through 
Ohepe to 

Die Sabbati in Vigilia Pentecostes, anno ^ quinto p. 125. a. f^^^ 
prsedicto, Willelmus Brewere, hostillarius Willelmi 
Larke, pistoris manenbis extra Crepelgate, ductus fuit 
hie coram ^prsedicto Majore et Vicecomitibus, Willelmo 
Neuport, Willelmo Wodehous, Johanne Organ, Johanne 
Estone, Johanne Sely, Johanne More, WiUelmo More, 
Nicholao Extone, Simone Wynchecombe, Adam Bamme, 
Adam de Sancto Ivone, Johanne Walcote, et Thoma 
Carltone, Aldermannis, cum xvi panibus equinis de 
^ ; et de quibus deficiebat de justo pon- short 

dere, de aliquo eorum xvs. vid,, de aliquo xiiiis. iid., ethSbread, 
de quolibet eorum minus deficiebat, deficiebat xis. ixd. ; baLr^s^ 

. J J. j» J. J. • i? hostler, 

et quos panes advocat per eum esse lactos, et m fur- 
num absque ponderatione positos, magistro suo "nesciente, 
nee in aliquo inde sciente seu ad hoc consentiente. 
Et hoc dictus magister suus coram prsedictis Majore et 
Aldermannis, per sacramentum suum, asseruit. 

Ideo consideratum est, quod dictus hostillarius habeat ^ f\"Je^u"?^* 
judicium clalse, nunc prime; uno de dictis panibus J}^j^/?i^a.f 
circa coUum suum ante pectus suum, et uno botello J^JJ *^^^^ 
feni ad dorsum suum, in signum hostillarii, pendenti- Jmid^or ^ 
bus, etc. Et prseceptum est Vicecomitibus Londoniarum, ^^/^"^^^^^^ 

' 5th of Richard II. | ' An omission. 

^ John Northampton. | 



426 



APPENDIX L 



quod faciant executionem judicii prsedicti, et causam 
proclamari faciant. 



p. 126. a. Vicesimo-septimo die Aprilis, anno regni Regis Ri- 
cardi Secundi sexto^ Ricardns atte Vanne> turtns pistor, 
ductus fuit coram Johanne Norhamptone, Majore, Wil- 
lelmo Cheyne, Recordatore, Ricardo Norbury, Johanne 
Fraunceis, Henrico Bamme, Johanne Furneux, Willelmo 
Short Staundone, Galfrido Cremelford, Willelmo Kynge, Alder- 
horse-bread, mannis, et Johaime Sely, Vicecomite, cum tribus pani- 
Jf thf imr?* bus cquinls, de quibus de uno deficiebat iiii s, ix d. oboL; 
ded^butthe ^^ ^^^^> ^^^' ^^^*'y ^^ ^® tertio, vi s. viii d. 
bfdden^t?^' Ideo habeat judicium claiae, nunc secundo, etc. Et 
too^ uni^s 9.^^^ idem Ricardus est homo magnse setatis, et si judi- 
one to un-^^ cium supcr ipsum in tempore ^ hiemali reddi contigerit, 
^fJg^PJt in magnum periculum, causa frigoris, de facili evenire in 
^j® Pj^^t^^f " corpore suo posset;^ — et inhibitum est ei ne amodo 
great^e, pistat pancm, nisi invenerit unum furnarium qui accep- 
attendant"^ tare volucrit officium pistoris, et subire possit judicium 
nishmcnnn i^ casu quo dcfcctus in pane suo inveniatur. 

winter, 

P. 126. a. Quia cum ^quidam Johannes Wysebeche, taillour, 

primo die Maii, anno regni Regis Ricardi Secundi sexto, 

misisset quemdam de servientibus suis ad domum 

Halfpenny Simonis Freusshc, albi pistons, ad panem ibidem 

loaves of , i m • i • t t • 

black bread, emendum, et ibidem emisset duos panes nigros pro 

bought of a 11 I'M J ,,.. If. 

baker of obolo, de cmeriDus, terra, et ahis putredinis, paucis 
fonndtobo' granis frumenti et alterius bladi intermixtis, factos ; 
qui panes, postquam supervisi fuissent per dictum Jo- 
haimem et alios quamplures vicinos suos, et diligenter 
inspecti, omni generi humano putridi et *abominabiles, 
ac cuilibet alteri bestiaa insani, videbantur ; quapropter 



made of 
ashes and 
filth. 



' Written ' if email ' in the original. 

^ There is apparently an omission 
here, or else the word * et ' is super- 
fluous. 



^Written 'quidem' in the origi- 
nal. 

* Written * abhominabHes ' in the 
original. 



ira 



EXTBACTS FROM THE ASSISA PANIS. 427 

idem Johannes, cum mnltis aliis probis hominibus, 
Adcinis suis, Johannem Norhamptone, Majorem, adierunt, 
monstrando ei panes prsedictos et falsitatem pasti 
eorum. Qui quidem Major, secundo die Maii tunc 
proximo sequente, venire fecit coram eo et Alderman- 
nis, apud Guyhaldam Londoniarum, dictum Simonem ; 
ubi qusesitum est ab eo quare fecit panes prsedictos ad 
vendendum et ad decipiendum populum forma prsedicta, 
etc. Qui dicit, quod dicti panes non fuerunt facti ad Allegation 
vendendum ; sed dicit, quod facti fuerunt tantum ad were only 

T . ^ . ,. t , T T^^^o for 

circumponendum m lurno circa alios panes, ad custodi- the protec- 

T T . . , . . 1 , tion of other 

endum eos de nimio caiore ignis, ne comburerentur : loaves from 

T ., , . , T. . , , , the heat of 

et dicit, quod ipse et omnes am pistores utuntur the oven, 
talibus panibus, circumponendo eos in furnis circa 
alios panes sues ; et hoc petit quod inquiratur per alios 
pistores, etc. 

Super quo, dicti Major et Aldermanni summoniri 
fecerunt xii pistores eodem die, ad inquirendum 
utrum dicti panes facti fuerunt ad vendendum, prout 
ei imponitur, vel ad circumponendum circa alios panes, 
in forma pnedicta, prout idem Simon allegat, etc. Et 
super hoc pistores, videlicet, Johannes Waltham, Eegi- 
naldus atte Sele, Eicardus Broun, Adam Donmowe, 
Johannes Gros, Reginaldus Eustone, Simon Merifeld, 
Thomas Beneyt, Petrus In-the-Lane, Walterus Elyot, 
Willelmus Hert, et Bartholomseus Thomtone, per sum- 
monitionem eis factam venerunt, et ex assensu dicti P.i26.b- 
Simonis jurati ad inquirendum et dicendum veritatem 
de materia praedicta, etc. 

Qui super sacramentum suum dicunt, quod quidani v^^'^^i^ctjuya 
Johannes Croys, serviens ejusdem Simonis, emit de*^^^^^*^^^ 
dicto Simone farinam pro xvi denariis, unde dicti ^^^^ 
putridi panes facti fuerunt ; et sine ' situ dicti Simonis ^H^^^* ^^^^ 
inde fecit dictos panes ad vendendum ; et hoc idem fwaster's 

• ^ . ' knowledge, 

Johannes palam cognovit, etc. 



* So in the original, probably for ' scitu.^ 



428 APPENDIX I. 

Et quia idem Simon superius allegavit dictos panes 
fore factos ad circumponendum circa alios panes, et 

amiforsaio, non ad vcndendtim ; ubi comperfcum est per Inqui- 
sitionem, quod facti fuerunt ad vendendum, et sic 

tho master contrarium dicti sui compertum. — Et etiam, quia ipse 

havhijc sold . ft t* • n* i • . j. 

th«iioiir, sciens dictam larmam nullius esse valons, et tamen 

was worth- cam veudidit dicto servienti suo, ad mde laciendum 

panes ad vendendum, et sic particeps falsitatis 

prsedictse. — Ideo, ex assensu dicti Majoris, Willelmi 

Clieyne, Eecordatoris, Eicardi Norbury, Henrici Bamme, 

Galfridi Crymelforde, Thomse Noket, Willelmi Staundone, 

Willelmi Kynge, Willelmi Olyver, Aldermanorum, et 

The master Johaunis Scly et AdsB Bamme, Vicecomitum, conside- 

pay a line, ratum cst, quod idem Dimon nabeat judicium claise ; et 

punisiimcnt ulterfus, pro dcceptionc et falsitate prsedictis, faciat 

iiurdic. finem Camerse, etc. 

Et quia idem Johannes, serviens Simonis, fecit panes 
praedictos ad vendendum, sciens illos fore putridos et 
generi humano, ut prsedicitur, insanos, in deceptionem 
populi ; et etiam, quia ipse fecit dictos panes sine 
aliquo signo, contra ordinationem Civitatis Londoniarum, 
ex assensu dictorum Majoris, Eecordatoris, Alderman- 
The servant norum, ct Vicccomitum, consideratum est, quod idem 

to be put on ^ . • i r^. . . 

the pillory, Johanncs, serviens ejusdem bimonis, ponatur super 
ioavestobo coUistriffium per unam horam, et dicti panes sub eo 

Inirnt bo- ^ ^ ' ^ 

neathhim. comburcntur, etc. 

Et dictum est Vicecomitibus prsedictis, quod facerent 
executiones judiciorum praedictorum, et causam ipsius 
Johannis, servientis Simonis, ad collistrigium pr?edictum 
publice proclamari facerent. 



F.129.a. 



[Die] Mercurii, decimo die Octobris, anno regni 
Eegis Henrici, Sexti post Conqusestum, sextodecimo, 
Johannes Frost, pistor manens in Wodestrete, ductus 
fait hie coram Johanne Michelle, Majore, Alexandro 
Aune, Eecordatore, Johanne Brokley, Johanne Paddesle, 
Roberto Large, Thoma Ohaltone, Johaime Atherle, 



vg 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ASSISA PANIS. 



429 



Thoma Catteworth, Willelmo Gregory, Johanne Olney, 
et Johanne Suttone, Aldermannis, ac Willelmo Hales 
et Willelmo Chapman, Vicecomitibus, cum uno pane Tourte 

,,11 • •" n-ii j^ t • * 1 ^^• bread short 

turix) de denano ex impuro blado et de inseisonabili in weight 
pastu coniecto, et denciente decern uncias de justo unclean 

, , IT "T , ,' 1 T wheat and 

pondere ; et cum duobus pambus turtis, utroque de unscasona. 
obolo, ex impuro blado et insesionabili pastu similiter 
confectis, et deficiente utroque eorum quinque uncias 
de justo pondere : quos omnes panes advocat esse suos, 
et in domo sua pistatos, et ibidem communi vendi- 
tioni expositos. 
Ideo habeat judicium clayse, nunc primo.^ oi^th?^"^"* 

hurdle. 



» This probably (16 Henry VI.), 
is the last instance of a baker being 
drawn on the hurdle in the City of 
London. That this punishment had 



fallen into disuse, is evidenced by 
the fact that the entry immediately 
preceding bears date the 13th year 
of Henry IV. 



APPENDIX II. 



Extracts from the Liber MuMOSAi^fBonuM, temp, 
Edward II., preserved at Guildhall, 

p. 10. a. Oharta Alianorce, nuper Regince AnglicBy facta Fra- 

tribus PosnitenticB Jhesu Ghristi. 

Charter of " Alianora, Dei gratia Regina Anglise, Domina Hi- 

iiortothe " berniss, Duxissa Aquitannise, et per Dominum nostrum 

the Penance '' Regem Henricum Gustos Domus Pontis Londoniarum, 

Christ. " omnibus prsesens scriptum visuris vel audituris, sa- 

'* lutem in Domino. Noveritis nos obligari et teneri, 

" pro nobis et haeredibus nostris, defendere [et] waran- 

" tizare contra omnes homines in perpetuum Prioribus 

" et Fratribus de Poenitentia Jhesu Christi, Londoniis 

" commorantibus, omnia tenementa, cum omnibus per- 

" tinentiis suis, qu£e idem Prior et Fratres habent in 

" vico qui vocatur ' Colchirchstrate/ in Parochia Sancti 

" Olavi in Judaismo, in Parochia Sanctge Margaretse 

de Lothebury, in Civitate Londoniarum, ex conces- 

sione et confirmatione quas eisdem Priori et Fratribus 

" per prsesens scriptum fecimus, de assensu et volun- 

" tate Fratris Stephani de Forborne, Subcustodis Domus 

" prsedictse Pontis, cseterorumque Fratrum Domus ejus- 

" dem» pro sexaginta marcis argenti quas a prsedictis 

*' Priore et Fratribus de Poenitentia Jhesu Christi re- 

" cepimus ad fabricam prsedictse Pontis, et pro inven- 

" tione unius CapeUani quern idem Prior et Fratres 

F.io.b. " suis sumptibus perpetuo inveniant, divina celebrantis 

pro anima Ricardi le Keu; qui quidem Ricardus 



(C 



(< 









EXTRACTS FROM THE TJBEB MEMOEANDORUM. 431 

" omnia prsedicta tenementa, cum omnibus suis per- 
'' tinentiis, Fratribus prsedictse Domus de Ponte pro 
" sustentatione unius Capellani, pro anima ejus divina 
" in perpetuum eorum sumptibus celebraturi, legavit 
" et assignavit. In cujus, etc/' 



[De Pannis fullonandis.] ^ 

Godefiidus de Loveigne attachiatus fuit ad seetam charge'of 
Roberti le Pipere, Willelmi Bernard, et aliorum tine- cioths^at 

1 T J • 1 ■! * r>t' •! L mills with- 

torum Londoniarum, de eo quod cum m Civitate out the city. 
Londoniarum ordinatum fuit quod nullus eorum pannos 
crudos mittere debeat ad molendina extra Civitatem p.49,b. 
ad fullonandum, prsedictus Galfiidus tres pannos crudos 
misit extra Civitatem, ad fullonandum apud molendi- 
num, contra consuetudinem prsedictam, etc. 

Et prsedictus Godefridus venit hie die Jovis proxima 
ante Festum Sancti Thomse Apostoli [21 December], 
anno Regis Edwardi quarto, et cognovit se esse inde cul- 
pabilem ; ideo inde ad judicium, etc. Et consideratum penalty 
est, quod incidat in poenam provisam in Nigro ^Pa- 
pyro de fuUonibus, videlicet xx. solidorum, quia nunc 
prime convincitur. Et Major remisit ei x solidos. 

Et prsedictus Godefridus de Lovejoie et Johannes de overeeers 

1- j«i • i«x» 1 T-i'T J • • appointed 

Lesnes, tmctores, jurati luerunt quod diligenter mqui- to see that 
rant de omnibus illis tinctoribus, fullonibus, et ^texto- which ought 
ribus, mittentibus aut ducentibus pannos crudos extra under the 

/->»»*,» 1 I* It T 1 1 i» • * 1 leet are not 

Uivitatem ad lullonandum ad molendina, qui quidem Mied at 
panni traditi fuerint eis ad fullonandum sub pedibus ; 
et quod illos quos invenerint culpabiles attachient, et 
pannos illos statim arrestare facient, et coram Majore 
et Aldermannis in Camera Gihaldse prsesentabunt, etc. 



* See Liber Custumaruvii pp. 127, 
129. 

* Written 'Papiro ' in the original. 



* Written * tixtorihus ' in the 
original. 



432 APPENDIX IL 



[Be TuTnariis Londoniarum,'] 

F.49.1J. Henricus le Tornour, manens in Wodestrate ; Ri~ 

cardus le Tornour; Johannes le Tornour, in venella 

Sancti Swithini de Candelwike ; Robertus le Tornour, 

manens apud Flete; Willelmus le Tornour extra Por- 

tam de Bisshopesgate ; Ricardus le Corveiser, Tornour, 

manens in Wodestrate : — 

Turners Omnes prsBscripti fuerunt jurati die Sabbati proxima 

mIkTno ^nte Festum Sancti Thomse Apostoli [21 December], 

biSTgaffons, auno regui Regis Edwardi, filii Regis Edwardi, quarto, 

quarts*' ^"^ coram Majore et Aldermannis, quod de csstero non 

p 2^ ^ faciant aliquas men suras nisi galones, potellos, et 

quartas, et quod nullas facient falsas mensuras, prout 

and not Hiensurse quae vocantur ' schopinas' et * gilles/ nee ad 

ffiii?orin^ modiim pixidum aut ciphorum, seu alio quovis modo ; 

shap^J^^^^"* et quod omnes hujusmodi falsse mensurse, cujuscunque 

generis existant, et ubicumque inveniri contigerint, in 

manus turnariorum seu in alio quocunque loco, tarn 

in manus forinsecorum quam intrinsecorum, attacbia- 

bunt, et ad Gihaldam coram Majore facient et prsesen- 

tabunt, sub poena gravis misericordise. 



V. 51, a. 



Juramentvmt Meguceriorum, 

Galfridus le Whitetawier, Ricardus le Megucer, Jo- 
hannes le Megucer, Ricardus de Hundesfissb: — 

Isti Meguceri jurati fuerunt coram Richardo de Ref- 

P.51.K ham, Majore, et Aldermannis, die Martis proxima ante 

Ta%vyers ^^ Festum Ascensionis Domini, anno regni Regis Edwardi 

that they , •, j j. j • p 

will not flay quarto, quod nunquam de csetero equos mortuos inira 

horses with- r^» •, i i* ii*«i i i* 

in the City Uivitatcm, vcl m suburbio ejusdem, per se vel per alios 

suburbs, excoriabuut, vel excoriari facient, sub periculo quod 

incumbit. Et prseterea, si aliquis prgedictorum jura- 

torum possit de caetero percipere aliquem excoriantem, 

vel excoriare facientem, aliquem equum infra Civitatem, 



M 



EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBER MEMORANDORUM. 433 

ant ejus suburbium, ut supradictum est, statim illud 
Majori, qui pro tempore fuerit, ^ intimabunt, etc. 



De Falsis Gapellis inventis/-^ F.53.a. 

Postea, facto scrutinio de hujusmodi falsis capellis, Scrutiny 
praedicti perscrutatores duxerunt hie in Gibalda, die of false 

woi*k dind of 

Mercurii in crastino Sancti Laurentii flO August!, anno wool mixed 

o J' with flocks. 

regni Regis Edwardi qumto, coram Majore et Alder- 
mannis qusedam capella^ alba, nigra, et grisa, quae in- 
venta fuerunt super diversos haberdasshers et capellarios. 

Et prsedicta capella examinata fuerunt per Johannem 
de Staundone, Johannem Prest, Stephanum de Here- 
ford, et Bartholomaeum le Hattere, in prsesentia Ri- 
cher! de Refham, Majoris, Thomas Remain, Johannis 
de Wengrave, Ricardi de Gloucestria, Willelmi de Leyre, 
Johannis de Wyndesore, Nicholai Picot, Simonis de 
Parys, et Simonis Bolet ; et compertum fuit per sacra- 
mentum prsedictorum examinatorum, quod xl capella 
grisa et alba, et xv capella nigra, de supradictis ca- 
pellis, fuerunt falsi operis et mixti de lana et fioMces. 

Ideo consideratum fuit, quod in vico de Chepe com- The same to 
burentur, etc. ; et quoad qugedam alia capella quae hie che^''^* *^ 
sunt, quae nondum examinari possunt ob quasdam diffi- 
cultates, prout examinatores dicunt, ponuntur in re- 
spectu, etc. 



[De Pecunia mutuanda a Givitate Londoniarum,]^ F.69.a. 

" Edwardxjs, Dei gratia Rex Angliae, etc., omnibus Exemptions 
" ad quos prsesentes literae pervenerint, salutem. Hwdif 



* The word * iUttd ' is repeated 
here by mistake. 

* See Liber Custumarum, pp, 101- 
104. 

VOL. III. E E 



^ Omitted in the new Edition 
of Ilymer's Foedera, Vol. II., 
Part 1. 



434* APPENDIX II. 

citizens of " Sciatis quod cum dilecti noTbis Major et Aldermanni, 

return"for a " ^^ C9Bteri cives nostri Londoniarum, nuper nobis gra- 

tSisand^ " tanter mutuum fecerint de mille libris sterlingorum, 

pounds. a ^^g volentes eisdem Majori, et Aldermannis, et civi- 

F,59.b. cc \yyj^^ (jg pecuniae sumiua satisfacere, ut tenemur, con- 

" cessimus eis ut in proximo auxilio nobis in Civitate 

" nostra prgedicta, sen in Comitatu Middlesexise con- 

" cedendo, aut in denariis in eisdem Civitate et Comi- 

" tatu ad opus nostrum ex quacunque causa proximo 

" levandis, prsedictas mille libras eis allocari fecimus. 

'' Concessimus etiam eisdem Majori, et Aldermannis, et 

" civibus, quod tallagium aliquod separatim per capita, 

" vel in communi, super ipsos, bona et catalla, terras 

et tenementa, aut redditus sues, in Civitate praedicta 

vel in suburbio ejusdem, ante proximum Parlia- 

mentum nostrum assideri, vel de eisdem levari, nul- 

latenus faciemus ; salvis semper Majori, Aldermannis, 

" et civibus, dictse Civitatis, assignationibus eis per nos 

" prius factis pro debitis de quibus per nos satisfacere 

" manuceperunt, prout in litems nostris patentibus, eis 

" inde factis, plenius continetur. In cujus rei testi- 

" monium, has literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes. 

" Teste meipso, apud Wyndesore, xiii die Februarii, 

" anno regni nostri sexto.'* 

Et sciendum quod prsedictse mille librae solutse fue- 

runt Domino ^ Ingelardo de Warle, tunc ^ Custode Gar- 

derobae Domini Eegis, per breve Domini Regis in hsec 

verba : — 

Writ enjoin- " Edwardus, Dei gratia, etc., Majori et Aldermannis, 

oftJe sSd^ " et civibus Civitatis Londoniarum, salutem. Cum 

sum to the ,, ... i . . , . « 

Keeper of " nupcr conccssentis nobis gratanter mutuum lacere 

robe. " " de mille libris sterlingorum, sub certis conditionibus, 

" prout in Uteris nostris patentibus, vobis inde con- 

fectis, plenius specificatur, vobis mandamus, quod 

dictam pecunise summam dilecto clerico nostro, Inge- 



a 



<( 

<( 



1 U 



See Liber Ciisttirmrum, p. 686. | ^ An error for * CustodV 



EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBIER MEMORANDORUM. 435 

" lardo de Warle, Custodi GarderobsD nostrse, sine dila- F.Go.a. 
*^ tione liberetis, recipientes ab ipso literas suas pa- 
" tentes, receptionem dictas pecuniaR testificantes. Teste 
" meipso, apud Wyndesore, xv die Februarii, anno 
" regni nosfcri sexto/' 

Et sciendum, quod prsedictae mille librae solutae fti^-th^^^* 
runt Domino Ingelardo per quinque literas suas pa- 
tentes, quae remanent hie in Camera, inter acquietan- 
cias de compoto Johannis le Mazeliner, tunc Camerarii. 
Postea, non obstante concessione Domini Regis, pro eo 
quod Dominus Rex tenuerat Parliamentum suum apud 
Eboracum,die Dominica proxima postFestum Nativitatis 
Beatse Marise Virginis [8 September], anno regni sui 
viii^, ac Major et cives quibusdam certis de causis 
ad tunc negotia sua in praemissis exequenda, tamen 
pro arduis negotiis statum coronae Domini Regis tan- 
gentibus, ratione guerrae suae Scotiae, quae tantummodo 
in dicto Parliamento pertractabantur, tamen pro eo 
quod idem Parliamentum in tam remotis partibus ten- 
tum erat, utrum talliabiles essent necne, minime pro- 
secuti fiierunt ; nihilominus misit praedictus Dominus Order that 
Rex Justiciarios suos ad Civitatem praedictam tallian- shall be^ 
dam, videlicet Dominum Hervicum de Stantone, Hen- notwfth- 
ricum Lescrope, Johannem de Markefeld, et Radulphum ^ ^" ^"^* 
de Stoke, et inde mandavit Vicecomitibus Londoniarum 
breve suum, in haec verba : — 

^ " Rex Vicecomitibus Londoniarum, salutem. Cum Writ ad- 
" constituerimus dilectos et fideles nostros Hervicum the sherifTs, 
^' de Stauntone, Henricum Lescrop, Johannem de Mark- effect. 
" joigfelde, et Radulphum de Stokes, tres vel duos 
'* eorum, ad assidendum tallagium nostrum infra Civi- 
tatem praedictam, et ^suburbia ejusdem, separatim per p.eo.b. 
capita vel in communi, prout ad commodum nostrum 
magis viderint expedire, prout in Uteris nostris pa/- 






* See the New Fcedera, Vol. IL 
Part I, p. 256. 



" Written * subnrbio ' in the ori- 
ginal. 

E E 2 



436 APPENDIX 11. 



« 



tentibus, eisdem Hervico, Jolianni, et Radulpho, inde 
confectis, plenius continetur, vobis mandamus quod 
cum ab eis, tribus, vel duobus eorum, fueritis prse- 
" muniti, venire faciatis coram eis, tribus, vel duobus 
" eorum, omnes iUos de Civitate et suburbiis prsedictis, 
" quos ad dictum tallagium videritis necessaries, et 
" eisdem H., [H.,] J., et R, tribus vel duobus eorum, 
" ad hoc sitis auxiliantes et intendentes, prout vobis 
" injungent ex parte nostra. Teste meipso, apud 
" Spaldyngge, xxiiii die Octobris, anno regni nostri 
" octavo/* 

Item, aliud breve Vicecomitibus Londoniarum, in 
hsec verba : — 

Second Writ " Edwardus, Dei gratia, etc, Vicecomitibus Londo- 
effect! * ^ " niarum, salutem. Praecipimus vobis quod venire facia- 
" tis coram dilectis et fidelibus nostris, Hervico de 
" Stantone, Henrico Lescrope, Johanne de Merkyng- 
** felde, et Eadulpho de Stokes, apud Gihaldam Lon- 
" doniarum, bac instanti die Dominica proxima post 
" Festum Sancti Leonardi [6 November], xii de probis 
" hominibus ditioribus et legalioribus de qualibet 
Warda Civitatis prsedictae, secundum quod esedem 
Wards© majores fuerint sive minores, ad audiendum, 
" faciendum, et recipiendum, quod eis ibidem injun- 
" getur ex parte nostra. Et habeatis ibi tunc nomina 
" ipsorum quos sic ibidem venire facietis, et hoc breve. 
" Teste, Hervico de Stauntone, apud Westmonasterium, 
*' vi die Novembris, anno regni nostri octavo/' 

F.6i,a, Et prsedicti Justiciarii venerunt apud Gihaldam, ad 

^J^pJ® '^ incipiendum taxationem praedictam, etc. Et super hoc 

^daSm^* Major et cives accesserunt ad Consilium Domini Eegis, 

^ toimdred ^^ peticrunt respectum usque ad proximum ParKamen- 

marks. twoQ., ut prfus, ctc. Et concesscrunt Domino Regi sex 

centum marcas ex mutuo, ita quod dictum tallagium 

differatur usque ad proximum Parliamentum. Et 

Dominus Rex concessit eis respectum dicti tallagii, et 

inde fecit ei[s] Utteras suas patentes, sub hac forma : — 






Sfi''^ 



(( 
(( 



EXTRACTS FKOM THE LIBER MEMORANDORUM. 437 

'' Edwardus, Dei gratia Rex Anglias, etc., omnibus Exemptions 
"ad quos praeseutes literse pervenerint, salutem. ^Sedby 

Sciatis quod cum Major, Aldermanni, et cseteri cives thereupon. 

nostri Londoniarum quadringentas libras nobis per 
" manus dilecti et fidelis nostri Walteri de Norwico, 
" Thesaurarii nostri, mutuo liberari fecerunt, ad quse- 
" dam negotia nostra expedienda, nos volentes eisdem 
" Majori, Aldermannis, et ca^teris civibus de dicta pe- 
" cunise summa satisfacere, ut tenemur, concessimus 
" eis quod in proximo auxilio nobis in Civitate nostra 
" prsedicta, seu in Comitatu Middelsexiae, concedendo, 
" aut in denariis in eisdem Civitate et Comitatu ad 
" opus nostrum ex quacumque causa proximo levandis, 
" prsedictas quadringentas libras eis allocari faciemus. 
" Concessimus etiam eisdem Majori, Aldermannis, et 
" civibus, quod tallagium aliquod sepaxatim per capita, 
" vel in communi, super ipsos, bona et catalla, terras 
" et tenementa, et redditus suos, in Civitate praedicta 
" et suburbiis ejusdem ante proximum Parliamentum F.ei.b. 
" nostrum assideri, vel de eisdem levari, nuUatenus fa- 
" ciemus ; salvis semper Majori, Aldermannis, et cseteris 
" civibus dictse Civitatis, assignationibus eis per nos 
" prius factis, pro debitis de quibus pro nobis satis- 
" facere manuceperunt, prout in litteris nostris paten- 

tibus, eis inde factis, plenius continetur. In cujus 

rei testimonium has litteras nostras fieri fecimus 
" patentes. Teste meipso, apud Langele, xvi° die No- 
" vembris, anno regni nostri octavo/' 

Breve Domini Regis pro Pace conservanda secundum f. gs. a. 

Articulos Statuti Wyntonice} 

Dominus Rex mandavit breve suum Majori et Vice- 
comitibus Londoniarum, in heec verba: — 

" Edwardus, Dei gratia. Rex AnglisB, Dominus writ to tiie 
'^ Hibernia3, et Dux AquitannisB, Majori et Vicecorai- sSffs of 

1 Omitted in the New Fwdemy Vol. 11., Part I. 



<( 



(( 



438 APPENDIX II. 

London, en- " tibus Londoniaruin, salutem. Quia ex clamosa ia- 

joiningthat ,, . .. t ♦ i • • t 

the Statute " smuatioiie populi regni nostn accepimus, quod quam- 
chester shall " pluTCS malefactores, et pacis nostrse perturbatores, in 
observed. " diveisis Comitatibus ejusdem regni, tarn infra liber- 
" tates quam extra, vagantur et discurrunt, homines 
" in civitatibus, burgis, et aliis locis publieis et privatis, 
" verberantes et etiam vulnei'antes, et quosdam ex illis 
" nequiter et malitiose interficientes, et quosdam mem- 
" bris ^ mutUantes, necnon deprsedationes et alia damna 
" quamplurima perpetrantes, et insuper pareos nostros 
" et fidelium nostrorum frangentes, et in eis sine licentia 
" nostra, et eorum ^ fidelium nostrorum, fugantes, feras- 
" que in eisdem capientes et asportantes, et sub colore 
" illo alia facinora multipliciter committentes, in pacis 
" nostrse laesionem, et populi regni nostri prsedicti 
" terrorem manifestum; unde non immerito contur- 
" bamur : — ^Nos pacem nostram per totum regnum 
"' nostrum, pro quiete et tranquillit»ate populi nostri 
" praedicti, (et eo potius quo ad rebellionem et perfidiam 
" Scottorum proditorum nostrorum, cum Dei adjutorio, 
" virUiter reprimendam, jam versus partes Scotise cum 
^.Qo.\}, u ^xercitu nostro arripuimus iter nostrum,) volentes 
" firmiter et inviolabiliter observari: — Ad cujus ob- 
" servationem competenter faciendam, necnon ad 
" malitiam malefactorum hujusmodi, juxta eorum de- 
" merita, puniendam, valde utile reputamus quod 
" Sfcatutum, dudum apud Wyntoniam per Dominuni 
" Edwardum, nuper Eegem Anglise, patrem nostrum, 
" de communi consilio regni sui, pro conservatione pacis 
" ejusdem regni editum, manuteneatur in omnibus et 
" singulis suis articulis et servetur, de vestris fidelitate 
" et diligentia, ac circumspectione provida, confidentes, 
" assignavimus vos ad dictam pacem nostram, necnon 
" ad Statutum praedictum, in omnibus et singulis 



^ Written * mutulantes' ! rently by inadvertence. 

^ Written " de infidelium" appa- | 



EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBER MEMORANDORUM. 489 



/: 



i< 



<( 



articulis in eodem Statute contentis, in Civitate 
'' nostra Londoniarum custodienda et servanda, et ad 
" omnes hujusmodi malefactores et pacis nostrsB per- 
'^ turbatores, ac etiam alios quoscumque qui contra 
^' formam Statuti prgedicti delinquerint, attachiandos 
" et arrestandos, et prisonge nostrse deliberandos, et 
" ibidem detinendos, quousque inde deliberentur se- 
" cundum legem et consuetudinem dicti regni. Et 
" ideo vobis mandamus, firmitea: injungentes, quod 
" Statutum prsedictum in Civitate prsedicta publice 
" recitari, et pacem nostram in eadem Civitate in om- 
" nibus qU89 ad conservationem hujusmodi pertinent, 
necnon Statutum prsedictum in omnibus et singulis 
suis articulis faciatis firmiter observari. Et si quos 
" malefactores, et pacis nostrse perturbatores in eadem 
" Civitate, seu alias, juxta formam Statuti prsedicti 
" attacMabiles, inveneritis, ipsos attachiari, et salvo in 
" prisona nostra custodiri faciatis, donee aliud duxeri- 
" mus demandandum ; et talem ac tantam diligentiam r.66.a. 
" circa observationem pacis nostrae in Civitate praedicta, 
" et etiam Statuti prsBdicti in omnibus et .singulis 
" suis articulis conservandi, modis omnibus apponatis, 
" quod dictus populus noster in dicta Civitate pace et 
tranquillitate gaudeat, et quiete ; quodque pax nostra 
ibidem, prout corditer affectamus, firmiter et in- 
" violabiliter observetur ; ita quod factum vestrum in 
hac parte debeamus merito com[m]endare. In cujus 
rei testimonium, has literas nostras fieri fecimus 
" patentes, quamdiu nobis placuerit duraturas. Teste 
" meipso, apud Burgum Sancti Petri, xiii die Aprilis, 
*^ anno regni nostri septimo." 



Proclmnatio' facta pro Coneervatione Pa^is. F.66.a, 

Virtute istius brevis, Nicholaus de Earndone^ tunc Prociama- 

■%/r • i» *, . ' 11* *i tion made ill 

Major, lecit inquirere per probos homines smgularum the city, iu 
Wardarum de raalefactoribus et nocte vagantibus, etthSewiSi! 



(C 



{C 



cc 



(C 



440 APPENDIX II. 

fecit proclamare per totam Civitatem proclamationem 
subscriptam ia hsec verba : — 

" Por ceo qe nostre Seignur le Roi est en alant 
" vers les parties dEscoce, en sa guere sur ses enemis, 
" et nous ad commande espessement sa pes fermeinent 
" garder, come nous fumes de droit tenuz, et le plus 
" especiaument pur son aler avantdit : vous comandoms 
*^ depar le Roi, qe nul prive, nestrange, face chose 
" countre sa pes, ne sa dignite, ne sa coroune, dedenz la 
" ville ne dehors ; ne qe nul aille armee, ne porte arme, 
'^ suspeeionousement deinz la Cite, en affray ne a 
" peril del poeple ; ne qe nul aille wakeraunt de nuyte 
F.66.b. " par male agaite, ne en autre manere, outre corfu sonee ; 
" ne qe nul ne tiegne deinz la Cite, nen la fraunchise 
" de ycele, escole de eskyrmerie. Et sil aviegne qe nul 
" destourbour de la pes le Roi, ou desobeissant a ses 
" ministres, soit trouvee, tauntost soit pris et arrestu, 
" et par my ministre livere a la prison, et illueqes a 
*' demorer tant come par juggement soit delivere. Et 
" pur ceo qe graunt noise est en la Cite, par ascunes 

" Whereas our Lord the King is going towards the parts 
" of Scotland, in his war against his enemies, and has espe- 
" cially commanded us strictly to keep his peace, as of right 
" we were bound, and the more especially by reason of his 
" going aforesaid ; we do command you on behalf of the 
" King, that no denizen, or stranger, shall do anything 
" against his peace, or his dignity, or his crown, within 
" the town or without ; and that no one shall go armed, or 
" carry arms, suspiciously within the City, in affray or to the 
'* peril of the people ; and that no one shall go wandering by 
" night upon evil design, or in any other manner, after cur- 
" few rung ; and that no one shall keep within the City, or 
'^ in the liberty thereof, a school for fencing. And if it 
" happen that any disturber of the King's peace, or person dis- 
" obedient to his officers, shall be found, let him be forthwith 
" taken and arrested, and by the officer delivered to prison, 
" and there to remain until by judgment he shall be delivered. 
" And whereas there is great uproar in the City, through 



EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBER MEMORANDORUM. 441 



« 



<c 



rageries de grosses pelotes de pee ferir en prees du 
poeple, dount plusours maux par eas purrount avenir, 
qe Dieu defend, comandoms et defendoms [de] par 
" le Eoi, sur peine denprisonement, tieu jeu user deinz 
" la Cite desore enavant : et qe touz les poinz criez 
" en la dite Cite aunciens, pur la pes nostre Seignur le 
" Roi garder, soient bien et fermement gardez de jour 
et de nuyte, sur le peril qe appent/' 



<c 



De Ordinatione Prima Cordewenarim'um, 



F. 78. a. 



" Noverint universi, prsesens scriptum visuri vel audi- Ordinances 
" turi, quod hgec sunt Provisiones et Statuta quae probi wainers^ 
" homines de Allutariis Londoniarum statuerunt seu pro- Hen^iii. 
" viderunt, anno regni Regis Henrici, filii Regis Jobannis, ^- ^^- ^* 
" quinquagesimo-sexto, de consensu et voluntate Domini 
" Walter! Hervi, tunc Majoris Londoniarum, csetero- 
" rumque Baronum ejusdem Civitatis, ad emendationem 
" et relevationem totius officii, et ad omnimodas falsi- 
" tates et decepfciones in posterum evitandas/'— 7 

Inprimis, unanimi voluntate et assensu ipsorum allu- 
tariorum, statutum est quod nuUus allutarius de opere 
basani de caetero se intromittat, sub poena dimidise 
marcse solvendse communse Civitatis praedictse ; nee 
basanarius de opere alluti amodo se intromittat, sub 
eadem poena eidem communae solvenda ; hoc tamen 



ii, 



certain tumults arising from the striking of great foot- 
balls in the fields of the public, from which many evils 
perchance may arise, which may God forbid, we do com- 
mand and do forbid, on the King's behalf, upon pain of 
imprisonment, that such game shall be practised from 
henceforth within the City : and that all the points of old 
proclaimed in the said City, for keeping the peace of our 
Lord the King shall be well and strictly kept by day and 
by night, under the peril that thereunto pertains/' 



442 APPENDIX It. 

excepto, qiiod allutarius qxdsellos ad ocreas de basanto 
bene et licite facere potest. Allutarius etiam de corio 
vaccino licite se intromittat, et basaharius similiter. 
Cistarii quoque, stantes in Foro vel alibi, corium vac- 
cinum operantes, de opere alluti nee basani ntdlatenus 
se intromittant sub poena prsedicta. Praeterea, nuUus 
allutarius ocreas faci[a]t, sen sotulares, de coreo vitii- 
lino ; nee tales alicui vendantur sub poena praedicta, cum 
forisfactura eorundem. 

Praeterea, nuUus allutarius nee basanarius de caetero 
aliquem apprenticium recipiat, nisi de consensu et 
voluntate Majoris et communae, et nisi ^consensu et 
voluntate Majoris et communse, et nisi constiterit per 
F.79.a. sufficientem probationem, ipsum esse bonae famse et 
honestsB conversationis, tractabilem, mansuetum, morige- 
ratum, prout decet. Et dabit apprenticius allutario pro 
sua doctrina xl solidos sterlingorum ad minus ; et com- 
munse prsedictse ii solidos, et pauperibus in illo 
officio existentibus, quibus facultates vivendi non suppe- 
tunt, ii solidos persolvet. Apprenticius autem basanarii 
dabit pro sua doctrina xx solidos ad minus ; et com- 
munes supradictse ii solidos, et pauperibus ii solidos, 
prout est antedictum. Cum vero apprenticius extiterit, 
et annos.suos plene compleverit, et hoc per testimonium 
domini sui, et aliorum bonorum et legaHum hominum, 
coram Majore et aliis probis hominibus prsedictse Civi- 
tatis poterit probare, officium suum libere faciat, secun- 
dum consuetudinem Civitatis. Si vero apprenticius 
extiterit, et annos sues non compleverit antequam in 
praedicto officio aliquo modo operetur, pro arreragio 
annorum suorum domino suo satisfaciat, et communse 
prsedictse xl solidos persolvat. 

Praeterea, statutum est, quod si extraiieus, veniens 
in Oivitate, officium allutarii, tanquam magister, voluerit 
exercere, prius de xl solidis sterlingorum communse 

' From this word down to * tiisi,* is a repetition by inadveilence. 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE LIBER MEMORANDORUM. 443 

prsedictse ad minus satisfaciat, et de duobus solidis 
in subsidium pauperum tribuat. Si vero extraneus 
officium basanarii praedicto modo voluerit exercere, 
prius de xx solidis commnnae prsedictse satisfaciat, et 
pauperibns de duobus solidis, pront super ius est ex- -^^^tj ^y 
pressuin. Prseterea, nuUus extraneus aliquod genus 
calciamenti in Civitate nee in suburbio Londoniarum 
vendat per parcellos, sed in grosso; et si quis aliter 
fecerit, perdet illud quodcumque genus, et nihilominus 
sol vet poenam prsenominatam. Insuper, de basanariis 
taliter est statutum, quod nuUus eorum, sub poena 
prsedicta, in aliquibus nundinis locum capiat sen teneat 
inter allutarios, sed alibi per se, ubi melius poterit, 
et sibi viderit expedire. Item, nuUus prsedictorum 
officiorum sub eadem pcena, eidem communse solvenda, 
alterius servientem in servitio suo recipiat, nee ad eum 
venire procTiret, nisi idem serviens a priori domino 
suo, cum quo steterit, licite fuerit recessus. 

NuUus etiam serviens, sub poena prsedicta, appren- 
ticium sub se habeat, sen habere prsesumat ; cum hoc 
^cederet in prsejudicio dominorum suorum, et amissionem 
vehementem. Item, nullus prsedictorum officiorum, 
prout communiter est statutum, plures servientes quam 
octo circa se retineat ; ita quod unusquisque eorum 
servientes suos ad pacem Domini Regis possit habere, 
et pro eisdem, cum necesse fuerit, respondere, et quod, 
prsB multitudine servientium, pax Domini nostri Eegis 
prsedicti nequaquam leedatur. Item, nullus prsedictorum 
oflBciorum, sub poena supradicta, operari faciat de nocte, 
inter Festum Sancti Michaelis et Nativitatem Domini; 
nuUique eorum, sub eadem poena, liceat aliquod genus 
calciamenti extra shopam suam ad consuendum et j, g^ ^ 
reparandum tradere, nee transmittere ; qiiia frequenter 
accidit quod servientes, cum sint in possessione domi- 
norum suorum, illicite recedunt, et bona, quae ex hujus- 

* Written * cederaty by inadvertence. 



444 



APPENDIX II. 



F. 80. b. 



modi contradictione habentur, asportant vel inutiliter 
reparant. Nullus insuper de Civitate Londoniarum 
prsedicta aliquod genus calciamenti per vicos seu plateas 
Civitatis ejusdem ad vendendtim ferat, vel per alium 
ferre faciat, nisi inter vicum qui vulgariter dicitur 
' Gorveiserestrate' et vicum qui eodem 'idiomate dicitur 
' Sopereslane* et hoc per dies operabiles solummodo, 
ante prandium, et in Vigilibus solemnibus solummodo, 
post prandium ; nee extra Civitatem, infra spatium 
viginti leucarum per eircuitum, exceptis nundinis et 
Vigiliis, sub poena praetaxata. 

Item, si aliquis de libertate Civitatis prsedictas de 
mercatoribus quibuscunque aUutum emat in grosso, et 
alutarius ejusdem libertatis quisquam casualiter super- 
veniat, bene liceat eis sine contradictione alicujus, sue 
nomine vel aliorum, partem habere in ilia emptione, 
dum tamen securitatem venditor! invenerit sufficientem. 
Et si quis contravenerit, poenam centum solidorum sus- 
tinebit. Item, nullus corerarius sit inter alutarios, nisi 
per electionem eorum, et nisi coram Majore et BaUivis 
Civitatis prsedictse eisdem sit eorum juramento astric- 
tus. Item, duo magistri unam eandemque placeam ne- 
quaquam occupent, sed unusquisque eorum per se stet 
et operetur, si poenam dimidise marcse veUt effugere 
prsenominatam. Et caveat etiam unusquisque prsedicto- 
rum operarionmi, sub poena xl solidorum, alium do 
loco plus donando - ejicere, nisi aliquam certam et ra- 
tionabilem causam monstrare poterit, ob quam sit 
^ejiciendus. Item, si aliquod alutum in Civitate prse- 
dicta inventum fuerit male coureatum, et hoc coram 
Majore et BaUivis probetur, illud alutum omnino ad 
opus ssepedictae Communse sit forisfactum, ipsumque 
cujus est hujusmodi corium, prsedicta poena dimidise 
marcse nihilominus puniendo. 



* Written 'ydeomatn * in the ori- 
ginal. 



2 Written * eicere ' and ^ eiciendiiSy 
in the original 



EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBER MEMORAKDORtJM. 445 



Ad haec omnia suprascripta statuta, ad totius re^ni Twelve 

. . . Wardens of 

commodum confecta, fideliter custodienda, et amercia- the trade to 

be cliosen 

menta delinquentium cum forisfacttiris levanda, et Came- 
rariis Civitatis prsedictae, qui nunc sunt et pro tem- 
pore erunt, integraliter tradenda, ad opus commune 
ejusdem, elegerunt praedicti alutarii xii probos homines 
et legales, ejusdem officii Custodes principales, pro om- 
nibus juratos, coram Majore et Ballivis, quod fideliter, 
prout est antedictum, omnia subscripta Statuta custo- 
dient, cum subsidio communitatis, et amerciamenta se- 
cundum posse suum levabunt, et eorum nomina qui 
contravenerint prsedictis Majoii et Ballivis in scriptis 
tradent, ut delinquentes secundum quantitatem delicti 
puniantur. Nemini parcent, nee injuste cuiquam noce- 
bunt, gratia, odio, timore, vel favore, sed secundum 
Deum et justitiam in omnibus ^ precedent. 

Nomina Custodum in dorso praesentis scripti ciro- 
grapbati indorsantur ; qui eidem sigilla sua apposue- 
runt Et morabitur una pars in Thesauro Civitatis, et 
altera pars penes Custodes officii. 



p. 81. a. 



Consuetudines Veteres de Mipa Regince, 



p. 82. b. 



Dominus Rex mandavit Domino Willelmo de Eboraco, customs 
Prseposito Beverlee, et Henrico de Batbonia, et Jeremise oSn? 
de Caxtone, anno regni Regis Henrici, filii Regis Jo- the 28th^f 
hannis, xxviii, et sociis suis, Justiciariis Itinerantibus ^"^ 
apud Turrim Londoniarum, quod omni diligentia et 
modis quibus potuerunt, inquirere faciant quae con- 
suetudines pertinebant ad Hetham Reginse Londoniarum 
anno proximo^ ante guerram motam inter Dominum 
Johannem Regem, patrem suum, et Barones sues Anglise. 
Et cum de consuetudinibus illis et aliis qu83 ad prse- 
dictam hetham pertinebant tempore prsedicto eis con- 



^ Written ^procedunt* 
^ For an account of the Customs 
levied at Queen-Hythe at a more 



recent period, see Liber Albus, pp. 
238, 240. 



1? Q\ n 



446 APPENDIX II. 

stiterit, et quae posfcea mutata fuerint et alienata, cum 
soUicitudine et cautela quibus poterunt, laborent ad 
praedictam hetliam in statum debitum reformandtim, et 
quod teneatur in eisdem consuetudinibus quibus teneri 
consuevit tempore prsedicto. 

^ Coram quibus convictum fuit per Majorem et Al- 
dermannos Civitatis, quod tempore prsedicto fuerunt 
tales consuetudines ad praedictam hetham spectantes ; 
scilicet, de qualibet ^ sippa, i. mensura continente 
quinque quarteria salis, quae fuerunt hominis extranei, 
et etiam si fuerunt alicujus hominis de Quinque Per- 
tubus, et appUcuerit aut venerit, ubicumque faerit, 
[inter] ^ Worepartbe et Anedehethe, vel ultra, dabit 
ii denarios ad firmam dictse Ripae. Item, si aliquis de 
civibus Londoniarum partem habeat in dicta sippa 
salis, nihil dabit de portione sua ; sed residuum, quod 
pertinet ad forinsecos, dabit consuetudinem secundum 
quantitatem rei suae. 

Item, si aliquis forinsecus aJlec, bladum, vel liujus- 
modi, simul cum sale, in una navi duxerit, licitum est 
ballivo Reginae capere de apparentiori parte catallorum 
praedictorum. Item, si aliquis forinsecus, et etiam de 
Quinque Portubus, fuerit, et venerit cum salmone, si 
centum vel amplius attulerit, dabit duos salmones ad 
firmam Regince. Et si in Soka Reginae applicuerit, 
unum dabit de melioribus et unum de mediocrioribus. 
Et si minus quam centum attulerit, dabit secundum 
quantitatem rei usque ad quartam partem. Et si 
minus quam quartam partem centenae attulerit, nihil 
p.83.b. dabit nisi strandagium. Item, de milvello salso 



' Erom the word * coram ' do^wn 



" vel Worpath, est in OrientaJi parte 



to * pradictOy is omitted in Liher " de Fleta de Berkynge, a Londoniis 



Memorandorum ; and is here inserted 
from Liher Horn. 

2 * i, sife ;' Note to the copy in 
Liber Horn, f. 342. h. 



" Memorandum quod Werepath^ Liher Hom, f. 342. h. 



" in Orientem per vii millia pas- 
^^ suum; et Anedehethe est juxta 
" Westmonusteriumy in parte Occi" 
" dentali Londoniarum.^' Note in 



EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBER ME7.I0RAND0RTJM. 447 

eadem capienda est consuetudo ad firmam Reginoe in 
eadem Soka quam Vicecomes capiat ad opus Domini 
Eegis apud Billyngesgate. Item, si forinsecus, et etiam 
de Quinque Portubus, allec album salsatum in navi 
sua duxerit in Soka Keginse, capienda est de navi 
i centena. Et si aliquis de civibus Londoniarum par- 
tem habeat secum, nihil de portione sua capiat. 

Item, forinsecus quicunque primum rubeum allec 
adduxerit, non fraellatum, dabit centum ; et alii qui 
supervenerunt cum eodem genere allecise, sive sit fra- 
ell[at]ura sive non, nihil dabunt per totum annum, 
prseter strandagium navis. Item, si aliquis forinsecus 
salmonem vel mulvellum salsatum emerit in navi, et 
iUud in altera navi posuerit,^ de quolibet millenario 
dabit obolum. Item, de salmone et mulvello emptis 
in shopis suis in eadem Soka, de quahbet centena ca- 
pienda sunt ii denarii, sicut praedictum est de navibus. 
Item, de allecibus emptis in shopis, de quolibet mUle- 
nario capiendum est ^i denarius obolus, sicnt de navi- 
bus. Item, de omni genere piscium recentium venien- 
tium in Soka Reginse, eadem consuetudo capienda est 
quae capitur de eisdem generibus piscium ad firmam 
Domini Regis ad Pontem Londoniarum. 

Item, de qualibet navi quae navigatur infra orlolces, p. 84. 
capiendi sunt ii denarii ad firmam Reginse, nisi tan- 
tum sit de Londoniis vel de Quinque Portubus. 

Item, de navi quae navigatur cum tholliis, capiendum 
est ^ i denarius obolus. Item de qualibet schuta descen- 
dente in Soka Reginae cum ^blado, capiendus est i 



1 — «« ad ducendum per aquanu de 
" quolibet centeno dabit ii denarios j 
^* et si mintts qvxtm centum, ddhit se- 
" cundnm quantitatem rei emptce. 
** Si aliquis Jbrinsecus allec emerit 
" in una navi et posuerit in altera,'^ 
etc. Insertion in Liber Horn, f. 
343. a. 



^ The words " i denarius '* are 
erased in Liber Horn. 

* After this word in Liher Horn, 
" capiendi sunt i denarius et obolus. 
" Si autem cum busca sine bhdo^^ 
is added. 



■m 



448 



APPENDIX II, 



F. 84. b. 



denarius. Omnes consuetudines prsescriptae conservandse 
sunt efc tenendse tarn in portu de Douuegate quam in 
Ripa Reginae, ad opus Domini Regis. Item, bladum 
quod applieuerit inter Gutteram de Gildhalle Colonensium 
et Socham Ai'chiepiscopi Cantuarise, non solet mensu- 
rari per aliud quarterium quam per quarterium de 
Soka Reginae. Item, licitum est ballivo Ripse Reginse 
capere Scawyngam in Selda Wyntonise ad opus * Ripse 
ReginsB, sub eadem forma qua Vieecomes Londoniarum 
alibi in Londoniis Scawyngliam capit ad opus Domini 
Regis. 

Item, si aliquis consuetudinem suam detinuerit, et a 
Civitate recesserit cum eadem consuetudine, incidit in 
misericordiam ballivi. Item, si quis consuetudinem bal- 
livo vel ejus ministro obtulerit persolvendam, et illi 
capere noluerint, quamvis a Civitate recedit, non est 
amerciandus. Item, omnes assisse Civitatis, in Hus- 
tengo provisse et statutse ad emendationem Civitatis, 
statuendsD sunt et observandse in Soka Reginse. Et 
ideo consideratum est, quod Dominus Rex habeat 
seisinam suam de omnibus consuetudinibus prsedictis 
secundum quod per eundem Majorem et cives recogni- 
tum est. 

Post venerunt baEivi prsedictse hethse, et conquerun- 
tur quod post prsedictam recognitionem, applicuerunt 
xiiii naves ^forinsecse apud Billingesgate, quae debue- 
runt appUcuisse ad prsedictam hetham. Et ideo con- 
sideratum est, quod si aliqua navis forinseca, cum pis- 
cibus, in forma praedicta applieuerit alibi quam ad 
prsedictam hetham, sit in misericordia Domini Regis, 
scilicet ad xl solidos. Et hsec poena locum habeat 
usque ad unum mensem post Festum Sancti Michaelis 
hoc anno. Et interim, secundum transgressionem suam 



' This word is omitted in Liber 
Horn, 



' The words " cum piscibus " are 
added after this word, in Liber Horn, 



EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBER MEMORANDORUM. 449 

providebitur de ^graviori poena infligenda, si formam 
prsedictam observare noluerint. 

Post venerunt Major et cives, et dicunt quod omnes 
naves extraneornm cum omnibus piscibus salsatis 
exceptis ^ spmdehrhoteSy applicuerunt ad prsedictam 
hetham tempore prsedicto, sed naves quae fuerint civium 
Londoniaruni applicuerunt alibi, ubi voluerint. Et 
ideo Dominus Rex habeat seisinam suam donee aliud 
quid inde perceperit. 



Corrodi'tim de Fonte. 

'' Omnibus Sancte Matris Ecclesiaa filiis, pnesensOvantofa 
''' scriptum inspecturis vel audituris, Gregorius de Ro- the Wardens 
" kesle et Nicbolaus de Wyntonia, tunc Custodes Pontis Bridire, and 

«/ ' +110 "II I"/! 

" Londoniarum, et eiusdem loci Fratres, salutem intjirenof 

TV , -NT ♦ • . • theEridgC' 

" Dommo. JMoverit universitas vestra nos, nomine et House. 

" assensu totius communitatis Londoniarum, dedisse, con- F.isi.a. 

" cessisse, et prsesenti scripto nostro confirmasse, Henrico 

" dicto ' In-the-Lane,' et Isabella3, uxori suae, quoad 

" vixerint, et eorum alteri quamdiu vixerit, eoruni 

" competens corrodium, cotidie possidendum competenter, 

" ad superiorem mensani domus prsedictse, adeo libere, 

" plenarie, et integre, ut habent duo Oapellani, seu duo 

" Fratres, ad invicem in dicta mensa comedentes, una 

" cum corrodio unius eorum famulae bonse conversa- 

" tionis, quam habebunt sibi servituram, et cotidie cum 

" libera familia dictse domus ad secundam mensam 

" comedenteni ; quse erit movenda, cum rationabiliter 

" per fideles possit probari, quod ipsa male et incon- 

" venienter so gesserit in domo supradicta ; et iteiiim 

" de una alia bona et conveniente se provideant reha- 



• Written * graviora ' by inadver- i ^ See Liber Cttsttmtarum, pp. 94, 



tence. 

'•* Written * spindlerehotes * in Li- 
ber Horn, 

VOL. III. F p 



95 J and Introduction to Liber Cus" 
tutnarum, pp. cii, ciii. 



■1 



4!60 APPENDIX II. 

" benda. Habebunt insuper sibi, et tenebunt, duas 
" cameras honestas, existentes in capite Orientali magni 
" solarii infra septa domus prsedictse, et quoddam aliud 
" solarium propinqnins ex parte Anstrali, una cum 
" liberis introitibus et exitibus, atque eisiamentis un- 
" dique eundi et redeundi intus et exterius, pro eorum 
" libito voluntatis, sine aliqua occasione et aliqua con- 
" tradictione, omnibus diebus vitae eorum ; ita quod 
" nos, dicti Custodes et Fratres, et successores nostri, 

iJ'.isi.b. rf g|^(j dictas duas cameras et solarium propinquius 
" supradictum, de proprio custu domus prsedictsB, in 
" omnibus, cum necesse fuerit, integraliter sustentabi- 
'' mus, reparabimus, et fieri faciemus. Prseterea, bene 
" licebit prsedictis Henrico et Isabellse, quandocumque 
" voluerint, testamenta sua ^condere, et cuicumque et 
" ubicumque ipsi, et alter eorum qui diutius vixerit, 
" omnia bona sua, mobilia et immobilia, dare, legare, 
" et assignare, et de eisdem ordinare [et] disponere ; 
" sic quod executores eorum possint inde, secundum 
" quod in eorum ultima voluntate ordinabunt, plenam 
'' et liberam administrationem obtinere, absque aliquo 
" impedimento, et aliqua calumnia, seu contradictione 
" et sequestratione, nostri et successorum nostrorum, 
" seu alicujus alterius domus prsedictse. Si vero con- 
*•' tingat quod dicti Henricus et Isabella, aliquo tem- 
" pore infra tempus vitse eorum, a domo praedicta 
" voluerint recedere, et ea quse superius sunt expressa 
" resignare, nos, dicti Custodes et Fratres, volumus et 
'' concedimus, pro nobis et successoribus nostiis, non 
" obstante aliquo consilio seu impedimento nostri seu 
" domus prsedictse, quod ipsi, pro eorum mera volun- 
" tate, omnia quse habent infiu clausum dictse domus 
'' extrahere faciant et possideant, prout sibi melius et 
*' utilius videbitur expedire, extra limites dictse domus, 

J". 132. a. u ^^ inhabitandum propriis sumptibus eorum se pro- 

' Incoii'ectly written ' concedereJ 



EXTRACTS FKOM THE LI13KU MEMOIiANDOKUM. 451 

'' videant; dum tainen nos, dicti Custodes et Fratres, 

" et successores nostri qui pro tempore fderint, prje- 

" muniamur unum annum ante suum decessum, et hoc 

" in Vigilia Sancti Michaelis. Quoniam extunc in 

" antea, propter resignationem prsemissorum, cum modo 

'' prsedicto fuerint resignata, nos, dicti Custodes ct 

" Fratres, pro nobis et successoribus nostris, dedimus 

'^ et concessimus, et prsesenti scripto nostro confirma- 

" vimus, dictis Henrico et Isabellse, quoad vixerint, et 

" eorum alteri qui diutius vixerit, quandam libera- 

" tionem ad domum prsedictam, per se seu per eorum 

" attomatum singulis diebus obtinendam, et ^ horis de- 

" bitis et consuetis ibidem quserendam, et quo volue- 

" rint extra limites domus prsedictse liberaliter aspor- 

" tandam, sub liac forma ; videlicet, cotidie duos panes 

" albos, quolibet eorum ponderante quinquaginta et 

" sex solidos sterlingorum, una cum duobus galonibus 

" melioris cervisise, per mensuram regiam fideliter men- 

" suratis; quibus pane et cervisia Capellani et Fratres 

" utuntur ad superiorem mensam domus preedictse; et 

" unum galonem cervisise juxta meliorem, per prsedic- 

" tarn mensuram, qua utitur libera familia dictse domus 

" ad mensam secundam ; et unum fercTilum coquina) 

" dictsB domus, de quolibet genere prandii in eadem 

" confecti, prout tempus desiderat; adeo libere, pie- f. 132. lb. 

" narie, [et] integre, cotidie sibi liberandum, cum pota- 

" gio, ut liberabitur duobus Capellanis, seu duobus 

" Fratribus, dictae domus, ad superiorem mensam simul 

" comedentibus ; una cum quodam ferculo unius generis 

" prandii, et potagio dictse coquinse singulis diebus, ut 

" liberabitur alicui libero servienti ad secundam mensam 

dictse domus comedenti. Et dimidium quarterium 

frumenti, et dimidium quarterium siliginis, annuatim 

de sexdecim septlmanis in sexdecim septimanas per- 

" cipienda ad grangiam domus prsedictse, de meliori 



It 



^ WHtten « horns debitas '^ iil the oiiginal, by inadvertence. 

F F 2 



(( 



{( 



<c 



452 APPENDIX II. 

" blado crescente super terras ad domum prjedictam 
*^ pertinentes ; seu de adeo bono blado de emptione, 
" cum propria blada earundem terrarum folate defece- 
" lint, quod absit ; una cum stramine, rationabiliter ad 
'' lectum dictorum Henrici et Isabellse, et lectum unius 
" servrientis eorum, cum inde necesse habuerint et hoc 
*• petere yoluerint, sibi liberando ; et libere introitum 
'' et exitum eundi et redeundi infra clausum prsedictse 
domus, et extra, pro prsemissis quserendis et aspor- 
tandis secundum formam memoratam ; una cum eisia- 
mento kaii dictaB domus, ad eorum res proprias, cum 
" necesse habuerint, eisiandas, carcandas et discarcandas, 
" portandas et asportandas, tam infra quam extra clau- 
" sum supradictum. Et nos dicti Custodes et Fratres, 
*' et successores nostri, dictis Henrico et Isabellee quoad 
p. 133. a. « vixerint, et eorum alteri qui diutius vixerit, omnia 
" et singula praemissa contra omnes gentes 'waranti- 
** zabimus, defendemus, et acquietabimus, secundum 
" formam antedictam. Pro hac autem donatione, conces- 
" sione, warantia, defensione, acquietancia, et prsesentis 
" scripti nostri confirmatione, dederunt nobis dicti 
" Henricus et Isabella, ad utilitatem dictse domus, et 
" Pontis prsedicti sustentationem, centum marcas ster- 
lingorum. Et ut omnia et singula praemissa rata 
sint et stabUia, ut superius est expressum, nos dicti 
" Gustos et Fratres commune sigillum Pontis prsedicti, 
" una cum sigillo Majoratus Londoniarum huic prse- 
" senti scripto, pro majori securitate, duximus appo- 
" nendum. Hiis testibus, Johanne Horn, Willelmo de 
" Durham, Henrico de Coventre, Philippo le Taverner, 
" Thoma de Basyngge, Waltero le Potere, Henrico de 
" Frowike, Petro de Edelmetone, Wolmaro de Essexe, 
" Johanne de Blakeneie, Willelmo de Hadestoke, Ro- 
" berto de Meldeborne, Simone de Hadestoke, Ea- 
'* dulpho le Blound, Johanne de Northamptone, tunc 
" Aldermannis dictse Civitatis, et aliis. Actum Lon- 
" doniis, die Dominica in Festo Assumptionis Beatse 
" Marise Virginis [15 August], anno Gratise millesimo 



iC 



ei 






EXTRACTS FBOM THE LIBER MEMORANDORUM. 453 

" ducentesimo septuagesimo-septimo, et anno regni Regis 
Edwardi, filii Regis Henrici, qninto. Qnibus die et 
anno, ego dictus Gregorius fui Major Londoniarumj 

'^ Radulpho le Feure et Roberto de Arraz tunc Vice- ^.iss.b, 

^* coinitibus/^ 



u 



(( 



Nomina Anglicmia %i8itata in Ghartis Antiquoruni ^-iss-a, 
Regv/m, Anglioe, et adhuc apposita in Chartis 
ModernoTum, expodta ah Alexandro, ArcJdepiscopo 
SalapioB, secundwin quod continetur in Legibus 
Aluredi Regis, Athelstani, jEthelrediy Hdwardi, et 
Knuti, Regv/m} 



Pondbreche . 
Borghbreche 
Miskennyng 
Schewyte . 



Lesty nge . 



Trespas vers seignur. 

Forfet de cite debruse. 

Mesprise de parole en Courte. 

Quite de meisure et de mar- 
chandise. 

Charger la ou lem voudra. Gal- 
lice vocatur ^ lestange.^ 



Pondbreche 
Borghbreche 
Miskennyng 
Schewyte . 



Lestynge 



Offence against the lord.^ 

Penalty for breaking into a city. 

Mistake of words in Court. 

^Acquittance of [payment for] mea- 
surement of merchandize, 

4 [Liberty] to load where one may 
please. In French it is called 
* lestange^ 



^ See a somewhat similar list ia 
Appendix G. (p. 439,) to the His- 
tory of Bartholomew Cotton, printed 
in the present Series. 

^ More properly " Breach of the 
" peace." ^ Mondhreclie^ at ^ Mund- 
* breche,^ is the correct reading. 



^ Probably meaning "Acquittance 
" of Scavage," or of " Showage of 
" merchandize." See p. 357 of the 
present Volume. 

* See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
tum.f p. 812, s.v. * Lastagium/ 



454} APPENDIX TT. 

Frithsoken » . . . . Quite de fraunk plegge. 
Flemenfreme .... Cliateux a futifs. 
Weregulthef . , . ♦ Laroun qi poet estre reint. 
Sexenelage ...... Quod est pretium hominis vitfe 

appreciatum. 

Outlopen Eschap de prisoun. 

Forfenge Quite de avant prise dont 

Londres, qi pernent prises 

avaunt le Roi. 

Infienge Quite de prise en festes. 

Ferdwite ...... Quite de merci qil ne viegnent 

en ost. 
Fithwite . . ,; . . . Quite de merci pur mesle. 
Blodwite Quite de merei pur sank 

espandu. 

Frithsoken Acquittance of frank-pledge. 

Flemenfreme .... [Right to] the chattels of fugitives. 

Weregulthef .... A thief that may be redeemed. ^ 

Sexenelage ..... ^That which is the appraised vahie 

of a marHs life. 

Outlopen Escape from prison. 

Forfenge Acquittance of taking prisage in 

London, as to those' who take pri- 
sage before the King.-^ 

Infienge Acquittance of prisage on feasts. 

Ferdwite . . . . . Acquittance of amercement for not 

coming to the ^ host. 

Fithwite Acquittance of amercement for 

medley. 

Blodwite ..... Acquittance of amercement for 

bloodshed, 



* By paying his * were.' See p. 370 
of the present Volume . 

' Meaning prohably the * wtre ;* 
an institution peculiar to the Saxon 
Laws. 

5 This is probably the meaning ; 



hut the French text is evidently 
corrupt. 

* Or • army.' 

^ See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
ium.j p. 725, s. v. * Fightwyta,'' 



EXTRACTS FBOM THE LIBER MEM0RANP0RI7M. 455 

Wardewyte » , . , . Quite de merci qil ne troeve 

homme a garde faire. 

Hengwyte Quite de merci pur laroun 

pendu sanz agarde. 

Hamsoken Quite de merci dentrer en 

autri hostel a force. r.i35.b, 

Forstal Estupure de chimin, qe lem ne 

poet le chimin et le cha55 
aver. 

Infongeneth[ef] . . . Laroun pris en vostre terre. 

Outfongenethefe . . , Prendre laroun sur autre terre, 

et remener li denz sa fran- 
chise. 

Sake Forfet dount un homme est 

ajugge a sa lei. 

Sokne Suite de franche Courte. 

Tol Quite de tonu. 

Them La generation de voz vileins. 



Wardewyte . , , , . Acquittance of amercement for not 

finding a man to keep ward. 

Hengwyte Acquittance of amercement for a 

thief hanged without judgment, 

Hamsoken Acquittance of amercement for en- 
tering another's house by force. 

Forstal , Stoppage of the road, so that one 

cannot have the road and the side- 
way. 

Infongeneth[ef] . . . Capture of a thief on your own land. 

Outfongenethefe . . , The taking of a thief on another's 

land, and bringing him back 
within one's own franchise. 

Sake Penalty to which a man is con- 
demned at his 1 law. 

Sokne Suit of free Court. 

Tol Acquittance of toll» 

Them The offspring of your villeins. 

^ Seep. 392 of the present Volume, 5. vv. ^^ Legem facer e^^ and * Lex,* 



456 APPENDIX II. 

Soke Quite de arrure. 

Sake Quite de average et de cariage. 

Hudegeld La batre del serf qi mesprent. 

Borghbote Refere les murs de la cite. 

Briggebote Refere les pountz, qe lera poet 

passer. 
Fedfare ...... Quite daler en host. 

Inlage^ Sugette a la lei le Roi. 

Utlage ...... Hors de lei, ou forsbany. 

Yeu Serfe. 

Yan Fraunke. 

Overpen}^ — Hundredepeny — Tithingpeny — Hidage — 
Danegelde — Homegelde — Lestage — ^Taillage — Stallage. 

Soke Acquittance of plougliage. 

Sake ........ Acquittance of ^ average and of car- 
riage. 

Hudegeld The beating of a serf who offends. 

Borghbote The repah^ing of the walls of a city. 

Briggebote The repairing of bridges, that people 

may pass. 

Fedfare Acquittance of going with the host. 

Inlage Subject to the law of the King. 

Utlage Out of law, or banished. 

2 Yeu A serf. 

•^ Yan A freemail. 



' See the Glossary to Liher Cus- 
turn, p. 829, s. V. ^ Summagium,'' and 
p. 791, 5. V, * Carepum.^ 

'^ This is probably au error for 
* tlieu,* from the A, S. i>eor, a serf ; 



or for ♦ then * an A. Saxon word of 
the same meaning. 

* This word may possibly be in- 
tended to represent the A. S. paegn, 
"a thane.'* 



APPENDIX III, 



^V/Vr \« \' ^ \t »« ^ ^*j 



LETTER OP John Carpenter, Common Clerk op the City 
OF London, and Compiler op the LIBER ALBUS, 
descriptive of the Entry op Henrt the Sixth 
INTO the City, on Thursday, the 20th op February 
1432, aptek his return prom France. From LET- 
TER-BOOK K, preserved at GUILDHALL. 



! 



" Inter castera quae nobilis ilia Civitas Londoniarum ordi- 
navit prse gaudio reventus supi^emi Domini sui. Regis 
Henrici Sexti, qui nuper hasreditario jure abiit in regionem 
longinquam accipere sibi regnum Franciae et reverti, tali- 
ter est pro visum. — 

" Memorandum, quod die Jovis, vicesimo die Februarii, 
anno regni dicti Domini Regis Henrici Sexti decimo, 
postquam robust a ventorum austeritas et pluviarum copias 
per dies aliquot prohibit83 cessavissent, solque refulserit 
in clipeos aureos, et laetitia magna fuit in populo Civitatis, 
prae gaudio ejusdem Domini Regis, qui, praefati regni 
sui Franc ias nuper accepta corona et sceptro, potitus 
ejusdem cum sospitate corporea pacifice remeavit in reg- 
num suum AnglisB, et ilia die dictam Civitatem Lon- 
doniarum prassentia sua magnifica disposuit lionorare ; 
Major et viginti-quatuor seniores, sive senatores, necnon 
Vicecomites et plures quam duodecim millia civium et in- 
colarum ejusdem, decenter ornati, cum famulia multa nimis 
praecedente de modulatoribus, sive ministrallis, ac servien- 
tibus et ministris Civitatis clavas argenti deauratas, armis 
ejusdem insculptas, deferentibus, circa horam octavam 
ipsius diei ascendunt equos, et exierunt obviani eidem 
Domino Regi adusque quendam locum vocatum ^Blake- 
'hethe,' per quatuor milliaria distantem ab urbe; ubi tota 



P.103.b. 



458 APPENDIX IIT. 

*^ Civitas, super montem posita et in duas partes ordina- 
" tissime parata, resplenduit et viam intermediam exhi- 
^' bebat, 

^^ Major namque, in velveto de crimismo electissimo, et 
" senatus Aldermannorum in scarleto finissimo cum furruris 
'* egregiis, totusque populus in togis albissimis et capuciis 
'• rubeis vestiti fuerunt ; singular tamen misterae per se cum 
" diversis signis et inbroudacionibus de serico et aliis 
*• notulis sumptuosis, artes suas exprimentibus, elegantev 
^^ sunt distincti. 

** Cumque per modicum spatium pausassent et expectas- 
'" sent ibidem, dictus illustrissimus Rex venit a manerio 
'* suo de Eltham versus Civitatera antedictam, cum ingenti 
^' multitudine Ducum, Comitum, Baronum, procerum, mag- 
^' natum, ac militum et armigerorum, se circumdantium ; 
" quern cum idem Major, senatus, et populus, aspexissent 
" a longe venientem, emittentes prae gaudio lacrimas in 
'• maxillis, et induentes iidem Major et seniores habitus suos 
" consuetos, scilicet armilausas de scarleto purissimo, ditis- 
*' sime penulatas, accesserunt eidem, et humiliatione facta 
^' quae decuit, obtulerunt sibi se et sua, votivos quoque 
" laetitiae jubilos quos liabuerunt de reventu suo,' sibi per os 
'^ dicti Majoris, Anglice retulerunt in baec verba : — 

" ^ Soveraigne Lorde, as welcome be ye to your noble 
^i ^ roialme of Englonde, and in especial unto your notable 
^' ^ cite London^ otherwise called your 'Chambre^ as ever 
" ' ^Das Cristen prince to place or people^ and of the good 
" < and ^ gracioux achevying of your coroune of Fraunce^ 
" 'we thanke hertliche our Lorde Almyghty^ whiehe of his 
" 'endles mercy sende yoxt grace in yoye and prosperite 
" 'on us and alle your other people ^ long for to regne^ 
<• Quo facto, ab ipso Domino Rege gratiosissime et benig- 
^« nissime sunt accepti. 

^' Et post haec idem Dominus Bex per medium illorum 
^< equitabat, usque villam de Depforde; ubi processionaliter 
" occurrerunt ei primo circiter centum et viginti rectores et 
" curati Civitatis, capis ditissimis, et quingenti capellani 
"^saeculares superpelliciis mundissimis induti; deinde totidem 
" monachi, canonici, fratres, et alii regulares concionatim 



This word is tloubtfuL 



LETTER OF JOHN CABPENTER, 



459 



^' stantes cum crucibus, cereis, et thuribulis suis thurificantes 
^* eum, et de jocundo adventu suo laudantes Dominum, et 
^^ pro statu suo prospero devotissime deprecantes, psallentes, 
*^ et dicentes diversas antiphonas cum vei^siculis et orationibus 
^^ consuetis. 

" Et delude, equitando per medium burgi de Sutbwerk, 
^' pervenit ad exterioi^em finem Civitatis prope Pontem ; ubi 
" parabatur macliina, satis pulchra, in cujus medio stabat 
" gigas mirae magnitudinis, vibrans et extendens gladium in 
" hostes regias majestatis, hac proinde scriptura circum- 
^' cinctus ; ^ Inimicos ejus induam confusione.' Ex utroque 
" quidem latere ipsius gigantis ia eadem ^ pagina erigebantur 
''' duo animalia vocata ' antelops* qusB regnorum Angliae et 
^' Francise arma vexillatim fulgentia patule supportabant. 

" Super ipsum vero Pontem speciosa fabrica splendoris 
^' eximii relucebat ; in qua tres imperaitrices et dominae, 
^' mirabili splendore coruscantes, Natura 2suple, Gratia, et 
*' Fortuna, consedebant ; et assurgentes in adventum Regis, 

ipsum praetereuntem suis donis beatis munerabant : Natura, 

scilicet, fortitudine et decora ; Gratia, sapientia et intellectu ; 

Fortuna, divitiis et honoribus ; habentes illud Davidicum 
" pedibus suis antescriptum,^ — < Intende prospere, precede, 
^* * et regna ;' quasi dicerent : — ' Intende prospere per for-^ 
" * tunam ; precede longasve per naturam ; et regna virtuose 
^' * per gratiam.' 

'' A dextro latere dictse fabricae stabant septem deificaa 
^' Virtutes in puellaribus efiigiebus, coronis aureis dedicatae, 
" et solis indutae jubaribus super femora blodia coelestina ; 
" qua3, cum exploraverant Dominum Eegem venientem, exibant 
" obviam ei ad exteriora palatii sui, septem dona Sancti 
" Spiritus per emissionem septem albarum columbarum 
'* sibi figuraliter exhibentes, et dicentes per rescriptum, — 
" ^ Impleat te Dominus spiritu sapiential et intellectus, 
" * spiritu consilii et fortitudinis, spiritu scientiae et pietatis, 
" * et spiritu timoris Domini.' A sinistro quoque latere 
" septem alia? virgines lacteis liliatae vestitibus, et stellatis 
** corporibus elucentes, septem insignia regalia rotulo pedibus 



u 



u 



u 



Fa04.a. 



^ An error probably for * mackina.' 
' An error, evidently, for some 
other word* 



3 An adaptation, apparently, of 
Psalm xlv. 4, 



460 



APPENDIX III. 



a 

a 

a 



c: 
a 
a 



a 
a 
a 

a 



earum taliter subscripto recitata i)r9Bsentabaiit ; * Accipe 
' coronam glorias, sceptrum clementiae, gladium justitiee, 
< pallium prudentise, scutum fidei, galeam salutis, et vin- 

* culum pacis,* Et extunc omnes virgines illae, quasi simul 
de prosperoso adventu Domini Regis exultantes animis, 
plaudentes manibus, et jubilantes tripudiis, Regi nostro 
psallebant sapienter novum canticum, sive carmen, in hasc 
vei'ba : — 

' Sever aigne lorde to your cite 

' With alle reverence welcome ye he» 

* Tlianhed he Gode of Ms goodnesse 
' That you hath hepte from hevynesse 

* And hrought yon ayen ly* gladenesse 
' TJianhed he ye tv* alle lowenes 

* Tlmt nought loolde spare youre tendrenes 

* But put you to travaile and hesynes 

* Wherfor God that ys fidle of mygM 
' Hath holpe you atteyno your right 
' And crouned twyes w* gemes hright 

* Londone he glad iu* alle thi myght 
' For God hath sent unto tlii sight 

* Thi lorde thi prince thi hyng hy right 

* Soveraigne lorde to your cite 

* IF* alle reverence welcome ye he. 

Idemque Dominus Rex, sic salutatus et receptus, ac 
donis gratuitis prgeditus et infusus, pertransibat usque 
speciosum tabernaculum Dominse Sapientias super vii 
columnas quas exciderat solemniter erectum in vice Sancti 
Petri de Cornhille, ubi reperiit et videbat ipsam dominam 
coelestem sedentem assistricem in vestitu deaurato circum- 
datam varietate, sedentem in peritissimo consistorio septem 
Scientiarum liberalium ; quarum quselibet secum habebat 
famosissimum praeceptorem artis suas ; put a, Grammatica 
Priscianxmi inforraantem, Logica Aristotelem disputantem, 
iRhetorica TuUium eloquentem, Musica Boetium philo- 
menantem, Arsmetrica 2pigtagoram numerantem, Geome- 
trica Euclidem metientem, et Astrononiia Albunazar ethe- 
reantera, Habebat namque dicta Domina notulas ill as 
allectivas proverbiorum capitl suo superscriptas ; — ' Per 

* me reges regnant, et gloriam sapientes possidebunt.' Et 



Londone your 
Ghamhre for 
to se. 
To worsehipe 
your londe in 
eche degre. 
The piler of 
worsehipe 
that ye he, 
1 Wlierfor nowe 
\ syng and saye 
J If/ me : 



a 



1 * Beiliorica ' in the original. | - For * Fythagaram* 



LETTER OF JOHN CARPENTER. 461 

" ante praefatas scientias et doctores, in fronte tabernaculi, 
" scriptum erat illud exhortatorium Davidicum, juvenibus 
" I'egibus congruum ; — i * Et nunc, reges, intelligite ; erudi- 
" ^ mini, qui judicatis terrain.' In hoc etiam tabernaculo, 
" Musica cum Boetio practicani artis suje per diversorum 
" instrumentorum modulamina propalabant. Praeterea, super 
^^ Conductum aqu83 sphaericum in dicto vico exaltabatur qui- 
" dam excelsus justitias thronus, admirabilis decoris ; in cujus 
" medio residebat speciosus juvenis regalibus indutus, habens 
" sibi ad tutelam Dominam Misericordiam in dextris, et 
" Dominam Veritatem in sinistris, assistentes, Dominam etiam 
" Clementiam desuper brachiis suis amplexantem et robo- 
" rantem thronum antedictum, juxta illud proverbium, — 
" - ' Misericordia et Veritas custodiunt Regem, et dementia 
" ' roboratur thronus ejus.' Coram vero dicto Rege stabant 
" miro modo, sed tamen juxta convenientiam gradus sui 
" nobiliter decorati, duo senes judices et octo legisperiti, judi- 
" cium et justitiam corporis politici reprassentantes per haec 
" rescripta Davidica ; ^ ' Honor Regis judicium diligit/ nec- 
" non, ^ *Deus, judicium tuum Regi da, et justitiam tuam filio 
" ^ Regis ;' iigurantesque quod reges et principes justos et 
" scientificos viros in judiciis ferendis, consiliis praebendis, 
" et rebus publicis gubernandis, semper disponerent et ordi- 
*' narent. 

" Subsequenter, cum ipsa regia majestas tanta potentia 
" virtutum, prseeminentia sapientise, rationatu justitiae, fulsita 
" fuerat, mox nobilissimum vicum Civitatis, * Chepe ' vulga- 
" riter nuncupatum, subintrans, inveniebat super magnum 
" aquaeductum ibidem amoenissimum et pulcherrimum locum 
" ad modum Paradisi consitum, stellatum iloribus, et arboribus 
" fructiforis relucentem, et breviter omnium rerum speciositate 
*^ conspicuum; ex cujus latere Aquilonis in civitatem Regis F,io4b. 
" magni fontes vivacissimi scaturiebant aquas architriclinas 
^* in vinum conversas, qui gustus regies post tantam virtutum 
" adoptionem merito poterant recreare. 

" In hoc insuper loco illi duo prsedestinati cives sanctorum 
" et domestici Dei, Ennok, scilicet, et Ely,^ congratulantes 



* Psalm ii. 10. 
2 Proverbs xx. 28. 
® Psalm xcix. 4. 



^ Psalm Ixxii. 1. 
^ Meaning * Elias."* 



462 APPENDIX III. 

" de tanti Regis adventu, portantis facem, illuminantis pro- 
" priam, et dantis pacem gentibus, et, quasi desiderantes et 
'< espectantes ipsum futurum canonem et eonsortem suum, 
" pro statu suo prospero precabantui*, unus, videlicet, quod 
" 1 * Nihil proficiat inimicus in eo, nee filius iniquitatis ap- 
" < ponat nocere ei,' et alter quod 2 < Dominus conservet eum, 
" < et vivificet eum, et beatum faciet eum in terra, et non 
" < tradat ilium in manus inimicorum ejus.' Circa vero 
" fontes illos cuilibet litterarum oraculis incitabatur ad hau- 
*< riendum aquas in gaudio de fontibus Salvatoris. 

<* Ex ipso vero loco taliter recreatus Dominus Rex usque 
" crucem in medio vici prsedicti maturabat aggressum ; ubi 
" prospiciebat castrum jaspertinum subtili mechanica practi- 
" catum, in cujus medio arbor fructifora viridissima mirabilis 
" altitudinis de radice Sanctorum Edwardi Angliae, et Lo- 
** dowici Prancise, quondam Regum, egressa pullulabat, reprae- 
" sentans in ramis, per personas vivas ornatu ditissimo sepa- 
" ratim figuratas, justum titulum per descensum utriusque 
" regnorum prfledictorum, a praBfatis Sanctis usque eundem 
" Dominum nostrum Regem linealiter devolutum. Ex altera 
" namque parte ipsius arboris quaedam alia de generatione 
" Salvatoris a radice Jesse egressa, adusque eundem Salva- 
" torem ramificatim apparebat. 

" Postremo vero, apud Conductum Ecclesias Sancti Pauli 
" vicinum, indivisibilis Trinitatis splendor effigialis in celsis- 
" simo ccpli imperii throno residebat inter exercitus Angelorum 
^* sibi ministrantium, etRegi pertranseunti taliter alloquentium 
" per Scripturam, — ^ * Angelis suis Deus mandavit de te, ut 
" ' custodiant te in omnibus viis tuis.' Ipsa vero dealis effi- 
" gies, quasi promittens eidem Regi vitam in hoc sasculo 
" longaevam, et postmodum requiem salutarem, illud prophe- 
" ticum emisit, — ^ ' Longitudine dierum replebo eum,' pro 
<* prime, et, — ^4<0stendam illi salutare meum,' pro secundo. 

" Ad Occidentalem finem Ecclesiae Cathedralis Sancti Pauli 
" pr^dictae occurrerunt ei solemni processione Dominus 
" Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis, cum decem aliis Episcopis 
" pontificalibus indutis 5 necnon Decanus et Capitulum 



I 



Psalm Ixxxix. 22* 
Psalm ±11 2. 



'* Psalm Xci. li< 
* Psalm xci. 16, 



% 



LETTER OF JOHN CARPENTER. 463 

" ejusdeni ecclesias ; et perduxerunt eum usque summum 
" altare, ubi fusis orationibus et Sanctorum reliquiis oscu- 
" latis, per modicum tempus expectabat, et postmodum re- 
" sumpto equo, directe per medium vici de Fletestrete usque 
'< palatium suum Westmonasterii equitavit. Novitates autem 
" processionum et aliarum solemnitatum, quse fiebant et 
" ostendebantur in via, longum esset nimis et mirabile satis 
" exarare ; apparatus vero pannorum auri, serici, et tapecerise, 
" per singulos altos vicos dependent ium, dives erat et pulcher 
" valde, ac talis et tantus, qualis forte seu quantus non 
" videntes minine reputarent ; populi quoique per totam 
" Civitatem sedentis in domibus et fenestris, ac super tecta 
" domorum, necnon stantis in ostiis et super stallas, ambulan- 
" tisque in vicis et venellis die ilia, inaestimabilis erat et 
" innumerabilis multitude, 

"Et post lia3C, die Sabbati, vicesimo-secundo die Febru- 
" arii tunc proximo, vprasfati Major et Aldermanni, una cum 
" certis aliis de notabilioribus Civitatis, assumptis secum 
" mille libris auri purissimi, positis in quodam eminenti 
" vase aureo, ad modum sportulae artificiose composite, acces- 
" serunt ad eundem Dominum Regem in palatio suo antedicto ; 
" ubi sibi prsemissa de gratissimis animis et humillimis 
" cordibus obtulerunt, ipso Majore pro eis omnibus verba 
" subscripta in Anglico referente: — ^ Most Cristen prince^ 
« < the goode folk of youre notable cite of Londoner otherwise 
«< ^ cleped your Ckambre, besechen in her most lowely wise, 
" * that they mowe be recomaunded unto your hynesse, ant 
" ' that it can like youre noble grace to reseeyve this litelle 
<< ^ yefte, yoven with as goode wille^ trewe and lovynge hertis^ 
^' * as ever any yefte was yoven to eny erthly prince,' A 
" quo versa vice grates uberes et favores regios amplissime 
" receperunt, reversi sunt ad propria cum ingenti gaudio et 
" honore, 

<* Hsec, reverende frater et amice praBstantissime, juxta 
" mandatum vestrum inter caetera vobis explico, quae nobiles 
" cives illius inclitissimse civitatis, unde vos et ego sumus 
" alumni, intimis alFectibus ordinarunt in reventu dicti 
" supremi Domini sui. Quam magnifice autem et honoriiice 
" idem Dominus postmodum a singulis Archiepiscopis, Epis- 
*• copis, Ducibus, Comitibus, Baronibus, proceribus, et 
" magnatibus regni sui susceptus fuerit, quantisve gaudiis et 



w^ 



464i APPENDIX III. 

" solatiis venire suum postea per dies aliquot celebratum 
" fuerat, temporis brevitas et negotiorum Clvitatis imminens 
** multitudo de prassenti me iiou permittunt vobis scriptuia3 
" ministerio nuntiare ; scietia autem postea. Vale, etc. 

" Per Fabrura, sive Domificera, vestrum, Johannem, ejus- 
" dem urbis Secretarium indignissimum/' 



GLOSSAIIY TO THE APPENDICES. 



VOL, IIL G G 



M 



GLOSSARY TO THE APPENDICES. 



»>xv/\.yvry/v/vs/\/vo/v>rwwv>' 



[The figures euclosed in parentheses denote the page of the present Volume.] 



aisiare (452). To ease, expedite, 
or assist. See Eisiamentum, 

Albunazar (460). Generally, ^Albu- 
^ mazar ;* an astronomer of the ninth 
century, born at Baikh, in Kho- 
rassan. His principal works are, 
An Introduction to Astronomy^ 
and l^he Book of Conjunction^ 
published in a Latin form at 
Augsburg, 1489, and Venice, 
1515. 

allectivus (460). Attracting at- 
tention, attractive. 

allutarius (441, 442). A shoe- 
maker. See p. 376, ante^ s, v. 
Alutarius, 

allutum (441), alutum (444). Lea- 
ther duly tawed and prepared. 
From p. 442 it would seem that 
inferior leather, such as cow- 
leather and calf-leather, were not 
included under this name, 

Anedehethe (446). From the Note 
in Liber Horn^ given in p. 446, 
this appears to have been the 
name of a locality near Westmin- 
ster. Some ^hithe,' or landing- 
place, is probably meant ; but it 
is perhaps impossible now to 
identify it. 

antiphona (459). In the present 
instance, this word probably 
means, strictly speaking, an "^an- 



* them ; ' which latter word, like 
the old French ^ anthaine^ or 
' antoincy there can be little 
doubt, is derived from it. 

architriclinas (461). This word is 
used adjectively, as signifying 
" belonging to the ruler of the 
" feast ;*' in allusion to John ii. 9, 

arsmetrica (460). Arithmetic. It 
seems difficult to say whether this 
is a corruption of *^ Arithmetical 
or whether it is a compound of 
the Latin words ^ Ars metrical 
the art of measurement. ' Ars- 
' naetrik,' as meaning Arithme- 
tic, is used in early English, by 
Lydgate for example. 

artocopi panis (411). A loaf of 
simnel bread. See the Grlossary to 
Ltber Custum. p. 782 ; also p. 
396 of the present Volume, s, vv, 
Panis dominicus. 

assaiator (422), assiator (421). An 
assayer, or trier. 

assistrix (460). A female compa- 
nion. 



basanarius (441). A maker of in- 
ferior shoes from bazen, or basil, 
prepared sheepskin. 

basantum- (442), basanum (441). 
Bazen, or basil, sheepskin pre- 

G G 2 



468 



GLOSSAPtY TO THE APPENDICES. 



paved «as leathei% See p. 378, 
cmtc^ s, V, Basena, 

blodius (459). Of blood colour. 

bofcellus (425). A botel, or bundle, 
of hay. The expression is still 
used in a well-known Englilsh 
proverb. See Wedgwood's Diet, 
EngL Etym. r. p. 206, and 
Halliwell, Diet. Arch* i. p. 199. 

Rrightenoth(4l7). Probably, Bridg- 
north, in Shropshire. 

Brokesbourne (417). Broxbourne, 
in Hertfordshire. 

biiltellus (411). A boulter, or 
boulting -sieve. See the Glossary 
to Liber Custum, p. 789. 

bunne (423). A kind of white 
bread. Another early mention 
of this word is fouAd in Colyn 
Blowbolles^ Testamenty (MS. 
Rawl. C. 86) '.—'' Sauf first of 
" all they shall have new bake 

capa (458). A cope. 

Cineruni, Festum (421). Ash Wed- 
nesday. See Hampson's Med. 
JEvL Kalendar. ii. p. 47. 

cirographatus (445). Put in hand- 
writing, written by the hand. 
More correctly, * chirographatus,' 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn, p. 792, s, V, Chiropraphum, 

cistarius (442). A box-maker, or 
trunk-maker ; who, in the present 
instance, seems to have been em- 
ployed in covering boxes with 
cow-leather. 

claia (413, 423), claya (420, 421, 
422, 423). A hurdle. See p. 
304, a7tte, s.v. Claie^ and p. 381 
afitCy s* vi% Claa and Cleya. 



claviger (417). See p. 381, ante. 

coket. Engl. (411.) See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custiim. p. 793, 
5. vv. ColicttuSy 2^ci^is* 

coppewebbes. Engl. (415). Cob* 
webs. In early English the spi- 
der was called ^attercop/ "poison 
" cup ;" by which name it is still 
known in Lancashire. See also 
Wedgwood's Diet. EngL Etym. i. 
p. 360, s. V. Cobtveby and Halli- 
well, Diet. Arch, i, p. 108. 

coreraiius (444). A currier. 

corodium (449). A corody, or al- 
lowance of meat, drink, lodging, 
and other necessaries. Corodies 
were mostly granted, by religious 
corporations, or communities, to 
the King's servants ; but some- 
times, as in the present instance, 
to private persons. See Fitz- 
herbert's I^eio datura Brevivm^ 
Writ De Corrodio habendo. 

corveiser (432). A shoemaker ; 
the name of a person's trade cm- 
ployed as a surname. 

Corveiserestrate (444). Probably 
identical with the street formerly 
known as "Cordwainer Street," 
from which Cordwainer's Ward, 
in the City, has its name. Its 
site is now occupied by Bow 
Lane, Cheapside. See p. 306, 
ante^ s. v. Cordewanerestrete. 

coureare (444). To curry leather. 

crimismus (458). Of crimson co- 
lour, or cramoisi ; so called from 
the kermes, or Coccus ilicis and 
arbortim. See the Glossary to 
Liber Ctistunu p. 805, s, t\ Gra- 
num. 



GLOSSARY TO THE APPENDICES. 



46d 






dealirf (462). Representing tlie 
Deity, 

denarata (420). A pennyworth. 

domifex (464). A house-maker. 
Under this appellation Carpenter 
conceals his name ; the houses of 
that period being mostly con- \ 
structed of wood, and the car- j 
penter being, in general, identical | 
with the house-maker of the time. I 

duxissa (430). A duchess. j 

I 

eisiameutuni (4o0). An easement, | 

service, or convenience ; as, in i 
the present instance, a right of i 
entrance. See Aisiare, j 

Enuok (461). Enoch. See Gene' 
sis V. 24. 

faniulia (457). A retinue, or train 

of attendants, 
iraellatus (447). See p. 387, ajite, 
Fratres de Pccnitentia Jhesu Christi 

(430). See p. 387, ante, s. vt\ 

Fratres PoRiiitentice. 
fructiforus (461, 462). Fruit-bear- 
ing, 
fruyter (413). Here used as a 

surname, but probably implying 

the trade of a fruiterer, 
furnarius (426), A baker*s man, or 

attendant on the oven. 

gille. Engl. (432.) Probably, a 
measure containing about half a 
diopine, or pint. The gill at the 
present day contains in some 
places half, in some a quarter of, 
a pint. In the Prompt Parv, the 
VTOvA^gylle ' is stated to mean only 
a "lytylle pot;'* and, from the 
fact of the use of it being here 



forbidden, it may have contained 
no fixed or deiinite measure, 
grangia (4ol). A grange, or farm- 
house. 



habcrdassher. Engl. (433.) A 
dealer in haberdashery ; which, 
not improbably, if we may judge 
from the present passage, was ori- 
ginally a material employed for 
making caps or hats. See p. 326, 
ante, s, v, Hapertas. 

Hedesore (421), Hedsor, a village 
in Buckinghamshire. 

hertliche. Engl. (458.) Heartily. 

lietha (445). A liythe, or landing- 
place. 

liostillarius (425). From the con- 
text, apparently — " feui, in sig- 
" num hostillarii," this does not 
mean ' hosteler ' in the old sense 
of inn-keeper, but Miostler,' one 
having the charge of his em- 
ployer's stable. 

hostyller. Engl. (422.) A hosteler, 
or keeper of a hostel, for enter- 
tainment of man and horse. 

Imchereve. Engl. (413.) Probably, 
the name given to an inferior 
oiRcer whose duty it was to ex- 
amine the hutches, or boxes, iu 
which the bakers exposed their 
bread for sale. See the Glossaiy 
to Liber Custum, p. 734, s. v* 
Ilozecfie, and p. 832, s, v* Truncus* 

inbroudacio (458). Embroidery, 
inseisonabilis (429), insesionabilis 
(429), Unsound, unseasonable* 

kaium (452). A quay, or whai-fj 



470 



GLOSSARY TO THE APPENDICES. 



liliatus (459). Covered with lilies. 
In allusion, probably, to the de- 
scent of Henry VL from Louis 
IX. of France. 

manucapere (434). See the Glos- 
sary to Liber Custum. p. 813. 

megucer. Fr. (432.) A white-taw- 
yer 5 the name of a trade em- 
ployed as a surname. See p. 394, 
ante^ $, v. Megucarius, 

megucerus (432). See p. 394, ante^ 
s, V, Megucarius. 

milvellus (446), mulvellus (447). 
A melwel. See p. 394, antCy s, v. 
Milwellus. 

moldingborde. Engl. (416.) See 
p. 340, antSy s, v. Moldyngborde, 

molendina (421, 422). A mill. 

orlokes. Engl. plur. (447.) See 
p. 344, ante^ s, v, Orloh 

pagina (459). As stated in the 
Note, this is probably an error 
for * machina ;' or possibly, it may 
be a corrupt form of the Latin 
word ^pegma ' (derived from the 
Greek), meaning a temporary 
structure of wood. 

parcellus (443). A parcel, or small 
quantity, ' Per parcellos ' (443), 
by retail. 

pastum (416, 417, 419, 420), pastus 
(416, 417, 419, 420). Paste, 
dough. 

Pavimentum (413). See p. 397, 
ante^ 

payndemayn (424). A French 
word adopted in early English, 
as meaning simnel bread. See p. 



396, ante, s, vv. Pants dominicus^ 
and the Glossary to Liber Cm- 
turn. p. 782, s, vv, Artocopi panis. 

penulatus (458). See p. 397, ante, 

philomenare (460). To warble 
forth, to give tuneful utterance. 

pistacio (412, 413). A baking. 

pixis (432). A box ; the term 
' pix ' being generally limited to 
the coffer in which the conse- 
crated host, or holy relies, are 
kept by the Romish Church. 
From the present passage, it 
would seem that it was not un- 
common for liquid measures of 
wood to be made in this fonn. 

potagium (451). Pottage, or soup. 

practicatus (462). Contrived. 

quiselli (442). Cuishes, or cuisses; 
in the present instance, the upper 
parts of boots, made of leather 
and extending to the thighs. 

rationatus (461). Reasonable guid- 
ance. 

sablo (420). Sand. 

Sabrichesworthe (413)» Sabriche- 
worthe (414). Sawbridg worth, 
in Hertfordshire. 

salutare (462). Salvation. 

Scawyngha (448). Scavage* See 
p. 401, antCy s, v, Scawanga. 

schopinas (432). Apparently ati 
early plural form of the old 
English *chopine.' The ^cho- 
* pine * was a liquid measure, con- 
taining probably, like the French 
chopine of the present day, one 
pint English ; and from it, not 
improbably, is derived our present 



GLOSSARY TO THE APPENDICES. 



471 



English word *pint.' The old 
etymologists have fancifully de- 
rived the word ' chopina ' from 
the Greek %€€iv koI ntiveiv, "to 
" pour out and drink,'' as mean- 
ing that it contains as much as 
a man can drink at one draught. 
Menage however thinks, with 
greater probability, that it is a 
corrupt form of ^cuppina/ the 
diminutive of ^ cuppa/ 'a cup.' 
The chopin, still used in Scotland, 
contains one quart English. 

schuta (447). A shout, or barge. 
See Skoutere. 

secretarius (464). A secretary. In 
other instances in the City re- 
cords, John Carpenter is found 
thus designated (Letter-Book K. 
if. 165, 189, Journal No. 3, ff. 
64, 65). It is remarkable, how- 
ever, that in no other instance 
has the Common Clerk (or Town 
Clerk) of the City of London 
been found thus designated. See 
Brewer's Memoir of John Car- 
penter y p. 13. 

seler, Fr. (413.) A saddler ; the 
name of a trade used as a sur- 
name. 

shoutere. Engl. (421.) A shouter, 
master of a barge or vessel, 
formerly known as a * scout' or 
^ shont ; ' and identical, probably, 
with the ^ scow ' of New England, 
of the present day. See p. 314, 
ante^ s, v, Escout. 

siligo (451). The grain known by 
this name in the Middle Ages 
was rye ; whereas the ^ siligo^ of 
classical writers is thought to 



have been either winter-wheat or 
spelt. See Pliny's Hist. Nat. 
xviii. cc. 19, 20. 

simenel. Engl. (411.) Simnel bread. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
turn. p. 782, s. vv. Artocopi panis, 
and p. 396, ante, s. vv. Panis do- 
minicus ; also, p. 470 ante^ s. v. 
Payndemayn. 

sippa (446). A measure contain- 
ing five quartei^s ; the same as the 
'cipha/ or 'ciphCy of Liber Albus. 
See p. 381, ante^ s. v. Cipha. 

socha (448). See p. 402, ante, s. v. 
Soca. 

solarium (450). A solar, or soUar. 
See p. 359, ante, s. v. Solere» 

Sopereslane (444). Soper's Lane. 
See the Glossary to lAber Cus- 
tum. p. 765. 

spindelerbote (449). See p. 360, 
ante, s. v. Spindeleresbot. 

spuria (415). Apparently, used 
substantively, as meaning refuse 
or rubbish. 

superpellicium (458). A surplice. 

tapeceria (463). Tapestry. 

thoUia (447). See p. 404, ante, s. v. 
ThollcB. 

trait. Engl. (411.) Bread of trait, 
or trete, made of meal once 
boulted. 

trunk. Fr. (415.) A box, or hutch, 
in which bread was exposed for 
sale. See Huchereve, p. 469, 
ante, and the Glossary to Liber 
Custum. p. 832, s. Vi Truncus. 

turnarius (432). A turner of wood. 

turta (411). Tourte bread. See 
p. 365, ante, s. v. Tourt. 



472 



GLOSSARY TO THE APPENBICES. 



turter. Fr. (414.) A mnker of 
tourte bread. See p. 365, ante^ 
s»v. TourL 

turtus, panis (423). A loaf of 
tourte bread. 

wastellus (411). Wastel bread. 
See the Glossary to Liber Cus- 
ttim. p. 837. 

wliitetawier. Engl, (432.) A wlute- 
tawyer. See p. 394, ante, s, v. 
Megucarius. 

Worepai'the (446). Or, more pro- 
perly *Werepathe,' as stated in 
Liber Horn^ f. 242, evidently was 



the ancient name of the path run- 
ning on the Eastern, or further, 
side of Barking Creek. 

wygge. Engl. (424.) A kind of 
bread, probably a sort of siranel. 
" A kind of 'voygij or symnell." 
Cotgrave's Fr, DicL This word 
is still employed in Scotland, as 
meaning a sort of small cake. 

wykettum (416). A wicket, or 
small door. 

yefte. Engl. (463.) Gift, 
yoven. Engl. (463.) Given, 
yoye. Engl. (458.) Joy. 



GLOSSAllIAL INDEX OF FESTIVALS 

AND DATES. 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX OE FESTIVALS 

AND DATES. 



[The exi)Ianations that are here omitted ai*e given in pp. 841-844 of Libkk 
CusTUMARUM. The references are to the page of Libee Alb us.] 



-tliigidii, Festum Sancti. The ITeast of 
Saint Giles (the Ahbot), 1 Sep- 
tember (402). 

Andreae Apostoli, Festum Sancti (298, 300, 
433, 678). 

Ascensionis Domini, Festam (89, 122, 300, 
436, 437, 479). 

BarDahas Apostoli, Festum Sancti (91). 

Bartholomsei Apostoli, Festum Sancti (87, 
120, 258, 364) ; Bartihnew, le Feste 
de Seint (334). 

Botulphi, Festum Sancti. The Feast of 
Saint Botolph (Abbot and Confes- 
sor), 17 June (99, 681). 

Carniprivium (496). 

Cathedra Sancti Petri. See Petri, Cathe- 
dra Sancti. 
Circumcisionis Domini, Pestnm (7, 28). 
Clausom Paschai (103). 

Dunstani, Pestum Sancti (489). 

Edwardi Hegis et Confessoris, Dies Sancti 
(19) ; Edwardi, Pestum Transla- 
tionis Sancti (19, 31, 634, 678). 

Kpiphaniss Domini, Pestum (7, 28, 35, 
501) J Epiphanye, le Pest del (44). 

Ethelburgaj, Pestum Sanctae. The Peast 
of Saint Ethelbnrga (84, 86). There 
were three Pestivals in honour of 
persons of this name, 9 July, 8 Sep- 
tember, and 11 October. 



Peye la Virgyne, le Peste Seinte. The 
Peast of Saint Paith the Virgin, 6 
October (512). 

Georgii, Pestum Sancti. The Peast of 
Saint George, 23 April (82). 

Gregorii Papae, Pestum Sancti (119, 142, 
162, 169, 392, 405, 562, 727); Gre- 
gory, le jour Seint (462). 

Hillarii, Dies Sancti (430, 431,4^9,444, 
497) ; Hiller, le Pest de Seynt (507, 
508). 

Hokeday (234). See page 328, ante, 

Innocentium, Pestum Sanctorum (6,28). 

Inventionis Sanctse Crucis, Pestum. The 
Invention, or Discoyery, of the Holy 
Cross, by the Empress Helena, A.D. 
307 or 326 ; 3 May among the 
Latins, 6 March with the Greeks, in 
the Middle Ages (107, 122). 

Jacob! Apostoli, Pestum Sancti (95, 405, 

447, 497). 
Johannis Baptists?, Pestum Sancti (365, 41 1, 

412, 436, 440) ; Johannis Baptistse, 

Kativitas Sancti (504); Johan, la 

Peste Sehat (118, 577). 
Johannis Eyangelistss, Pestum Sancti. The 

Peast of Saint John the Evangelist, 

27 December (6, 28). 
Johannis, Decollatio Sancti (94, 98). 



476 



LIBEE ALBUS. 



Ivatevinuj Virginis, lestam SaucUc. The 
I'cast of Saint Katliaiune the Virgin, 
25 November (430). 

Laurentil, I'estum Sancti. The Feast of 
Saint Laurence (the Martyr), 10 
August (191). 

Jjucaj EvangelistflB, Festum Sancti (85, 
413) ; Lucie, le Teste dc Seint 
(418, 464). 

Luclae, Festum Sanctae. The Feast of 
Saint Lucy (Virgin and Martyr), 
13 December (93, 108, 678). 

Marci Evangelista;, Festum Sancti (96, 

675, 684) ; Mark, le Fest Seint 

(728). 
MargaretsB Virginis, Festum Sanctsc (17, 

303,304,410, 548, 602, 683) ; Mar- 

garete, le Eeste de Seinte (424, 426, 

428). 
Maria;, Festum Annunciationis Beatse 

(405); Nostre Dame en Quaresme 

(577). 
Mariije, Conceptio Beatse. The Conception 

of the Blessed Mary, 8 December 

(241). 
Man«c Virginis, Kati vitas Beata) (402, 504, 

579, 690); La Nativite de Nostre 

Dame (423, 507). 
Mariaj Virginis, Purificatio Beata> (7, 17, 

28, 106. 346, 398, 410, 411, 412, 

461, 502, 583); La Purificacion de 

Nostre Dame (423, 464, 507, 577, 



'?«> 



28). 

Martini, Festum Sancti (361, 373, 412, 
437, 504, 579, 678, 690); Martin, 
le Feste Seint (379) ; Martyn, le 
Fest Seint (233, 507, 728) ; Martyu, 
ie Seynt (577). 

Mathen lapostre, le jour de Seint. The 
Day of Saint Matthew tlie Apostle, 
21 September (43). 



Natale Domini (374); Natalis Domini Dies 

(27). 
Nowelle. Christmas (233). 



Omnium Sanctorum Fe«tum (6, 27, 5 J, 
490). 

Palmarum Vigilia. The Vigil, or Eve, 

of Palm Sunday, Ibe First Sunday 

before Easter (27). 
PauU, Festum Conversionis Sancti (395, 

398, 684). 
Pentecostes, Festum (7, 29, 30, 56, 258, 

378, 503). Pentecost, le Feste de 

(334). 
Petri ad Vincula, Dies Sancti (339). 
Petri, Cathedra Sancti (105, 536). 
Petri et PauU, Festum Apostolorum (16, 

480). 
Philippi et Jacobi, Festum Apostolorum 

(354, 734, 736, 737). 



Quadragesima (373,503); Quaresme (379)* 

Simonis et Judge, Dies Apostolorum (5, 6| 
19, 23, 24, 27, 30, 31, 32, 35, 655, 
680). 

Stephani, Festum Sancti. The Feast of 
Saint Stephen, 26 December (6, 28). 



Thomai Apostoli, Festum Sancti (6,299, 

467). 
Thomas Maityris, Translatio Beati (83, 

303,483,485,489). 
Trinitatis, Festum Sancta; (98). 

Valentin! Martyris, Festum Sancti (123, 
431). 



..A~ 



INDEX TO LIBER ALBUS. 



INDEX TO LIBER ALBUS. 



JO,, 

Alwhurch, See Upchirche. 
Abjudications of the liberties of the City, 

575-577. 
Abjuration of the realm : 

by whom to be taken in the absence 

of the Chamberlain, 96. 
by a person guilty of arson and mur- 
der, 100. 
Abyndone, Simon de, Sheriff of London, 

364. 
Account, action of, 218, 219, 
Accounts : 

of the Chamberlain of London, 599. 
of the citizens of London, in reference 

to customs, debts, and purprestures, 

599, 
Aeon, the Church of Saint Thomas de, 6, 

7, 26, 27, 28, 30, 718. See Acres. 
Acquittance : 

alleged, but in foreign parts, 212. 
Writ directing enquiries as to a certain, 

444. 
Acres, the Church of Saint Thomas de, 7. 

See Aeon. 
Actone Burnel, or Burnelle, the Statute of, 

543, 619, 670. 
Adulterers, the punishment of, 459, 591, 

592. 
Adulteresses, the punishment of, 460. 
Agnes, wife of John de Londoneston, the 

murder of, 103. 
Agreements and grants, made by the City 

of London, 652-559. 
Aid, Letter of King Edward L, touching 

the assessment of an, 123, 
Alban, the Church of Saint, Bread Street, 

London, 233. 



Alban's, Saint. 

the Abbot of, 384, 688. 
the monks of, 343, 345, 374. 
Alban's, Walter de Saint, 106. 
Albertis, Thomas de, 609. 
Aldermannechurche (properly, Aldermarie- 
churche), the Parish of Saint Mary, 
122. 

Aldemiaricherche, 619, Aldermariechirche, 
445, 447, the Church of Saint Mary, 
London. 

Alderman of London, penalty inflicted on 
an, for absenting himself at the elec- 
tion of the Mayor, 31, 32. 

Aldermen of London : 

particulars relating to the office, 32- 

36. 
the mode of election of, 39. 
the duties of, 62, 56, 59. 
absence of the, 31, 32, 70. 
Terdict of the, as to the testament of 

Osbert de Suffolk, 122. 
to be summoned to the Courts of 

Hustings, 190. 
to enter attorneys on the records, 222. 
their duty to hold Wardmotes, 277. 
not to be placed on Inquests, 290. 
oath of the, 307. 

measures to be duly sealed by, 335. 
to be present at each Sheriffs' Court, 

404. 

Aldersgate. See Aldrichegate. 

Aldewyncle, Isabella de, 444. 

Aldeyn, Eustace, 435. 

Aldgate. See Algate and AUgate. 

Aldrichegate (now, Aldersgate), 106, 586, 
682 ; Aldrichesgate, 463, 465, 557, 
716; Aldrichgate, 5 5 6, 5 57 . 



480 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Ale, provisions for the sale of, oSS-SGl. 

See Alesellers, Brewers, and Brew- 

st(?rs. 
Aleconners : 

oatli of the, 316. 
enactments as to, 359,361. 
Alemahie, 220. See Almaine. 
Alesellers, enactments as to, 098-702. 
Alfred, King of England, 545. 
Algate (Aldgate), 459, 463, 552, 553, 554, 

5.55, 556, 580, 585, 580, 730. See 

AUgate. 
Alicia, daughter of Richard de Wyltone, 91 . 
vMicia, mother of Ralph de Chelmersforde, 

95. 
Alicia, wife of Thomas de Cantebrugge, 

436, 437. 
Alienation, liegulations to prevent undue, 

by tenants for life or in tail, 495. 
All Saints, Bread Street, London, the 

Church of, 108. 
AUgate (probably, Aldgate), 233. See 

Algate. 
AUhallows Barking. See Berkyngchirche. 
Allocations, 538-541. 
Almaine, 456, 540, 541, 542, 613, 620. 

630, 656, 671. 
the Hanse of, 485, 486, 493. 
the merchants of, 226, 535. 
the Teutonics of, 535. See Alemaine. 
Amendment of bill or plaint by plaintiff, 

218. 
Amercements : 

in the Court of Hustings to belong to 

tbe Sheriffs, 190. 
in the Sheriffs' Court, 220. 
not to be excessive, 296. 
scale of, in the Sheriffs' Court, 39 0. 
Amesbury. See Aumbresbury. 
Amias, 228, Amiens, 421, the City of. See 

Amyas. 
Araisus, Beacon of the Church of Saint 

Peter Cornhill, the death of, 85. 
Ammondesham (Amersham), Edmund de, 

299. 
Amyas (Amiens), 418, 424, 426, 542, 614, 

Amyens, 348, 418, 420, 421, 422, 

423,426, 427, 428, the City of. See 

i\mias. 



Anable, Richard, 638. 

Ancient lights, the law as to, 324. 

Andeluye, Andrew, 424, 425. 

Andevere (now, Andover), 535, 536.'] 

Andover. See Andevere. 

Andrew, the Street of Saint, London, 94. 

AndweiT)e (now, Antwerp), 013. See An- 
viers. 

Angulo, Walter de, 87. 

Anna, wife of Osbert de Suffolk, 123. 

Annulments of the liberties of the City, 
575-577. 

Answer to an appeal, term of forty days 
given for, 95. 

Antonine, or Antony, the Church of Saint, 
London, 242, 697. 

Antonine, the Renter of the Hospital of 
Saint, 591, 

Antwerp. See Andwerpe and Anviers. 

Anviers (Antwerp), 634, See Andwerpe. 

Appraisers, to be at liberty, under certain 
circumstances, to buy the goods ap- 
praised, 121, 407. 

Apprentices, householders to be responsible 
for purchases by their, 286. 

Apprenticeship, Regulations as to, 272. 

Aquitaine, 367, 371, 540, 541. 

Areste, John de, 486. 

Armenters, John de, Alderman of London, 
122. 

Armourers, the, 753. 

Arms forbidden to be worn in the City, 
387, 388. 

Arrest: 

of a debtor before the day named in 

the obligation, 219, 
of a debtor without the aid of an 

officer, 220. 
of malefactors, 639-646. 

Articles touching the King, to be men- 
tioned at the Iter of the Justiciars. 

Askham, William, Mayor of London, 527. 

Askwithe, John, 609. 

Assault and battery, abortion alleged to 
have been caused by, 103. See Bat- 
tery. 

Assault, Writs directing Oyer and Ter- 
miner upon, committed in the City, 
479-485. 



! 



IXDEX. 



481 



Assay of bread, 349-351. 

Assheby, Kalph de, Sheriff of London, 96. 

Asshewy, llalph, 418. 

Assize of Buildings, Fitz-Elwyne's, 319- 

331. 
Assize of Mort d'Aiicestor, 197. 
Assize of Novel . Disseisin, 1 9 5 . 
Assyngdone, William de, 406. 
Aswy, Stephen, 16. 
Athelstan, Jung, .'54G. 
Attaehment: 

of the person on suspicion, 88, 89. 
of a murderer, culpable neglect of, 

103. 
in the City, for felony committed in a 
foreign County, 405. 
Attaint, Writ of, not to lie as to the verdict 
of a jury within the City, 437-444. 

Atte Ram, Thomas, 553. 
Attorneys : 

ill the Court of Hustings, G3. 

to be entered by the Aldermen on the 

records, 222. 
to be duly sworn, 473. 
not to plead within the bar of the 
Sheriffs' Court, 521. 

not to cause actions to be brought on 
false grounds, 522. 

to make oath that they -will duly do 

their duty, 525. 
particulars as to, 570-572. 

Aubreyj Andrew, Mayor of London, 537, 

503, 625. 
Aubyn, John, 96. 
Auditors of disputed accounts, 201. 
Augustine, the Gate of Saint, London, 30. 
Augustine's Canterbury, mansion in South- 

wark of the Abbot of Saint, 550. 

Aumbresbury (Amesbury), 402. 
Aungre, Roger de, 82. 
Authorities, resistance to the proper, 264. 
Auvern, Anketil de, Alderman of London, 
34. 

Average, Regulations as to, in cases of jet- 
tison, 490. 

Ayremynne, Richard de. King's Secretary, 
303. 

VOL. IIL 






B. 



Bacone, John, 431, 

Badelesmere, Bartholomew do, 049. 

Baggard, William, accusation of, IOC, 107. 

Bail bv sureties, 101. 

Baker, Richard the, 84. 

Bakers: 

Ordinances and enactments as to, 231 , 
264, 265, 260,356,3.57, 702-700. 

enactment against fraudulent, 301. 
See Bread. 
Bakewell Hall. See Bakwelhalle. 
BaJvwelhalle (Bafcewell Hall), 557, 611. 
Balance, Regulations as to the King's, 285, 
Baldok, John, 395, 398. 
Baldok, R., 614. 

Baler, Roger, Justiciar, 480. See Beler. 
Ballard, Alexio, 89, 90. 
Bamme, Adam, Mayor of London, 400, 
Banquelle, John, 553. 
Bar of the New Temple, 300. 
Bar of the Suburb, 242. See Bare. 
Barbazoun, Adam, 480. See Brabazone. 
Barber, William le, 123. 
Barbers, Regulations as to, 270, 714. 
Barbour, Hamo le, 435. 
Bardelby, Robert, 623, 624. 
Barentyn, Drew, Mayor of London, 733. 
Barking, in Essex. See Berkinge am] 

Berkyng. 
Barkley, Richard de, 299, 300. 
Bamet, 433, 695, 698. 
Barons of London, the, 77, 81. 
Ban*e, la, in Kent, 100. See GaiTe. 
Bars of the Suburbs, 697. See Bar, 
Bartholomew: 

the Church of Saint, London, 99. 

the Pair of Saint, London, 321, 551. 

the Little, the Parish of Saint, London, 
394, 395. 

the Priory of Saint, London, 7, 30, 
.541, C17. 
Bassishaw. See Bassyeshawe, 
Ba.ssyeshawe (Bassishaw), 463, Bassynge- 
shawe, 558, the Ward of, London, 

H H 



482 



LIBER ALllUS. 



Bassynges, 354, Basynge, 418, Robert 
de, Alderman of London. 

Basyng, Thomas de, 34. 

Basyngstoke, Richard de, 542. 

Bat, 418, Bate, 97, Gerard, Sheriff of Lon- 
don. 

Bath, the Bishop of, 35. 

Bath [Henry Bowet], Bishop of, 517. 

Bath, Henry de. Justiciar, 77. 

Batte, Nicholas, Mayor of London, 502. 

Battery: 

mortal, inflicted on a woman, 91. 
appeal for abortion alleged to have 
been caused by, 98. See Assault. 

Battle, Henry de, 96. 

Baudri, John, 384. 

Bavaria [Brabant ?], the Duke of, 614, 

Bawds, regulations as to, 457, 458. 

Baynarde, Robert, Justiciar, 437. 

Baynardescastel, the Ward of, London, 463. 
See Castel Baynard. 

Beaubelet, John Eitz- Walter, 89, 90. 

Beaubelet, Roger Fitz -Walter, 89, 20. 

Beaublet, Walter, 90. 

Beaublet, William Fitz-Walter, 89, 90> 

Bedeforde (Bedford), 432, 536. See Bed- 
ford. 

Bedelle, Robert le, 33. 
Bedelle, Thomas le, 33. 
Bedels of the Wards : 

returns to be made by the, 189. 

oath of the, 313. 

not to be porters of a Counter, 525. 

Bedford, 406, Bedforde, 695, the County 
of. See Bedeforde, 

Bedleem, 538, Bedlem, 552, 553, 556. 
See Bethdelem. 

Beggars, Regulations as to, 590, 591. 
Begge, Henry, 557. 

Beler, Roger le, Justiciar, 479, 480, 483. 
See Baler. 

Belynge, William de, 406. 

Bercheneslane (Birchin Lane), 242. 

Bereforde, W. de, 365. 

Beifoi^e, John, 609. 

Berkinge (Barking), 103. See Berkyng. 

Berkiugecherche, 52. See BerkyngcMrche. 



Berkyng (Barking), 515, 516, 581, 670, 
Berkyngge, 373. See Berkinge. 

Berkyngchirche, 16, 275,Berkyngecherche, 
63, Berkyngechirclie, 251. (now, 
All-hallows Barking). See Berk- 
iugecherche. 

Bermyngham, Henry, 684. 

Berneye, Walter, 32, 560. 

Bertone, William, accusation of, 103, 104, 
105. 

Berwick, 612, 617. 

Bethdelem, the Hospital of, 608. See 
Bedleem. 

Bethereslane, 558. 

Betoigne, William de, Alderman of Lon- 
don, 15, 18, 122. 

Bevere, Ino le, 299. 

Beverle, John, 554. 

Beverley, the Provost of, 77. 

Bills of Exchange, Letter under the Privy 
Seal in reference to fraudulent, 371, 

Billingesgate, 88, Billyngesgate, 171, 179, 
237, 238, 240, 242, 245, 246, 261, 
303, 349, 356, 461, 463, 693, 697, 
Billynggate, 238. 
the customs of, 179, 237. 
the street of, 88. 
the Ward of, 463. See Byllyngesgate. 

Bishopsgate. See Bisshopisgate. 

Bisshop, Henry, 82. 

Bisshop, John, 686. 

Bisshopisgate (Bishopsgate), 463, 553, 554, 
557, 582, 586, Bisshoppesgate, 485. 
Composition with the Hanse Mer- 
chants for the repair of, 485-488. 
See Bysshopesgate. 

Black Friars. See Friars Preachers. 

Blakborne, Simon, 516. 

Blakbrok, John de, 27. 

Blakeney, John, 610. 

Blecchyngley, Walter, 555. 

Bliseworthe, Adam, 553. 

Blound, John, Mayor of London, 612, See 
Blount. 

Blount, James le, 418. 

Blount, John le. Mayor of London, 5, 15, 
21, 27, 33, 120, 122, 123. See 
Blound. 



INDEX. 



48S 



Blount, Koger le, 418. 

Blount, Thomas, Justiciar, 479, 480, 483. 

Blund, James, 85. 

Blunt, T. le. Seneschal, 303. 

Blunville, Thomas, Chamberlain, 82, 83. 

Blytone, John, 557. 

Boatmen, Hegulations as to, 277. 

Bocheresbrigge, 622. 

Bokeleresbury (Bucklersbury), 583. 

Bokerelle, Andrew, Mayor of London, 228, 

418, 500. See Bukerell. 
Bokerelle, Matthew, Sheriff of London, 

228. 

Bolet, Simon, 340. 
Bolintone, William de, 385. 
Bond : 

case of, with the place where made 
not named, 210. 

with a double penalty, 211. 

Bondmen, not to enjoy the liberties of the 

City, 452. 
Boner, Alexander, 515, 516. 
"Bones of the Dead," Chapel over the, 

552, 558. 
Bordeaux, 540, 632. 
Bosane, Bartholomew, 604. 
Boseham, Bartholomew, 397, 398. 
Boston (in Lincolnshire). See Botolph. 
Botolph, the Fah- of Saint (Boston), 405, 

551. See Hoylande. 

Botolph, the Church of Saint, without 
Aldgate, London, 552. 

Botolph, the Parish of Saint, London, 558. 
Botolph's Wharf, Saint, 549, 553, 554, 

555, 559, 579, 582. See Botulves- 

wharf. 

Botulveswhar:^ Saint, 356, 716. See 

Botolph's Wharf. 
Bowe, the Church of Saint Mary le, Lon- 
don, 642, 700. See Mary. 
Bowyers, Regulations of the, 732. 
Brabant, 634, 655, 676, 726, 738. 
the Duke of, 612, 613, 614. 
the people of, 642. 

Brabassone, Robert, 603, 
Brabazone, Adam, 479, 480, 482, 483, 485. 
See Barbazoun, 



Bradefitrete (Broad Street), 463, Bradstret, 

394, 396, Bradstrete, 582, the 

Ward of. 
Braie, Richard de, 436. 
Brandone, Thomas de, 193. 
Bras, Adam, 242, 
Braunforde, William de, 438, 439. 
Bray, Edward de, 91. 
Brayere, William de, 104. 
Breach of sequestration, 202. 
Bread ; 

Regulations as to the regratresses of, 

266. 
the assay of, 349-351. 
the various kinds of, 353. 
Ordinances and Regulations as to, 356, 

358, 702-706. iS^ee Bakers. 
Bread Street. See Bredestrate. 
Bredestrate (Bread Street), 299, Brede- 

strete, 242, 609, Bredstrete, 108, 

463. 
Bredforde, Henry, 391, 392. 
Bredforde, Lucia, her claim, 391-393. 
Bremble (Bromley, in Essex), 232. 
Brembre, Nicholas, Mayor of London, 27, 

41, 451, 605, 653. 
Bretask Lane, 542. 
Bretone, John, Warden of the City, 17, 18, 

34, 559. See Britone. 
Bretone, the treatise so called, 546. 
Brewers, regulations as to, 266, 359, 698- 

702. See Ale. 
Brewsters, 265, 355, 
Bride. See Brigid. 
Bridge, Ward of, 34, 299, 463, 497. 
Bridge Street, London, 374, 376. Sec 

Briggestrete. 
Brie, 551. 
Briggestrete (Bridge Street), 689. Sec 

Bridge Street. 
Briggewater, John, 558. 
Brigid (or Bride), the Parish of, 34, the 

Church of, Saint, 96, 634, 635. 
Briklesworth, John de. Common Serjeant, 

488. See Bryklesworthe. 
Bristol, 541. 
Britain, 497. 
Britemeristone, 406. 

H H 2 



484 



I.TBEK ALBITS. 



Britone, John, Warden of the City, 17. 
See Bretone. 

Broad Sti^eet. See Bradestrete. 

Brode, Henry, 554. 

Broham, Eichard de, 95. 

Brokers : 

to be duly sworn, 289. 
Ordinance against fraudulent 3G8, 
precept directing Inquisition to be 
made as to the coraraission of, 401. 
report thereon, 402. 
Ordinances ais to, 5SC-589. 

Brokyncros, 557. 

Bromley, in Essex. See Bremble. 

Bruges, the City of, 61C. 

Bnnnleye, Balph de, o85. 

Brusle, Koger de, 441. 

Brut : 

the founder of London, Gl. 

the first monarch of Britain, 497. 

Bryklesworthe, John de, 490. See 
Briklesworth. 

Buckingham [Thomas], Earl of, G05. See 
Bukenham. 

Bueklersburj'. See Bokeleresbuiy, 

Buckynges, lloger de, 87. 

Budde, Alicia, charge by, 301, 302. 

Buflete, Walter de, Sheriff of London, 93. 

Bm Wings, Fitz-ElwjTie's Assize of, 319- 
331. 

Buk, Robert, 607. 

Buke, Henry de, 86, 87. 

Buke, Walter, 98. 

Bukenham, the Earl of, G05, 653. 

Bukerel, Stephen, Sheriff of London, 84. 

Bulcerell, Andrew le, Mayor of London, 21, 
See Bokerelle. 

BuUok, Alicia, 299. 

Bullok, Richard, charge by, 299. 

Bungeye, Reginald de, Alderman of Lon- 
don, 105. 

Buquente, John de, accusation of, 109. 

Burdeux, William, charge against, 515. 

Burgh, Hubert de, Justiciar, 12, 62. 

Burgh, Simon de, 618. 

Burgh, 434, 437, 497, Burghe, 300, Wil- 
liam de. 

Burnelle [Hugh], Lord de, 517. 



j Burning of a woman on a charge of mur- 
der and arson, 101. 
1 Bnry, Adam de, Mayor of London, 391, 
1 576, 631, COG.* 

Butchers : 

Regulations as to, 232, 274, 712-714. 
punishment of fraudulent, 2G3. 
I Byllyngesgatc, 549, 578, 697, Byllyngis- 
gate, 549, Byllynggesgate, 578, Sec 
Billingepgate. 
. Bysshopesgate, 2 8 , By f^shopisgate, 485,540, 
553, 554, Bys.'^lioppesgate, 7. See 
Bisshopisgatt*. 



1 



c. 



Calais, 616, G28, G3G, C49, G51, See 

Caleys. 
Caleys (Calais), G51. 
Cambellenc, Colart, 425, See Chamber- 

lenc. 
Cambridge. See Cantebrigge and Cairate- 

briggc. 
Candelwikestrete (Candlewick Street), 463, 
Candelwikstrete, 685, Candelwj'k- 
strete, 34. See Canewykestrete. 
Candlewick. See Candelwikestrete and 

Cauewylcestrete. 
Canewykestrete (Candlewick Street), 557. 

See Candelwikestrete. 
Cantebrigge (Cambridge), 539, 548, C95. 

See Cauntebrigge. 
Cantebrugge, Thomas de, 436. 
Canterbury, 536, 556, 621. 
the Province of, 76, 123. 
Soke of the Archbishop of, 241. 
Canterbury : 

the Archbishop of, 540, 612, GIG, 

617. 
Hubert, Archbishop of, 499. 
Robert, Archbishop of, 127, 4 46. 
Stephen, Archbishop of, 500. 
Tliomas, Archbishop of, 26. 
[Thomas Arundel], Archbishop of, 
o 1 < . 



INDEX. 



485 



4 









Capias, AVrit of, 193. 

Cappers, the, 727. 

Cardoyl (Carlisle), 633. Sec Carli&lc. 

Cardoyl, John de, 105. 

Carfeux of LedcnUalle, the, 465. 

Carlisle, 547. Sec Cardoyl . ■ 

Carlisle [Walter], Bishop of, 502. 

Carpenter, John, his signature, 2. 

Carpenters of London, enactments relative 

to the, 686, 728. 
Carters, liegulations for, 453, 728. 
Cassebanc, James de, 365. 
Castel Baynard, 127, Castle Baynard, 34, 
251, 274, 373, 380, .535, 581, 585, 
617, 730. See Baynardescastel. 
Catalonia, 540. 

Caude, John, charge against, 515, 516. 
Cauntehrigge (Cambridge), 432. ^ee 

Cantebrigge. 
Cauntebmgge, Roger de, 105. 
Caiistone, John de, 303, 304, 305. 
Cavendische, Stephen de, 488. 
Caxetone, 406. 

Caxtone, Jeremias de, Justiciar, 77. 
Chabehani. Alicia de, 538. 
Chamberlain of London : 
office of the, 47, 48. 
that he has the record, 104. 
oath of the, 309. 
accounts of the, 599. 
Chaniberlenc, Colart, 420. See Cambel- 

lenc. 
Cbambre, Reginald atte, 606. 
Champagne, 551. 

Champerty, enactment against, 889 » 
Chapel of Saint Thomas. See London 

Bridge. 
Charters, royal, granted to the City of 

London, 128-171, 534^538. 
Chastelle, Ilamond du, 418. 
Chattels of felons, 88. 
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 553. 
Chaucer, Mary le, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 

443, 444. 
Chaucer, Richard le, 438, 439, 440, 441, 

442, 443. 
Cheap, or Cheapside. See Chepe. 
Chclmersforde, Ralph de, the death of, 95, 



j Cheniereford, Aylwyn de, 95. 
j Chepe (Cheap), 25, 26, 29, 34, 171,260, 
I 265,266,431,453, 459, 460, 463, 

557,608,609, 667, 702, 718, 719, 
! 730, 736. iS'ee • Wcschepe. 

Chesham, John, 616. 

Chester, the Bishop of, 614, 652. 

Chestre, Ralph, 6S4. 

Cheyni, Henry, 436. 

Chichester, [Ralph] Bishop of, 502. 

Chigewel, 649, Chigewelle, 364, 561, 
Chiggewelle, 300, Chigwelie, 437, 
Chikewelle, 22, Hamo de, Mayor of 
London. 

Chigewelle, Richard de, Alderman of Lon- 
don, 354, 385. 

Chiltre (Chiltern), 129. 

Chimneys, to be faced with tiles or plaster, 
333. 

Chinggeford, Richard de, 241. 

Chirytone, Walter, 630. 

Christ Church, Canterbury, 536. 

Christ Church, London, 563. 

Christian Religion, the, 61. - 

Christian usurers, 80, 81. 

Cinque Ports, the, 23G, 238, 240, 375, 4D0, 
491, 540. 

Citizen, not to implead aaiothcr citizen out 
of the City, 478. 

Clare, Richard de, Escheator, 445. 

Clare, Robert de, 553. 

Clarelle, John, 444. 

Claricia, wife of Jordan, 102. 

Claydone, John, heretic, 616. 

Clement Danes, Church of Saint, London 
328. 

Clenche, Cristina, 680. 

Clenche, Thomas, 680. 

Clerk, murder of a, and proceedings there- 
on, 85. 

Clerk, John, dubber, 103. 

Clerk, Nicholas le, 436. 

Clerkenwelle, the Prioress of, 601. 

Clopham, William de, 385. 

Cloth: 

Regulations for the sale of, 1 1 9. 
fine for the forestalling of, 193. 
Regulations as to the -weaving of, 273. 



\ 



486 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Clutere, John Fitz- Stephen le, 90. 
Clutere, Stephen le, 90. 
Clutere, William Rtz-Stephen lo, 89. 
Clyfforde, Eoger de, 555. 
Clyve, 501. 

Cnut (or Knut), King, 32, 546. 
Cohbe, John, 556. 
Cobblers, Kegulations as to, 732. 
Cock Lane. See Cokkeslane. 
Cocket of Newgate, delivery of the, 45, 
121, 569. 

Coffi-er, John le, 242. 

Coggeshale, Bnuna de, alleged rape of, 84. 

Coggeshale, Bichard, 576. 

Coggeshale, Walter de, physician, 84. 

Cok, William, 242. 

Cokerelle, John de, 425. See Coquerelle. 

Cokham, Henry de, 418. 

Cokkeslane (Cock Lane), 459. 

Colcherche, the Church of Saint Mary, 

Colchestre, 535. 

Cole, Thomas, 516. 

Coleman Street. See Colmanstrete. 

Colewelle, Alicia de, 410, 411, 412, 413. 

Colewelle, John de, 410, 411, 412, 413. 

Colewelle, Thomas de, 410, 411, 412. 

Collusion between jurors and disseisors of 
tenements, Ordinance for the pre- 
vention of, 447. 

Colmanstrete (Coleman Street), the Ward 
of, 463. 

Colnere, John de, Chamberlain of London, 
96. 

Cologne, 486, 535. 

ferm of the Merchants of, 179, 229. 
Guildhall in London of the Merchants 
of, 241. 

Cologne, John de, 627. 
Combe, John, 563. 

Combe Martin, Henry de, Sheriff of Lon- 
don, 438. 

Combes, John, 673. 
Combmartyn, William de, 15. 
Commissions &om the King, 617-638. 
Common Clerk (or Town Clerk), oath of 
the, 311. 



Common Council : 

the mode of holding a, 40-42. 

oath of those summoned, 41. 

election of the members of, 461-463. 
Common Countor, the, 47, 254, 310. 
Common Crier, the, 49. 
Common Hunt, the, 564. 
Common Law, residents in the City not to 
sue before the judges at, without 
leave of the civic authorities, 474. 

Common Pleas, Hustings of, 184. 

Common Seal of London, Regulations as to 
the, 17, 366. 

Common Seijeant of London, 254. 
oath of the, 310. 

Composition, renewal of a, between the 
citizens of London and the Mer- 
chants of Amiens, Corby, and Nele, 
418-428. 

Compters. See Counters. 
Compurgators : 

wager of law with seven, 91, 92. 

wager of law with forty-two, 102. 

wljere to be chosen, 104. 

number required on trial of a stranger 
on a charge of murder, 106. 

Conduit, the* 

in Chepe, 581, 582, 683, 685, 693, 700, 

730. 
in Fletestrete, 686. 
near Saint MichaeVs le Quern, 558. 
Conduit, Keginald de. Mayor of London, 
361. 

Confirmations, 538-54 1,686. 

Constable of the Tower, forbidden to take 

prisage in the lung's name, 414- 

417. 

Constables of London, oath of the, 312. 
Contracts, the due enrolment of, 294. 
Conventions between the City of London 
and other cities, 542^ 

Cooks, Kegulations as to, 715-718. 
Coole, Thomas, charge against, 515. 
Coperberd, Robert, accusation of, 106, 107. 
Coquerelle, John de, 420, 428, See Coke- 
relle. 
Corbels, ^"25, 



I 



IKDEX. 



487 



Corbie, 426, 427 ; Corby, 228, 348, 424, 

542 ; Corbye, 418, 421. 
Cordewaner, Gervaise le, Slieriff and 
Chamberlain of liondon, 86, 88, 418. 
Cordewanere, Silvester le, 445. 
Cordewanerestrete, 122, 447, 463. 
Cork, the City of, 539. 
Corn ; 

Inquisition as to the measurement and 

carriage of, at Qaeen-IIythe, 241. 
Regnlations for the sale of, 261, 262, 
460, 461. 
Corndealers : 

markets assigned to the, 432. 
Regulations as to, 692-698. 
Combine, 7, Comhul, 667, 718 Corn- 
hulle, 29, 72, 85, 162, 194, 242, 
249, 260, 261, 273, 459, 460, 463, 
553, 609, 655, 667, 670, 697, 715, 
718,719, 729, 732. 
Cornhulle, Bartholomew de, 85. 
Cornporters, regulations as to, 272, 692- 

698. 
Comwaille, Ralph, 394, 395, 396, 397, 

399. 
Cornwall, 587. 

the Earl of, 610. 
[John] Earl of, 560. 
Peter Gavastone, Earl of, 535. 
Richard, Earl of, 136, 536. 
Corpyone, Simon, Alderman of IiOndon,298. 
Costantyn, John, 638. 
Costes, Geoffrey de, 90. 
Gotham, Simon de, 97. 
Cotiller, Jordan le, 88. 
Cotiller, Ralph le, 88. 
Cotiller, Salamon le. Alderman of London. 

123. 
Cotone, John de, charge against, 433, 434 
Coudres, John de, 73, 84, 93. 
Coudres, Richard de, 83. 
Counters (or Compters), of the Sheriffs, 
the, 174, 177, 178, 199, 460, 566, 
678. 
Regulations as to, 222, 332. 
not to be let to ferm, 522. 
Regulations as to prisoners in the, 523. 
bedels not to be porters of, 525. 



Court, to be held for foreign merchants 

daily, 295. 
Court-hand, writers of, 714, 715. 
Court Christian, 314. 
Courtenay, John, 564. 
Courtesans, Regulations as to, 457, 459, 

591, 592. 
Covenant, procedure in Pleas of, 474. 
Coventre (Coventry), 535, 539. 
Coventre, JorSan de, Sheriff of London, 

418, 501. ^ See Jordan. 
Coventre, William, 686. 
Covyntre, Henry de, Alderman of Lon- 
don, 34. 
Cows, not to be kept in houses in the City, 

335. 
Coytif, the Castle of, 638. 
Credy, John, 558, 563. 
Crenyngham, William dej 489, 
Crepulgate (Cripplegate), 242, 463, 538, 

552, 554, 556, 557, 558, 586,697, 

730. 
Crete, wine of, 711. 
Cripplegate. See Crepulgate. 
Cristendom, Robert, 609. 
Cristiana, wife of Josce Lespicer, accusa- 
tion by, 107. 
Crombwelle, John, Constable of the Tower, 

670. 
Cros, John, 384. 
Cros, Thomas, 384, 
Cross, the, in Chepe, 557. 
Cross, the Brethren of the Holy (or 

Crutched Eriars), 556, 628. 
Crouche, Thomas atte, 554. 
Croyser, Symon, Justiciar, 479, 480, 483. 
Crutched Friars. See Cross, the Brethren of 

the Holy, 
Cupildiche, Alan de, attachment of, 405f 

406. 
Curriers, Regulations as to, 719, 720. 
Curteys, Hugh, 686. 
Cussard, Ludtilphus de, 486. 
Custody of orphans under age, 108. 
Customs levied, 228-234, 237, 238, 245, 

246, 247, 549, 650. 
Custamarum, Liber, quoted, 13, 14, 15, 18. 

22, 32, 34, 36. 



»: 



488 



LIBEll ALBUS. 



R 



Daggesworthe, John, G70. 

J)anegelde, 128. 

Darelle, Edmund, 497. 

Dawbers, 728. 

Deaths, Inquisition as to viqlent, conceded 

to the Justiciars, 82, 83. 
Debt: • 

action of, 203, 521. 
plaint o^ against husband and wife, 

206. 
recognizances of, 215. 
alleged upon a tally, 294. 
^vager of law with compurgators in 

action of, 294. 
damages to be awarded for aiTears of 

unpaid, 471. 
procedui'e in Pleas of, 474. 
See Debtors. 
Debtore: 

absconding, 213. 

procedure upon tlic withdrawal of, 

from the City, 216. 
remedies against, 221. 
See Debt. 
Deeds, the enrolment of, 180. 
Default: 

remedies in case of, 64, 65. 
procedure in certain cases where made, 

200. i 

by defendant after mainprise, 218. | 

])efaulter, Writ to bring up the body of a, I 

365. 
Defence on accusation of robbery and 

breach of the peace, 114. 
Defendant : 

not to remove his goods to the detri- 
ment of the plaintiff, 407. 
defiiultof, in a personal action, 521. 
Dekene, John, 686. 
Del Isle, Walter, 85. 
Delays of judgment, prohibition of, 291. 
])emesne bread, 353. 
Deneis, Hall of the, 229. 
Depham, Roger, 553. 



Derlyng, Thomas, 576, 609. 
]>ertforde, 373. 
Derwent, the river, 504. 
Desebournelane, 625. 
Despenser, H. le, 614. 
Despenser, Hugh le, the Kldcr, 649. 
Despenser, Hugh le, the Younger, 649. 
Despenser, John Ic, 342 : 

Writ to bring up the body of^ 365, 366. 
Disseisin without judgment given, 114. 
Distress: 

powers of the Sheriffs in cases of, 119. 
duty of the officers on making, 478. 
Dode, John, 242, 554. 
Dogs, Regulations as to, 453. 
Dole, John de, 486. 
Donecastre, William de, accusation of, 106, 

107. 
Donestaple (Dunstable), Robert dc, deatJi 

caused by, 97. 
Donstaple (Dunstable), William de, 9 8 . See 

Dunstaple. 
DorgoiUe, Gerard, 575. 
Douay, 534, 535. 
Douegate (Dowgate), 72, 87, 241, 46;i, 

Douuegate, 579. Sec Dowegate. 
Dover, 118. 
Dowegate, 730, Dowgate, 579, 580. See 

Douegate. 
Dower : 

land claimed by a woman held in, 71. 

Writ of, 185. 

proceedings for the recovery of, 410, 

411. 
damages to be awarded for arrears of, 

470. 
Drapers, 636, 723. 
l^raycote, John, 552. 
Dripstein, Teny, 686. 
Drokenifforde, claim of Thoniaa de, and 

Emma his wife, 410, 411, 412, 413. 
Drowning, death by, 89, 106. 
Dubbour, Payen le, 83. 
Dublin, the City of, 539, 540. 
Due, Roger le, Sheriff of London, 82, 83; 
Dun, the river, 504. 
Dunevare, Luderus de, 486. 
Dunstan's, Pleas at Saint, 300. 



INDEX. 



489 



Dunstaple, John de. Alderman of London, 
122, 123. .SVc Donestaple and 
Donstaple. 

Biinwich, 538. 

.Uurliam [Walter Sldrlaw], Bislioj) of, 517. 

iJui'hem, Henry dc, Alderman of London, 



K 



Eafit Clieap. See Estclicpe. 
EccIesJasticus, the Book of, (juoted, 18; 11>, 

21. 
Edmund's, Saint, 632. 
Edrich, Andrew, 89. 
Edward the Confessor, 158, 505, 54G. 

the Laws of, 498. 
Edward L, King of England, 1 1, 12, 14, 1 5, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 27, 36, 76, 
120, 121, 122, 241, 280, 299, 300, 
301, 303, S53, 354, 364, 378, 430, 
480, 485, 503, 504, 509, 510, 512, 
513, 535, 537, 540, 543, 565, 602, 
652, 675, 683, 684, 685. 
Letter of, to the Prelates of the Pro- 
vince of Canterbury, touching the 
assessment of an aid, 123. 
Charter granted by, in favour of the 
Friars Preachers, or 351ack Friars, 
127. 
Cliarters granted by, to the citizens of 

London, 139, 140, 141, 

Confiiination by, of grants of Henry 

III. to the citizens of London, 301. 

Precept of, as to the commissions of 

brokere, 401. 

Edward 11., King of England, 14, 15, 17, 

18, 19, 22, 27, 36, 76, 297, 300, 

303, 339, 364, 378, 430, 439, 480, 

535, 537, .540, 543, 564, 565, 593, 

617, 652, 659, 675, 684, 685, 720. 

Charter granted by, to the citizens of 

London, 141. 
Lettei's Patent granted by, to the citi- 
zens of London, 144. 



Edw ard 1 1 . —con t 

Writ of^ for the production of pri- 
soners, 297. 
Grant by, to the citizens of London, 

302. 
Writ of, to bring up the body of a 

prisoner, 365, 
Writ of, as to miscarriage of justice 

through Writs of Error, 408. 
Writ of, to the effect that citizens 

shall not be impleaded without the 

City, 435. 
Mandate of, as to the repair of houses, 

470. 
Writs of, to the Sheriffs and Justiciars, 

directing Oyer and Terminer as to 

an assault, 479. 
Writ of, ordering certain proceedings 

to be stayed, 483. 
Edward IIL, King of England, 12, 18, 19, 

27, 32, 35, 148, 162, 169, 171, 361, 

395, 399, 410, 451, 488, 504, 505, 

509, 510, 536, .537, 547, 548, 562, 

578, 586, 594, 678, 726, 727, 734, 

736, 737. 
Charters gi'anted by, to the City of 

London, 144, 
Writs of, enforcing knighthood, 190, 

192. 
Writ of, in prohibition of usury, 367. 
Letter of, under the Privy Seal, as to 

fraudulent bills of exchange, 371. 
Writs of, to the Constable of the 

Tower, forbidding the taking of 

prisage, 414, 417. 
Writ of, confirmatory of the liberties 

and free customs of the City, 438. 
Mandate of, forbidding foreigners to 

sell to foreigners within the City, 

492. 
Mandate of, forbidding foreigners to 

sell hy retail within the City, 493. 
announcement of the birth of, 612. 
Edward the Black Prince. See Prince. 
Egypt, the Oure, a beast of, 621. 
Ejectment of termors, the, 293. 
Eldefistrate (Old Fish Street), 378. Sit 

Uldcfisshestrctc. 



;i L 



490 



LIBER ALBUS, 



Eleanor, Queen, wife of Edward I., 534, 
594. 

Election of Mayors and Sheriffs of London, 
the, 18-27. 

Elena, Michael de Saint, Sheriff of London, 
93. 

Ely, Ealph de, 104. 

Encroachments, provisions against, 476, 477. 
Enderby, William, 577, 610. 
Enefelde (Enfield), 411, Enfeldc, 410, 
Eichard de. 

England, 53, 61, 128, 129, 130, 145, 146, 160, 
161, 16.5, 168, 191, 192, 302, 306, 
308,315, 367, 371, 411, 414, 416, 
417, 418, 419, 420, 422, 424, 435, 
441, 467, 482, 486, 490, 491, 493, 
494, 499, 500, 505, 506, 508, 509, 
510, 512, 538, 539, 543, 545, 548» 
550, 560, 566, 674, 609, 613, 629, 
630, 632, 634, 635, 637, 639, 642, 
643, 644, 645, 646, 649, 650, 652, 
661,681, 710,719, 738» 

the Conquest of, 12, 13. 

the people of, 630. 

the language of, 665. 

Enrolments of deeds and wills, 1 80. 

Entry, forcible, 478. 

Erehithe (Erith, in Kent), 515, 516. 

Erith. i^ee -Erehithe. 

Error, Writ of, 187. . 

Escape of felons from sanctuary, 93. 

Escheator, Writ of the King's, 445. 

Espicer, Mile le, 99. 

Espomer, Henry le, 242. 

Essex : 

the people of, 30, 645. 

the County of, 95, 406, 515, 645. 

the Archdeacon of, 730. 

Essexe, William, 625. 
Essoin, 63, 64, 77. 

right of, 67. 

in personal actions, 202. 

of the King^s service, when to be 
allowed in the Sheriffs' Court, 471. 

Essoiuers, 570, 571. 

Est, WiUiam, 557, 563, 573. 

Est Watergate, 579. 



Estchepe (East Cheap), 242, 682, 697, 
713. 

Euerwyke (York), 517. See York., 

Eure, Roger de, 338, 339, 340. 

Evechepynges, 718, 719. 

Ex Gravi Querela, Writ of, 184. 

Exchange, Ordinances as to the, 573-575. 

Exchequer of England, the, 6, 17, 20, 24, 
25, 27, 28, 32, 136, 139, 140, 141, 
145, 147, 150, 153, 155, 156, 163, 
164, 165, 169, 170, 171, 179, 229j 
342, 348, 363, 414, 486, 487, 488, 
510, 511, 513, 538, 543, 546, 559, 
562, 565, 566, 567, 569, 586, 593, 
598, 618, 619, 621, 622, 624, 663. 

Executors, particulars as to, 683-685. 

Exeter, 534, 535, 544. 

Exigent, Writ of, 190. 

Export, John de, 445, 446, 619. 

Extone, Nicholas, Mayor of London, 34, 
35, 452. 

Eynesham, William, Chamberlain of Lon- 
don, 599. 

Eyot, William, 194. 

Eyr, the river, 504. 



F. 



Fairs and Markets, 551. 

Eaith, the Parish of Saint, in the Crypts, 
556. 

Pares by boat from Billingsgate to Graves- 
end, 238. 

Earendone, 339, Famdone, 15, 34, 122, 
437, 559, Earnedone, 22, Earyn- 
done, 298, Nicholas, Mayor of Lon- 
don. 

Earindone, 406, Eamdone, 354, William 
de. Alderman of London. 

Earndon (Farringdon), the Ward of, 34. 
See Faryngdone. 

Farriers, 733. 

Faryngdone (Farringdon), the Ward of, 
463. See Famdon. 

Fauconer, 609, Fauconere, 608, Thomas. 



! 



INDEX. 



491 



Paunt, Williarii, 437. 
ITekynham, John, 557. 
Eelon, escape of a, 280, 281. 
Felons : 

chattels of, 88. 
power given to arrest, 388. 
Felony : 

fine inflicted for composition of a 

charge of, 84, 
accusation of, the accuser dying be- 
fore the day of trial, 110. 
Feltone, Robert, 607. 
Fencing-schools forbidden, 274. 
Festivals, observance by the Mayor of 

London of certain, 27-30. 
Finch Lane. See Fynkislane. 
Finchard, Gilbert, 385. 
Finchingfelde, 122, 123, Finchyngfelde, 
15, Walter de, Alderman of Lon- 
don. 
Fingerie, Henry de, 385. 
Finsbury. See Moor. 
Fire of London in the reign of King 

Stephen, 328. 
Fire, provisions against, 334, 335. 
Fish : 

the regrating of certain, forbidden, 

275. 
enactments as to the sale of, 373-377. 
prevention of the forestalment of, 
377. 

See Fishmongers. 
Fish-baskets, Regulations as to, 378, 813, 

467. 
FisMng, the seasons for, 577, 578. 
Fishmongers • 

Regulations as to, 273, 289, 536, 542. 
enactments at the Hallmote of the, 

373-377, 379. 
Ordinances of the, temp. Edward I., 

379-385. 
elected for the examination of fish- 
baskets, 467. 
Ordinances of the, and particulars rela- 
tive to, 686-691. 
Fist, penalties for striking with the, 389. 
Fitz-Alan, Roger, second Mayor of Lon- 
don, 21. 



Fitz-Aiwyne, Henry, first Mayor of Lon- 
don, 21. See Fitz-Elwyne. 

Fitz-Ancher, Henry, Chamberlain of Lon- 
don, 83. 

Fitz-Ancher, Richard, 84. 

Fitz-Bernard, William, murder committed 
by, 99. 

Fitz-Elwyne, Henry, first Mayor of Lon- 
don, the Assize of Buildings of, 
319-331. 

Fitz-Jadys, John, 420. 

Fitz-Jadys, John de Saint Fustien, 420, 
425. 

Fitz-John, Robert, Sheriff of London, 88, 
418. 

Fitz-Jobn le Mazerere, Walter, 483. 

Fitz-Mary, Simon, 81, 84, 107, 108. 

Fitz-Nichol, Waryn, 418. 

Fitz^Parker, Thomas, of Otteforde, 297, 
298. 

Fitz-Payne, Robert, the death of, 97. 

Fitz -Peter, Joce, Alderman of London, 99, 
418. 

Fitz-Richard de Broham, Geoffrey, 95. 

Fitz-Roger, William, 82. 

Fitz. Stephen, Cristiana, accusation by, 
106, 107. 

Fitz-Stephen, William, 90. 

Fitz-Symon, Richard, 116. 

Fitz-Thomas, Richard, 84. 

Fitz-Thomas, Thomas, Sheriff and Mayor 
of London, 21, 228. 

Fitz-Wauter, the Lord, 575. 

Fitz-Willelm, Henry le, 418. 

Fitz- William, Martin, Sheriff of London, 
82, 83. 

Flanders, the country of, 343, 374, 630, 
631, 632, 635, 643, 644, 645, 649, 
650, 676, 725, 726, 738. 

Flemings, the, 118, 540, 626, 628, 633, 
642, 649, 650, 676. 

Flemyng, William le, charge against, 301, 
302. 

Fletchers, the, 732. 

Flete (Fleet), the river of, 232, 233, 531, 
579, 580, 582, 583, 621, 697. 

Flete Bridge (Fleet Bridge), 242,583, 621 ; 
Fletebrigge, SG, 



492 



LIBER ALBUS. 



Fktestret (Fleet Street), 25 ; Fletestvete, 

479, 48n, 481, 6S6. 
Florence, 541, 
Florentines, the, 6*>6. 
Flyntliard, John, 468. 
Folkmote, the, 8, 36, 86, 104, 1 1;5, 1 18, 1 ID, 

129. 

Folly, death caused by an act of, 97. 
Forde, John atte, 398. 
Foreign acquittance : 

■where not pleadable, 209. 

not to be propounded in the Slierifts' 
Courts, 364. 

Foreign attachment, 207, 209. 

I'oreign merchants, Court to be held for, in 
the City daily, 295. 

Foreigners: 

not to sell to other foreigners in the 

City for resale, 492. 
forbidden to sell -within the City by re- 
tail, 493. 

Forests, Charter of the, 50C. 

Forestallers, Kegulations as to, 263. 

Forestalling of cloth, fine for, 193. 

Forfeited land called * forsshard,* 63. 

Forneux, liobert, 490. Sec rourneux and 
Fumeux. 

Forsham, Adam, 675, 684. 
F'orster, Walter, Sheriff of London, 193. 
Fosses, the City, 579, 580, 581, 583. 
i olu-neux, Alicia, 488, 489. 
F'ourneux, Kobert, 488, 489. See For- 
neux and Fumeux. 

Foxtone, John, 553. 

I'rance, 80, 191, 192, 414, 416, 417, 424, 
467, 493, 494, 540, 613, 618, 636, 
639, 642, 645, 646, 649, 652, 681. 

FrancisHe, Octovian, 541. 
Frank, Thomas, 683. 
Frankpledge; 

amercement of a, 99. 

oath of, 315. 

strangers to be under, 332. 

Franks, the, 118. 
Fraunceys, Adam, 596. 
i^aunceys, Simon, Sheriff and Mayor of 
London, 438, 561. 



F^ee bench: 

duties of a ^voiuan in the enjoyment 

of, 68. 
decision as to, 393. 
Free foreign (or Soke), Court of, 116. 
Freedom of the City : 

allowed in a plea of trespass, 298, 300. 
llegulation as to admission to the, 49rj< 
pleaded and allowed in a case of as- 
sault, 496. 
Freeman of the City, proof by the defen- 
dant that he is a, 206. 
i'reemen of the City : 

law as to wager of battle between, 109. 
to be resident, and pay Lot and Scot, 

269. 
to have no copai'tnership with stran- 
gers, 289. 
FVench bread, 340, 353. 
F"'rench people, the, 649. See F'rance and 

F>anks. 
Frensshe, John, 682, 
Freshforce, Assize of, 173, 195, 197, 198, 

519. See K^ovel Di sseisin. 
Fresshe, John, jMayor of London, 526. 
l^'restlyng, Bartholomew, 596. 
FMars Carmelites (or White F'rairs), the, 

580. 
Friars Minors (or Franciscans), the, 261, 

433,465,698, 716. 
Friars Preachers (or Dominicans) : 

Chaiter granted in favour of the, by 
Edward II. [properly Edwai'd I.], 
for an enclosure near Castle Bay- 
nard and Montfichet, 76, 127. 
the Order of, 615. 

the locality of (now Blackfriarn), 554, 
619, 622, 647, 713. 
F'riesland, 634. 

i'ripperei'S, or Pheliper^, the, 535, 738^ 719. 
Friscobaldi, the, 541, 618. 
I^isersj the, 723. 
Frowyk, Henry de, Aldemian of Loudon, 

34, 354. 
F>owyk, Laurence de, 90. 
i^ydaystrete, 732. 
i\ilehani, Adam, de, le Petit, 384. 
F^ileham, Adam de, le lious, 384. 



T^TDRX, 



i^^P> 



Fulham, 18, 559. 

Fiilham, Adam de, 123. 

Fullers, the, 723. 

Furxiaces, liegiilations as to, 333. 

Fiirneiix, Robert, 490. iSee Forneux and 

Fourneux. 
Furriers, Eegulatious as to, 279, 719, 720. 
Fustien, John de Saint, 420, 425. 
Fustien, Robert de Saint, 420, 425. 
Fyncham, Adam de, 442. 
Fynkislane (Finch Lane), C85. 
Fvssh^varfe, 690. 



G. 



Haloj'S, Heniy le, Mayor of London, 15, 

18, 55G, 559, 612, C17, 023, 032, 

079. Sec Waleys. 
Garre, la, in Kent, 100. See Barre. 
Garre, Joce, or Josce, de la, the mm^der of, 

100, 101. 
Gartone, Hugh de, 436, 437. ' 
Gartone, William de, 242. 
Gascoigne, 490, 491, 503, 540, 541, 593, 

650. 
the Merchants of, 143, 158. 
the wines of, 708, 709, 710, 711. 
Gascoigne, 396, 398, 399, Oiascone, 394, 

Aldebrand, charge against. 
Gates of London, the, 581. 
Gatewyk, William, 654. 
Gaunter, John le, charge against, 205, 100. 
Gavastone, Feter, Earl of Cornwall, 535. 
Gavelet, 62, 64, 172, 184, 544. 
Writ of, 186. 
Statute of, for the recovery of rent, 

455, 468. 
Gedeney, John, 609. 
Genoa, 540, 627, 630, 637. 

the people of 633. 
Geoffrey, accidental death of a man so 

called, 100. 
Oerchirche (Gracechurch), 247. See 

Grascherche. 



German language, the, 13, 14. 

Germany. See Almainc. 

Germayn, John Seynt, 563. 

Gernemue (Yarmouth, in Norfolk), 230, 
344. See Yarmouth. 

Gerunde (Gironde), the, 032. 

Gibbe, Riclxard, accusation of, 490, 497. 

Gibbe, Walter, 496. 

Gifts, not to be received bv the officers of 
the City, 295. 

Gilbert, servant of Gilo Niger, 101. 

Gildhalle, 18, 19, 21, 25, 31. See Guild- 
hall. 

Giles, the Hospital of Saint, 542. 

Girdlers, the, 536, 734. 

Gironde, See Gerunde. 

Gizors, John de, Mayor of London, 301, 
365, 560. 

Glastonbury, Eustace de, 575, 028. 

Gloucester, 539, 543, 546, 548, 549, 017, 
the Honour of, 550. 
the Statute of, 410. 

Gloucestre, the Countess of, 612. 

Gloucester, the Earl of, 612. 

Gloucester, Richard de, Alderman of Lon- 
don, 122. 

Gloucestre, Henry de, Alderman of London, 
122, 298. 

Gloucestre, Nicholas, 554. 

Godchep, Ralph, 123. 

Goderounelane (Gutter Lane), 102. 

Gofregd, the Portreve of London, 13. 

Goldbetere, Robert- le, 436. 

Goldsmiths, the, 536. 

Goneby, Robert, 479. See Guneby. 

Goodchep, Hamo, 619. 

Gotham, Henry de, Sheriff of London, 84. 

Gracechnrch. See GercWrche, Gras- 
chirche, and Greschirche. 

Grand Cape, the, 324. 

Grand Distress, the, 202. 

Grant, 429, Graunt, 430, Roger le. 

Grantham, John de, Alderman of London, 
361. 

Grantham Lane, 558. 

Grants : 

made by the City, 552-559, 686. 
made to the King, 592.599. 



494 



LTBEK ALBUS. 



Grascherehe (Graceclmrch), 348, 060,698, 
GrascTiirch, 247, Graschirche, 179, 
247, 261, 433, 692, 695, 698. 
Customs levied at, 179, 247. 

See Gerchirche and Greschirche. 

Gravesende, 238, Graveshende, 579. 

Graveshende, Stephen de, 406. 

Great Law, the, 56, 67, 104. 
form of, in the City, 110. 
in what cases resorted to, 111. 

Grendone, Hermitage of the Abbey of, 
552. 

Greneford (Greenford), 614, 

Greschirche (Gracechurch), 349. See 
Gerchirche and Grascherehe. 

Greyngham, William, 556, 

Grygge, William, 483, 

Gubbe, Ralph, 496. 

Guests, the reception of, 332. 

Guildhall of London, the, 6, 18, 19, 20, 23, 
25, 30, 35, 40, 44, 144, 173, 181, 
189,190, 195, 197, 199,202, 203, 
265, 268, 300, 315, 337, 338, 347, 
350, 361, 362, 369, 371, 383, 384, 
385, 399, 400, 404, 436, 437, 445, 
446, 453, 460, 461, 462, 468, 490, 
497, 525, 554, 555, 558, 566, 568, 
575, 625, 627, 629, 644, 666, 673, 
679, 703. 
the Chapel of, 536, 552, 555, 658. 
See Gildhalle. 

Guildhall of the Cologne Merchants, the. 
See Cologne. 

Guneby, Hobert, 481. See Goneby. 

Gutter Lane. See Goderounelane. 

Gutters, Kegulations as to, 288. 

Gysors, Richard, 483. 



H. 



Haberdashery, charges upon, 230. 

Haddestoke, Augustin de, 104. 

XIadestok, Simon, Alderman of Londou, 34. 

Iladlee (Hadley), 550. 

HainauUers, the, 642. 

Hakenay, William, 483. 



Ilaliwelle, William de, 104. 

Hall, Thomas de, death of, 96. 

Ilallmotes of the Fishmongers, 373-377, 

379. 
Hamburgh, 486. 
Hamburgh, Bertram de, 486. 
Hanse of Almaine, the, 456, 485, 480, 487, 

493, 540, 549, 613, 630, 631. 
Composition of the Merchants of the, 

with the citizens of London as to the 

repair of the Gate of Bishopsgate, 

485. 5'fie Teutonics of Almaine. 
Hardel, Robert, Sheriff of London, 95, 96, 

97. 
Hareber, Richard le, 242. 
Hareflew (Harfleur), 616. See Hareflut. 
Hareflut (Harfleur), 630. See Hareflew. 
Hareford, Henry de, 402. 
Harewe (Harrow, in Middlesex), 612. 
Ilai'fleur. See Hareflew and Hareflut. 
Harlots, Regulations as to, 457, 459, 591, 

592. 
Harrow. See Harewe. 
Harwe, Alicia de, her free-bench, 393. 
Harwe, John de, 393. 

Agnes, cousin of, S93. 
Johanna, cousin of, r,93. 
Hasilwode, John, 608. 
Hatfelde, Thomas, 558. 
Hatters, Regulations as to, 727, 
Haubergere, William le, 436. 
Haverhill [William de]. Warden of the 

City, 115. 
Hay, Regulations as to the sale of, 720. 
Hay tone, Nicholas, 515, 516. 
Helen's, Saint, London, the Priory of, 555. 
Hengham, Parva, 546. 
Henley e, in Oxfordshire, 428. 
Ileana, wife of Joce the Jew, murder of, 

99. 
Henry I., King of England, 14, 130, 133, 

537, 546, 567, 659. 
Charter granted by, to the City of 

London, 128. 
Henry H., King of England, 73, 133, 140, 

1.50, 155, 164, 498, 499, 540. 
Charter granted by, to the City of 

London, 130. 



INDEX. 



495 



Henry III., King of England, 11, 12, 14, 
16, 17, 21, 62, 72, 77, 79, 82, 86, 
95, 119, 120, 121, 122, 134, 135, 
136, 137, 146, 150, 155, 161, 168, 
241, 304, 353, 354, 378, 434, 485, 
500, 502, 503, 504, 609, 510, 512, 
513, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 577, 
602, 662, 683, 684, 720. 
Charters granted by, to the City of 

London, 134, 135, 136, 137. 
Grant by, that no citizen shall be im- 
pleaded out of the City, 301. 
Henry IV., King of England, 509, 512 
513, 514, 527, 549. 
Charter granted by, to the City of 

London, 163. 
Statutes of, for the Conservancy of the 
rivers of England, 512, 513. 

Henry V., King of England, 4, 549, 598. 
Charter granted by, to the City of 

London, 171. 
Statute of, for the Conservancy of the 
rivers of England, 518. 

Herbergeours. See Hostelers. 

Ilerbintone, Eobert de, accusation of, 107, 
108. 

Hereford, 539. 

Hereford [Humphrey de Bohun], Earl of, 
648, 649. 

Hereforde, Kichard de, 105. 

Heriet, Eichard de, 116. 

Herlizoun, John, 104. 

Hermesthorp, John, 557. 

Hermitage. See Grendone. 

Hert, Henry, 611. 

Hidyngham, John, 622. 

Hoards, when only to be erected before 
houses, 477. 

Hocking, the practice of, forbidden, 681. 

Hogge, Stephen, charge against, 515. 

Hokeday, John, 298. 

Hokkele, John, 603, 

Holbome, 585, Holbumej 232, 233, 554, 
Holebum, 232. 

Holbourne Brigge (Holborn Bridge), 554. 

Holebeche, Alexander de, the wounding 
of, 105. 

Holland, the coimtry of, 627, 631. 



Honour of Pevrel. See Pevrel. 
Ilonylane, Ralph de, Alderman of London, 

122. 
Hook, John, charge against, 515. 
Horewode, John, 552. 
Horn, Andrew, 468. 
Horn, 618, Home, 619, Edward. 
Horn, C30, Home, 621, Henry. 
Horn, Richard, 467, 468. 
Home, John, Alderman of London, 354. 
Home, Liber, the book so called, referred . 

to, 61. 
Home, the " Greater *' Liber, the book so 

called, quoted and referred to, 16, 17. 
Horsebread, 720. 
Horsebrigge (Horse-shoe-bridge), 697, 

Horsobrigg, 242. 
Horsham, Richard de. Sheriff of London, 

lapse on the part of, 363. 
Hostelers and Herbergeours : 

Regulations for, 267, 268, 720-722. 
Regulation as to foreigners becoming 

283. 
empowered to sell ale, 361. 
not to harbour persons of ill repute, 

476. 
Hospitallers, Brethren of the Order of, 539. 
Hosts, Regulations for the reception of 

guests by, 332. 
Hotot, Nicholas, 682. 
Houndesdiche, 558. 
House-rent : 

action of debt for, 204. 
arrest for, about to become due, 220. 
Houses ; 

how to be covered, 334. 
provisions for the repair of, when por- 
tions thereof belong to different 

parties, 469. 

See Assize of Buildings. 
Hoylande, the Fair of, 419. See Botolph. 
Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, 499. 
Hucksters, Regulations as to, 360. 
Hudendale, Godescalc de, 486. 
Hue and cry on escape of a felon, 280, 281. 
Hugh, nephew of Ralph le Cotiller, 88. 
Hughlot, 606, Hulot, .35, William, the 

punishment of. 



490 



ITHER ALBIXS, 



Hull. See Kyngestone-on-TIulle. 

Ilulot. See Hiighlot. 

Hnm'bre (llumher), the river, .'504, 507, 

JTiingrie, Peter de, 242. 

Huntingdon , 406, Iluntyngdone, 432,695, 

the County of. 
Ilurers, liCgulations as to the, 727. 
llurlebat, Ilobeit, 609. 
TTusbonde, Nicholas, 554. 
ITuRtings* 

attorney in the Court of, G3. 
Regulations for the Court of, 181, 184. 
Aldermen to he summoned to the 

Court of, 190. 
recognizances in the Court of, 33 S. 
Pleas of the Court of, to he duly en- 
rolled, 402. 
proof of wills in the Court of» 403. 
Court of, ordered to he held hy Ed- 
ward the Confessor, 49S, 
rent ahrays to he sued for in the Court 
of, 472* 
ILnves, Simon, 436. 



I. 



Iford, William de, 30, 
llJuminators, regulations as to, 714, 715. 
Tna, King, 545, 

Inga, the handmaid, her crime and punish- 
ment, 100, 101, 
Ingelfelde, Stephen, 516. 
Ingress, right of, 70. 
Innocent II L, Pope, 500. 
Inqaest : 

Aldermen exempted from serving on, 

34. 
day named for the verdict of an, 222. 
Aldermen of the City not to he placed 

on, 290, 
in certain cases to he composed jointly 

of freemen and foreigners, 292. 
to he taken -with all due expedition, 
472. 
See Inquisition. 



Inquests of office, not traversable, 223. 
Inquisition : 

upon the death of a person slain by 

one unknown, 100. 
amercement of the Sheriffs for making 

wrongful, 105- 
to he made at the Wardmote, 337, 

338. 
as to orphans, malefactors, and goods 
of outlaws, 681-683. 
See Inquest. 
Intrusion, cognizance of Pleas of, 109. 
Ipswich, 535, 539. 
Ireland, 124, 367. 371, 414, 417, 424, 407, 

491, 493, 548. 
Irlande (Ireland), 720. 
Isabella, Queen, wife of EdAvard II., 012, 

637. 
Isabella, wife of Sperlo, accusation by, 103, 

104, 105. 
Iter of the Justiciars : 

at the Tower of London in the fifth 

year of Henry HI., 62. 
at the Tower of London in the 28th 

year of Henry III., 77. 
Articles touching the King, to he men- 
tioned at the, 117. 
Ives, the Fair of Saint, 228, 419. 



J. 



.Tames, the Hospital of Saint, 630, 082, 

Jardevile, Bichai'd, 557. 

.Jettison, Regulations as to average in cases 

of, 490. 
Jewi'y, the, 99, 
Jews : 

violent death of certain, 74. 

escheats and tenements of, 79. 

chattels of slain, 80. 

Inquisition concerning the death of 
certain, 99. 

Ordinances as to, 590, 591. 
Joee (Joseph) the Jew, death of, 99. 
Johau, Lodowic, 610. 



it'. 



INDEX. 



497 



John, King of England, 14, 77, 78, 79, 81, 

95, 119, 146, 161, 168, 499, 500, 

501, 503, 534, 537, 662. 
Charters granted }>y, to the City of 

London, 132, 133, 134. 
John, Chaplain of Saint Peter's, Cornhill, 

85. 
John of Jernsalem, Saint, the Hospital and 

Priory of, 247, 539, 541, 552, 621, 

632. 
John the Templar, 1 25. 
John Zachary, the Parish of Saint, Lon- 
don, 338. See Zachary. 
Jordan [de Coventi'e],98. See Coventi'e. 
Jordan, a man so named, found slain, 1 02. 
Jordan's Quay, 373, 380. 
Joynieer, Willelm, 418. 
Judges, exti'a appointed out of Eyre, 297. 
Judgment, a youth under age not amenable 

to, 94, 95. 
Juliana, wife of Ralph de Chelmersforde, 

95, 96. 
Jurors, punishment oi'y for delay, 222. 
Jurj', a, empanelled within the City not to 

he taken beyond the pi'ecincts of the 

Cltv, 429. 



K. 



Karkes, the various, 223. 

Katherine's, Saint, London, the Master of, 

5o/. 
Kelenworthe (Kenil worth), 545. 
Kelshulle, Katherine, 611. 
Kenilworth. See Kelenworthe. 
Keningtone, John de, 84. 
Kennington. See Kenyngton. 
Kent, the County of, 100, 297, 5in, 545, 
645. 
the people of, 645. 
Kent, Benet, charge against, 515. 
Kent, the Earl of, 649. 
Kent, Eichard de, 385. 
Kenyngton (Kennington, in Surrey), 501. 
Keys of Newgate, deliveiy of the, 121. 

VOL. ITL 



Kidels, provisions for the removal of, 498, 
499, 500-503, 506, 509, 512, 518. 

Kilbum. See Kylburne. 

King of England : 

Letters from the, to the Mayor and 

Aldermen, 612-616. 
Writs and Commissions from the, 
617-638. 

Kingestone (Kingston), 94. 

King's Bench, the, 253, 348. 

Kirkeby, John de, Treasurer, 16. 

Knapet, Thomas, 605. 

Knighthood, Writs of Edward HI. en- 
forcing, 191-193. 

Knolles, Robert, 55 7. 

Knut (or Cnut), King, 32, 546. 

Kylburne (Kilburn), the Prior}^ of, 611, 

Kyngescote, William, 576, 608. 

Kyngestone, Adam de, 386. 

Kyngestone*on-lIulle, 588. 



Jj. 



Labourers, regulations as to the payment of, 

289, 334. 
Lacer, Richard, Mayor of London, 31. 
Lacy, Sir John de, 406. 
Ladders, to be provided against jSre, 334. 
Lambehirst (liamberluu-st), 297, 298, 

Lambhirst, 298. 
Lambeth. See Lamhhethe. 
Lambhethe (Lambeth), Council of, 125. 
Jjancaster, the County of, 507. 
Lancaster, the Duchy of, 538. 
Lancaster, the Earl of, 535, 648. 
Lancaster [John of Gaunt], Duke of, 605. 
Landlords : 

to he preference creditors for two 

years* rent, 220, 449. 

notices to be given by and to, 221, 

448, 449. 
Lanes : 

to be cleansed, that mn towards the 

Thames, 274. 
and Streets, Regulations as io, 584-586. 

T I 



498 



]JBER ALBTJS. 



Langbourne, 599, Langebourne, 463, 

Langeburne, 34. 
Lard, regulation as to the sale of, 297. 
Laurence [Jewry], London, the Church 

of Saint, 251,275. 
Laurence, Candlewick Street, London, the 

Church of Saint, 685. 
Laurence, Ponntenay, London, the Church 

of Saint, 726. 
Lazars, Begulations as to, 591. 
Le Hales, the house so called, 556. 
Leadenhall. See Ledenhal. 
I«edenhal (Leadenhall), 717, Ledenhalle, 

465, 715, 716. 
Ledes (Leeds, in Kent), the Castle of, 144. 
Leek, 305, Lek, 303, 304, Alan de. 
Legal formalities, Eegulation as to, 295. 
Leicester. See Leycester and Mounforde. 
Leire, William de, Alderman of London, 

340. See Leyre. 
Lemhourk (Limhurg), 614. 
Lenne (Lynn), 539. 
Lenne, Robert de, 556. 
Lepers, Regulations as to, 273, 590, 591. 
Lespicer, Josce, 107. 
Letter-Book B quoted, 15, 17, 18, 34. 
Letter-Book C quoted, 15, 27, 34, 35. 
Letter-Book D quoted, 19, 20, 24. 
Letter-Book E quoted, 19, 22. 
Letter-Book F quoted, 17, 18, 19, 21, 32, 

391. 
Letter-Book G quoted, 19,32,35, 390, 391, 

399. 
Letter-Book H quoted, 34, 35, 41, 522. 
Letter-Book I quoted, 40. 
Letters, from the Kings of England to the 
Mayor and Aldermen of London, 
612-616. 
LeveeMlde, William, 429, 430. 
Lexintone, Robert de, 602. 
Leycestre (Leicester), 549. 
Leycestre, Philip de, 418. 
Leyk, WilUam, 605. 
Leyre, William de, 123. See Leire. 
Liber Custnmarmn. See Custumarum. 
Liber Niger quoted, 353, 354, 385. 
Liberty of the City, the, concerning life and 
limb, 93. 



Limbm'g, theBuke of, 612, 614. 

Lime and tiles. Regulations as to the 
quality of, 278. See Tiles. 

Limehouse. See Ljinehostes. 

Lime Street. See Lymestrete. 

Limoges. See Linoges. 

Lincoln, 15, 405, 540, 560, 618, 619. 

Lincoln [John de Lacy], Earl of, 502. 

Lincoln, J. de, Alderman of London, 339. 

Lindeseye, Brother Thomas de, 124. 

Linendrapers, Regulations as to, 723. 

Linoges (Limoges), textures of, 225. 

Littelman, John, charge against, 515. 

Loans granted by the City of London to 
the Kings of England, 592-599. 

Loaves, to be made at certain prices only, 
358. 

Lodowick the Goldsmith, murder com- 
mitted by, 115, 116. 

Lombards, the, 372, 589, 621, 636. 

Lombardy, 539, 540, 649. 

London, mention of, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14,15,16,17,25,26,27,29,30, 
31, 33, 35, 37, 45, 51, 53, 56, 57, 
59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 72, 73, 75, 77, 85, 
86, 91, 93,94,96, 99, 101, 102, 103, 
108, 109, 110, 111, 118, 119, 122, 
123, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 
133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 
140, 141, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 
149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 
159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 364, 165, 
168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 175, 
176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 189, 190, 
192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 199, 209, 
210, 215, 216, 219, 222, 226, 229, 
230, 231, 233, 236, 239, 240, 241,- 
242, 244, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 
253, 254, 296, 298, 299, 300, 301, 
302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 309, 
310, 311, 317, 338, 342, 344, 347, 
348, 349, 351, 357, 358, 361, 363, 
365, 367, 368, 371, 376, 378, 379, 
385, 386, 387, 391, 392, 393, 394, 
395, 401, 402, 404, 405, 406, 407, 
408, 409, 410, 411, 414, 415, 417, 
418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 
426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 



INDEX. 



499 



London — cont. 

433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 
441, 444, 445, 447, 450, 451, 452, 
455, 456, 461, 467, 468, 469, 473, 
478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 484, 485, 
487, 488, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 
497, 498, 499, 600, 501, 502, 503, 
504, 505, 509, 614, 515, 517, 518, 
526, 530, 531, 533, 534, 535, 536, 
539, 540, 541, 642, 544, 546, 
549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 555, 557, 
558, 563, 565, 566, 568, 573, 
575, 677, 580, 581, 593, 594,595, 
597, 598, 612, 613, 614,615,617, 
621, 626, 631, 632, 633, 634, 635, 
638, 646, 649, 653, 655, 659, 660, 
661, 663, 666, 669, 670, 675, 678, 
681, 686, 690, 691, 699, 705, 724, 
733, 734, 736. 

the principal officers of, fi'om early 
times, 12, 13. 

tlie Mayoralty, 13. 

the Mayor, 13-16. 

the Warden, 16-18. 

the Conmion Seal, 17. 

election of Mayors and Sheriffs, 18- 
27. 

oath of the Mayor at Guildhall, 24. 

oath of the Mayor at the Exchequer, 
25. 

ohservances by the Mayor at certain 
festivals, 27-30. 

penalty for Aldermen absenting them- 
selves at the election of the Mayor, 
31, 32. 

particulars relating to the office of 
Alderman, 32-36. 

the Wards anciently called after the 
Aldermen, 34. 

the Wardmote, 36-39. 

the mode of electing an Alderman, 39. 

the mode of holding a Common Coun- 
cil, 40-42. 

the Sheriffs, 42. 

the Eecorder, 42, 43. 

election of the Sheriffs, 43-45. 

oath of the officers of the Sheriffs, 45. 

duties of the Sheriffs, 45-47. 



London — c(mt 

the Chamberlain, 47, 48. 

the Chamberlain's Clerk, 48. 

the Mayor's Clerk, 49. 

the Common Crier, 49. 

the Mayor's Swordbearer, 49. 

the Seijeants of the Chamber, 49, 50. 

rules for procedure during the holding 

of the Pleas of the Crown at the 

Tower of London, 51-59. 

no official presenter of offences in 
London, 60. 

Praises of the City of London, 61. 

its Trojan rights, liberties, and institu- 
tions, 61, 

Questions put to the citizens of London 
at the Iter of the fifth of Henry III., 
62-71. 

recovery of rent in the City, 62, 63. 
Attorney appointed in the Court of 
Hustings, 63. 

Courts of a summary nature for the 
benefit of wayfarers, 67. 

Pleas of the City at the Iter held at the 
Tower of London in the 28th of 
Henry HI., 77. 

rights of the City as to servants in 
attendance during the holding of the 
Pleas, 77. 

Articles in reference to the Pleas of the 
Crown, 78-81. 

Answer of the Mayor and Barons to 
the said Articles, 81. 

practice as to delivery of a copy of, 81. 

Answers of the former Sheriffs, 82. 

Inquisitions as to violent deaths con- 
ceded to the Justiciars, 83. 

no man to be in the City without his 
frank-pledge, after a certain time, 
90, 91. 

the liberty of the City concerning life 
and limb, 93. 

the Constable of the Tower, Sheriffs, 
and Aldermen, to take an abjuration 
of the realm in absence of the Cham- 
berlain, 96. 

Wager of battle between freemen, 109. 

I I 2 



500 



IIBER ALBITS. 



London — cont 

Form of the "Great Law" in the 
City, 110. 

Trial hy the *•' Great Law " in cer- 
tain cases, in the City, 111. 

Inquest held by the Sheriffs upon 
deaths in the City, 112. 

the ancient mode of bailing a person 
accused of murder, 113. 

outlawry at the Folkmote, on accusa- 
tion of murder and non-appearance, 
113. 

disseisin without judgment given, 114. 

usage of the City in recognizances of 
"NoveX Disseisin, 114. 

defence on ax^cusation of robbery and 
breach of the peace, 114. 

sureties who cannot produce the ac- 
cused, to pay the Were, 115. 

Court of free foreign, or Soke, within 
the City, 116. 

Answer to questions touching the 
liberties of the City, 116. 

the mode of holding Eolkmotes, 118. 

powers of the Sheriffs in cases of dis- 
tress, 119. 

enabling powers in cases of seques- 
tration by the City bailiff, 120. 

Ordinance as to delivery of the keys 
of Newgate, and of the Cocket, 121. 

Charter of WiUiam the Conqueror to 
the City, 128. . 

Charter of Henry L, 128. 

Charter of Henry IL, 130. 

Charters of Kichard L, 131. 

Charters of John, 132, 133, 134. 

Charters of Henry III., 134, 135, 136, 
137. 

Charters of Edward L, 139, 140. 

Charters of Edward IL, 141, 144. 

Charters of Edward IIL, 144, 148, 
149, 153. 

Charters of Richard IL, 153, 154, 155, 
162. 

Charter of Henry IV., 163. 

Charter of Henry V., 171. 

Enrolment of wills, deeds, and cogni- 
zances, 180. 



London — cont 

Courts of Hustings for Pleas of land, 

181. 
Hustings of Common Pleas, 184. 
Procedure on Writ of Dower, 185. 
Writ of Gavelet, 186. 
Writ of Scire Facias, 186. 
Writ of Waste, 186. 
Writ of Error, 187. 
Writ of Replevin, 188. 
Writ of Partition, 189. 
Writ of Exigent, 190. 
Aldermen to be summoned to the 

Court of Hustings, 190. 
Assize of Novel Disseisin, or Fresshe- 

force, 195. 
Assize of Mort d* Ancestor, 197. 
Sittings of the Sheriffs' Courts, 199. 
Writ of Capias, 199. 
Wager of law by freemen in action of 

debt, 203. 
by strangers, 203. 
Wager of law in action of trespass, 

204. 
married women trading, 204. 
married women renting shops or houses, 

205. 
. plaints of trespass, 205. 
proof by a defendant that he is a free- 
man of the City, 206. 
contribution by joint obligors, 206. 
foreign attachment, 207, 209. 
a foreign acquittance not pleadable in 

certain cases, 209. 
jurisdiction of the Sheriffs in Pleas of 

Replevin, 213. 
debt on a sealed tally alleged, 214. 
recognizances of debt taken before 

the Sheriffs, 216. 
plaint of debt between merchant and 

merchant, . 2 15, 2 1 6. 
procediiire on the debtor's withdrawal 

from the City, 216. 
examination upon oath in personal 

actions, 21 7. _ 
de&.ult by defendant after mainprise, 

218, 
action of account, 218, 219. 



INDEX. 



oOl 



London — cvnf. 

Pleas before the Sheriffs removable by 

order of the Mayor, 219. 
arrest of a debtor before the day 

named in the obligation, 219. 
arrest for house-rent about to become 

due, 220. 

arrest of a debtor by the creditor 

without aid of an officer, 220. 
amercements in the Sheriffs* Courts, 

220. 
landlords to be preference creditors for 

two years* rent, 220. 
notice to be given by and to, tenants 

and landlords, 221. 
Aldermen to enter attorneys on the 

records, 222. 
Scavage, or custom for showage of 

merchandize, 223, 224, 225. 

Pesage, 226, 227. 
Tronage, 226. 

exemptions from Tronage, 227* 
Kegiilations as to woad, 228. 
Customs exacted from certain vessels, 
229. 

Customs payable on goods sold, 229. 
Scavuge, 230. 

charges upon woollen goods and ha- 
berdashery, 230. 

Customs levied upon the sellers of 

provisions, 231. 
Customs levied upon the sellers of 

other articles, 232. 

Customs levied in Smithfield, 233. 
Customs levied at London Bridge, 

234. 
Pees of the Bridge Bailiff, 236. 
Customs levied at Billingsgate, 237. 
Customs le'sded at Queen-Hythe, 238, 

240. 

Inquisition as to carriage and measure- 
ment of salt at Queen-Hythe, 241. 

Pees to be taken by the Bailiff of 
Queen-Hythe, 245. 

Customs payable for Tronage, 245. 
Customs levied at Woolchurch-Haw, 
246. 



London — cont. 

Regulations for the sale of victuals and 
other commodities in the markets, 
260. 

Regulations for the sale of com, 261. 
punishment of fraudulent butchers, 
263. 

Begulations as to forestallers, 264. 
Freemen not to be in copartnership 

with strangers, 264. 
Regulations as to bakers, 264, 265, 

266. 

punishment of fraudulent bakers, 265. 
Regulations as to brewers and taverners, 
266. 

Regulations as to hostelers, 267, 268. 
Regulations as to brokers, 269. 
Regulations as to freemen of the City, 
269. 

Regulations as to swine, 270. 
Regulations as to barbers, 270. 
Regulations as to regrators, 270, 271. 
Regulations as to pentices, 271. 
Regulations as to apprenticeship, 272. 
City officers not to be victuallers, 272. 
Regulations as to comdealers, 272. 
Regulations as to the weaving of cloth, 
273. 

Regulations as to lepers, 273. 

fencing- schools forbidden, 274. 

Regulations as to butchers, 274. 

persons not to go about armed after 
curfew, 275. 

taverns to be closed by curfew, 276. 

the Aldermen duly to hold Ward- 
motes, 277. 

persons arrested, only to be set at 
liberty by permission of the Mayor, 
277. 

Regulations as to boatmen, 277. 

Regulations as to lime and tiles, 278. 

Regulations as to weights and mea- 
sures, 278. 

Regulations as to the payment of 
paviours, 278. 

Regulations as to the sale of skins and 
hides, taUow and lard, 279. 



502 



LIBKR ALBUS. 



London — cont 

duties of the Warden and other officers 
ofthe City, 280. 

Regulation as to the residence of male- 
factors within the City, 282. 

Kegnlation as to foreigners hecoming 
hostelers in the City, 283. 

Regulations as to thieves and females 
ofill repute, 283. 

Regulations as to watch and ward, 
284. 

Regulations as to Pesage and the 
King's balance, 285. 

Tallage to be equally assessed upon 
traders and non-traders, 286. 

foreign merchants of good repute to 
enjoy the franchise, 287, 

Regulations as to the wages of 
labourers, 289. 

Regulations as to fishmongers and 
poulterers, 289. 

obedience to be paid to the proper 
authorities, 290. 

Aldermen not to be placed on Inquests, 
290. 

Regulation as to warranty given by 
the vendors of lands, 292. 

Regulation for preventing the eject- 
ment of termors by buyers of the 
land in fee, 293. 

contracts to be duly enrolled, 294. 

giite not to be received by the officers 
ofthe City, 295. 

Courts to be held for foreign mer- 
chants daily, 295. 

of mainprise in Pleas of the Crown, 
296. 

Writ addressed to the Sheriffs to pro- 
duce the bodies of certain prisoners, 
297. 

Return thereto, 298. 

freedom of the City allowed in a plea 
of trespass, 298, 300. 

immunities of the City formally ac- 
knowledged as to finding lodgings 
for the royal household, 303. 

oath of the Mayor on taMng office, 306. 

oath ofthe Sheriffs, 306. 



London — conU 

oath ofthe Aldermen, 307. 

oath ofthe Recorder, 308. 

oath ofthe Chamberlain, 309. 

oath ofthe Common Serjeant, 310. 

oath ofthe Common Clerk, 311. 

oath of the Serjeants of the Mayor 
and Chamber, 312. 

oath ofthe Constables, 312. 

oath ofthe Scavagers, 313. 

oath ofthe Bedels, 313. 

oath of Prank-pledge, 315. 

oath of Brokers within the City, 315. 

oath ofthe Ale-conners, 316. 

oath of the Under-sheriffs and their 
Clerks, 317. 

oath ofthe Sheriffs' Serjeants, 318. 

oath ofthe Sheriffs' Grooms, 319. 

Pitz-Elwyne's Assize of Buildings, 
319-331. 

Pire of London in the reign of King 
Stephen, 328. 

Scotale not to be allowed in the Wards 
of the City, 333. 

sanitary and other regulations within 
the City, 332-336. 

Inquisitions to be made at ihi^ Ward- 
motes, 337. 

a married womane stopped by her re- 
cognizance enrolled in the Court of 
Hustings, 338. 

the Assay of Bread, 349, 351. 

Ordinances as to bread, millers, and 
bakers, 353-358. 

Enactments as to the sale of ale, 358- 
361. 

Enactment against fraudulent bakers, 
361. 

King's Letter as to a person elected 
Sheriff not presenting himself at the 
Exchequer, 363. 

foreign acquittances not to be pro- 
pounded in the Sheriffs' Courts, 
364. 

restraint upon the admission of 
foreigners to the franchise, 366. 

Regulations as to the use and custody 
ofthe Common Seal, 366. 



INDEX. 



503 



London — cont. 

Enactments at the Hallmote of the 
Fishmongers, 373-377, 

Ordinances of the Fishmongers, temp. 
Edward L, 379-382. 

Proclamation of certain Articles rela- 
tive to the City, 386-390. 

Regulations as to Pleas held before the 
Mayor, 390. 

scale of amercements in the Sheriffs* 

Court, 390. 
all who enjoy the liberties of the City 

to pay their Lot and Scot, 391. 
members of one mystery to be at liberty 

to follow another, 391. 

declaratory articles as to what con- 
stitutes usury, 399. 

the Sheriffs to see that the Pleas of 
Hustings are duly enrolled, 402. 

Judgments in the Court of Hustings, 
403. 

proof of wills in the Court of Hust- 
ings, 403. 

Sheriffs to present their rolls of certain 
Pleas on leaving office, 404. 

one Alderman to be present at each 
Sheriffs' Court, 404. 

Writs, before their return, to be shewn 
to the Mayor and Aldermen, 404. 

attachment in the City for felony in a 
foreign County, sanctioned, 405. 

enabling powers in cases of sequestra- 
tion by the City bailiffs, 407. 

the Mayor to be one of the Justices 
for Gaol delivery at Newgate, 414. 

no freeman to implead another free- 
man out of the liberties of the City, 
417. 

renewal of a Composition between the 
citizens of London and the Mer- 
chants of Amiens, Corby, and Nesle, 
418-428. 

the taliagers of the County of Oxford 
forbidden to levy tallage upon the 
goods of the citizens of London at 
Henlev, 428. 



London — cont, 

a jury empanelled within the City, not 
to be taken beyond the precincts of 
the City, 429. 

markets assigned to the corn-dealers 
from the Eastern and Western dis- 
tricts, 432. 

no citizen to be impleaded beyond the 
precincts of the City, 433-436, 437. 

no Writ of Attaint to lie as to the ver- 
dict of a jury within the City, 437- 
444. 

Writ confirmatory of the liberties and 
free customs of the City, 438. 

bondmen not to enjoy the liberties of 
the City, 452. 

Kegulations as to harlots and bawds, 
457, 458, 459. 

Regulations as to procurers and pro- 
curesses, 459. 

punishment of unchaste persons, 459, 
460. 

mode of electing the Common Coun- 
cil, 461, 462, 463. 

Regulations as to poult^ers, 465. 

strange victuallers to have ingress and 
egress from the City for the sale of 
their wares, 467. 

the Statute of Gavelet for the recovery 
of rent, 468. 

Royal mandate as to the repair of 
houses, portions of which belong to 
different parties, 469. 

procedure for the recovery of rent, 
472. 

Inquests to be taken with aU due expe- 
dition, 472. 

officers and servants of the City to 
take the oaths yearly, 473. 

residents in the City not to sue before 
the Judges at Common Law with- 
out leave of the civic authorities, 
474. 

the Mayor to make enquiries as to the 
conduct of the officers and servants 
ofthe City, 477. 

no citizen to implead another out of 
tlie City, 478. 



504 



LIBEU ALBUS. 



Jjondon— con f. 

Writs as to Oyer and Terminer upon 
an assault committed in the City, 
479-485. 

Composition between the citizens of 
London and the Hanse Merchants, 
for the repair of the Gate of Bishops- 
gate, 485-488. 

Koyal mandate, forbidding foreigners 
to sell to othei' foreigners in the City, 
for the purposes of resale, 492. 

Koyal mandate, forbidding foreigners 
witliin the City to sell by retail, to 
keep hostels, or be brokere, 493. 

Regulation as to admission to the free- 
dom of the City, 495. 

Regulation to prevent undue alienation 
by tenants for life or in tail, 495. 

freedom of the City pleaded and 
allowed in a case of assault, 496. 

founded by Brut, in imitation of Great 
Troy, and called '!N^ew Troy,' and 
afterwards ' Trinovantum,* 497. 

Court of Hustings ordered to be held 

by Edward the Confessor, 498. 
Enactment as to the ancient liberties of 

the City, in the Magna Charta of 

King John, 500. 
Confirmation by Edward III. of the 

ancient liberties of the City, 504. 
Consei'vancy of the Thames to belong 

to the Mayor or Warder of the City, 

509. 
no officer of the City, of Newgate, or 

of Ludgate, to exercise certain trades, 

527. 

oath of the Masters and Wardens of 
the Mysteries, 627. 

Royal Charters granted to the City, 
534-538. 

Conventions between the City of Lon- 
don and other Cities, 542. 

Grants and Agreements made by the 
City, 552-559. 

duties of the Mayor and other City 
Officers, 559-563. 

the Common Hunt, 564. 



London — cont. 

duties of the Sheriffs and L'nder- 

Sheriffs, and various other Officers, 

564-570. 
Abjudications, Renunciations, and 

Annulments of the Liberties of the 

City, 575-577. 
Regulations as to the cleansing of the 

Streets and Lanes of the City, 584- 

586. 
Ordinances as to Jews, Lepers, Swine, 

and Beggars, 590, 591. 
Grants by the City of Loans, Tallages, 

and Subsidies, to the Iving, 592- 

599. 
Accounts of the citizens in reference 

to Customs, Debts, and Piu*prestures, 

599. 
Sentences and Punishments for various 

offences, 599-610. 
Recognizances of Merchants, and Re- 
cognizances for the property of 

Orphans, 610, 611. 

Letters from the Iving and various 

Lords, Spmtual and Temporal, to 

the Mayor and Aldermen, 012-610. 

Ordinances for Watch and Ward in 

the City, 646-653. 
Ordinances and Usages of the City, 

654-681. 
Ordinances of the different Crafts and 
Mysteries of the City, 734-738. 
London, WiUiam, Bishop of, 26, 28. 
London, the Bishop of, 34, 556, 582, 615, 

616, 638. 
London, the Archdeacon of, 29. 
London Bridge, 123, 143, 152, 158, 167, 
241, 270, 328, 341, 357, 378, 380, 
385, 415, 549, 554, 555, 556, 557, 
558, 573, 577, 580, 582, 599, 612, 
671, 699, 713, 718. 
Customs levied at, 179, 234. 
fees of the Bailiff of, 236. 
markets forbidden to be held upon, 

270. 
the custody of, 582. 
London Bridge, Chapel of Saint Thomas 
upon, 373, 380, 552. 



INDEX. 



505 



London, Walter, 552. 

Londone Walle, 558. 

Londoneston (London Stone), John de, 

murder committed by, 103. 
Longe, Thomas le, 497. 
Lorkyn, Benet, charge against, 515, 516, 

517. 
Lorraine, the Duke of, 612, 614. 
Lot and Scot, all to pay, who enjoy the 

liberties of the City, 391. 
Louvain. Ste Lovayne. 
Lovayue (Louvain), 539. 
Lovey, Geoffrey, 608. 
Lowe (Lime ?), the river, 507. 
Luca (Lucca), 539. See Luka. 
Lucchese, the, 637. 
Lud, King, 14. 
Liiddesden, the ancient name of London> 

14. 
Ludgate, the Gate of, 171, 523, 524, 527, 

553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 563, 576^ 

617, 
Luka (Lucca), 539. See Luca. 
Lunge, Richard le, 385. 
Lunge, Roberd le, 384. 
Lymehostes (Limehouse), 683. 
Lyniestrete (Lime Street), the Ward of, 

463. 
Lynn. See Lenne. 
Lynne, Thomas, de, 553, 554. 
Lyntone, John de, 497. 
Lyons, Richard, 576, 622, 636. 



M. 



Magdalen, the Church of Saint Maiy, 

London, 689. 
Magna Charta, the, of England, 144, 167, 

302, 441, 500, 501, 502, 505, 506. 
Magnus, the Church of Saint, London, 299. 
Mainpernors, liability of, 200, 201. 
Mainprise in Pleas of the Crown, 296. 
Maintenance, enactment against, 389. 
Mai done, 536. 
Malines, Sec Malynes* 



Malefactors : 

Regulation as to the residence of, 

within the City, 282. 
arrest of, 639-646. 

Malt: 

the sale of, 460, 461. 
regrators of, 692. 

Malewayn, 631, Malwayn, 627, John. 

Malvezie (Malmsey) wine, 711. 

Malynes (Malines), 535, Malyns, 615 ; the 
vill of 

Man, John, ofErehithe, charge against, 515. 

Man, John, of Wulwiche, charge against, 
515. 

March, the Earl of, 653. 

Marchaunt, John, 563. 

Margai*et, the Chtirch of Saint, Loudon, 
382, 689. 

Mariemount, 394," Marimount, 396, John 
de Saint. See Maryemount. 

Maritage, forfeitm*e of the assessed value 
of a, 488-490. 

Mai'kets : 

and Fairs, 551. 

certain, assigned to the Comdealers, 
432. 

]\larleberge (Marlborough), 543. 

Marlow. See Merlawe. 

Man'ied Women : 

acting as traders, 204. 
renting shops or houses, 205. 
plaint of trespass against, 205. 

Marsh, Thomas, 103. 

Martin, the Chaplain of Saint Peter's, Corn- 
hill, 85. 

Martin le Grand, Saint, 14, 43, 147, 156, 
162, 166, 169, 247, 251, 275, 373, 
431, 437, 445, 455, 474, 482, 484, 
534, 600, 617, 620, 626, 636, 639, 
640, 641, 660, 663, 681, 706, Mar- 
tyn le Grand, Seint, 639, 640, 699, 
the Church and Parish of, London. 

Martyn, John, charge against, 615, 516. 

Maryemount, 399,